Browsing by Subject "POWER"

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  • Bodea, Corneliu A.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Ripke, Stephan; Daly, Mark J.; Devlin, Bernie; Roeder, Kathryn; Int IBD Genetics Consortium; Palotie, A. (2016)
    One goal of human genetics is to understand the genetic basis of disease, a challenge for diseases of complex inheritance because risk alleles are few relative to the vast set of benign variants. Risk variants are often sought by association studies in which allele frequencies in case subjects are contrasted with those from population-based samples used as control subjects. In an ideal world we would know population-level allele frequencies, releasing researchers to focus on case subjects. We argue this ideal is possible, at least theoretically, and we outline a path to achieving it in reality. If such a resource were to exist, it would yield ample savings and would facilitate the effective use of data repositories by removing administrative and technical barriers. We call this concept the Universal Control Repository Network (UNICORN), a means to perform association analyses without necessitating direct access to individual-level control data. Our approach to UNICORN uses existing genetic resources and various statistical tools to analyze these data, including hierarchical clustering with spectral analysis of ancestry; and empirical Bayesian analysis along with Gaussian spatial processes to estimate ancestry-specific allele frequencies. We demonstrate our approach using tens of thousands of control subjects from studies of Crohn disease, showing how it controls false positives, provides power similar to that achieved when all control data are directly accessible, and enhances power when control data are limiting or even imperfectly matched ancestrally. These results highlight how UNICORN can enable reliable, powerful, and convenient genetic association analyses without access to the individual-level data.
  • Wallin, Antti; Leino, Helena; Jokinen, Ari; Laine, Markus; Tuomisaari, Johanna; Backlund, Pia (2018)
    Urban strategies, representing stories of possible futures, often intervene in already established local communities and therefore call for a considerate urban intervention. This article utilises the ideas of Henri Lefebvre's socially produced space and of literature on stories involved in planning. Our empirical example tells a story of urban densification aspirations for an inner-city neighbourhood in Tampere, Finland. By combining the interviews of local people and planners with policy documents, we argue that planners' stories pay too little attention to the place and to local stories. Planners' abstract visions of the future and local stories building on lived experiences both draw meanings from the same place but have very different intentions. In our case, the consultation of the project started out wrong because the planners neglected a neighbourhood thick in symbolic meanings and the local stories' power in resistance. By understanding the place as polyphonic in its foundation, planners could learn about the symbolic elements and reasons for people's place attachment, and thus end up re-writing the place together. Urban interventions such as urban densification should connect to the place as part of its polyphonic historical continuum and acknowledge the residents' place attachments.
  • Kivimaa, Paula; Brisbois, Marie Claire; Jayaram, Dhanasree; Hakala, Emma; Siddi , Marco (2022)
    A transition to net-zero carbon energy systems, imperative to combat climate change, is unfolding around the world. Other socio-technical systems also face the need to transition to become more environmentally and socially sustainable. We argue that such transitions will have both positive and negative security implications on numerous issues which deserve attention but have been little addressed in transition studies. We take a socio-technical lens and propose that these security implications can be ex-ante analysed via three elements of socio-technical systems: technology, actors, and institutions. We provide an illustration of such analysis in the energy transition context and use this to create a categorisation framework for expectations analysis. Regarding the technology dimension, expectations concerning, e.g., resource and technology dependencies, risk for technical system disruptions, and effects on interconnected systems can be analysed as relevant security issues. For the actor dimension, issues such as geopolitical uncertainties, regional (in)stability, internal tensions, and diffusion of power are identified. For institutions, e.g., influence on democratic institutions, peace building and structural violence can be assessed. We argue there is a need for improved and forward-looking policy coordination across domains and for academic studies that utilise foresight approaches to assess different security expectations more concretely.
  • Kulmala, Juha-Pekka; Haakana, Piia K; Nurminen, Jussi; Ylitalo, Elina M; Niemelä, Tuula; Marttinen Rossi, Essi; Mäenpää, Helena; Piitulainen, Harri (2022)
    Healthy people can walk nearly effortlessly thanks to their instinctively adaptive gait patterns that tend to minimize metabolic energy consumption. However, the economy of gait is severely impaired in many neurological disorders such as stroke or cerebral palsy (CP). Moreover, self-selected asymmetry of impaired gait does not seem to unequivocally coincide with the minimal energy cost, suggesting the presence of other adaptive origins. Here, we used hemiparetic CP gait as a model to test the hypothesis that pathological asymmetric gait patterns are chosen to equalize the relative muscle efforts between the affected and unaffected limbs. We determined the relative muscle efforts for the ankle and knee extensors by relating extensor joint moments during gait to maximum moments obtained from all-out hopping reference test. During asymmetric CP gait, the unaffected limb generated greater ankle (1.36 +/- 0.15 vs 1.17 +/- 0.16 Nm/kg, p = 0.002) and knee (0.74 +/- 0.33 vs 0.44 +/- 0.19 Nm/kg, p = 0.007) extensor moments compared with the affected limb. Similarly, the maximum moment generation capacity was greater in the unaffected limb versus the affected limb (ankle extensors: 1.81 +/- 0.39 Nm/kg vs 1.51 +/- 0.34 Nm/kg, p = 0.033; knee extensors: 1.83 +/- 0.37 Nm/kg vs 1.34 +/- 0.38 Nm/kg, p = 0.021) in our force reference test. As a consequence, no differences were found in the relative efforts between unaffected and affected limb ankle extensors (77 +/- 12% vs 80 +/- 16%, p = 0.69) and knee extensors (41 +/- 17% vs 38 +/- 23%, p = 0.54). In conclusion, asymmetric CP gait resulted in similar relative muscle efforts between affected and unaffected limbs. The tendency for effort equalization may thus be an important driver of self-selected gait asymmetry patterns, and consequently advantageous for preventing fatigue of the weaker affected side musculature.
  • Velkova, Julia; Kaun, Anne (2021)
    The article constitutes a critical intervention in the current, dramatic debate on the consequences of algorithms and automation for society. While most research has focused on negative outcomes, including ethical problems of machine bias and accountability, little has been said about the possibilities of users to resist algorithmic power. The article draws on Raymond Williams’ work on media as practice to advance a framework for studying algorithms with a focus on user agency. We illustrate this framework with the example of the media activist campaign World White Web by the Swedish artist and visual designer Johanna Burai. We suggest that user agency in relation to algorithms can emerge from alternative uses of platforms, in the aftermath of algorithmic logics, and give birth to complicit forms of resistance that work through ‘repair’ politics oriented towards correcting the work of algorithms. We conclude with a discussion of the ways in which the proposed framework helps us rethink debates on algorithmic power.
  • Salonen, Hilma (2021)
    In the middle of accelerating climate change and global energy transition from fossil fuels towards low-carbon alternatives, Russia has set a course for mitigating the negative effects of these phenomena while seeking to profit from the supposed positive prospects of warming climate conditions: for example, the expected opening of the Northern Sea Route for commercial traffic or producing renewable energy technologies for export. To reach these goals, Russia wields a policy tool known as "mega projects", centralized development interventions, which should bypass structural problems like the high cost of fuel deliveries that have plagued the Arctic socioeconomic development for decades. How do new mega projects aim to find quick solutions for complex problems, and why are outdated energy systems so resistant to change? The article analyzes two recent energy projects in the Republic of Sakha: building a wind park in Tiksi and establishing a company to manage fossil fuel deliveries, from the viewpoint of a pragmatist understanding of habits and their interconnected relationship with institutions. Main research questions examine what parts of the established ways of fossil fuel usage are most resistant to change in this context and what we may expect of renewable energy development in the area. Although challenges caused by the accelerating climate change are unpredictable, Russia answers to them by using the same toolkit as with other national mega projects, involving centralized decision-making and one-size-fits-all solutions. Therefore, any actors wishing to further new energy solutions in the region must do so by supplementing and supporting the dominant ones.
  • Kulmala, Juha-Pekka; Korhonen, Marko T.; Ruggiero, Luca; Kuitunen, Sami; Suominen, Harri; Heinonen, Ari; Mikkola, Aki; Avela, Janne (2020)
    Age-related reduction in muscle force generation capacity is similarly evident across different lower limb muscle groups, yet decline in locomotor performance with age has been shown to depend primarily on reduced ankle extensor muscle function. To better understand why ageing has the largest detrimental effect on ankle joint function during locomotion, we examined maximal ankle and knee extensor force development during a two-leg hopping test in older and young men, and used these forces as a reference to calculate relative operating efforts for the knee and ankle extensors as participants walked, ran and sprinted. We found that, across locomotion modes in both age groups, ankle extensors operated at a greater relative effort compared to knee extensors; however, slightly less pronounced differences between ankle and knee extensor muscle efforts were present among older men, mainly due to a reduction in the ankle extensor force generation during locomotion modes. We consider these findings as evidence that reduced ankle push-off function in older age is driven by a tendency to keep ankle extensor effort during locomotion lower than it would otherwise be, which, in turn, may be an important self-optimisation strategy to prevent locomotor-induced fatigue of ankle extensor muscles.
  • Haapala, Eero A.; Gao, Ying; Lintu, Niina; Väistö, Juuso; Vanhala, Anssi; Tompuri, Tuomo; Lakka, Timo A.; Finni, Taija (2021)
    We investigated the associations of motor competence (MC) with peak oxygen uptake (V.O-2peak), peak power output (W-max), and body fat percentage (BF%) and whether measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) modify the associations between MC and BF%. Altogether, 35 children (aged 7-11 years) in the CHIPASE Study and 297 in PANIC Study (aged 9-11 years) participated in the study. MC was assessed using KTK and modified Eurofit tests. V.O-2peak and W-max were measured by maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer and scaled by lean mass (LM) or body mass (BM). BF% was assessed either by bioimpedance (CHIPASE) or DXA (PANIC). MC was not associated with V.O-2peak/LM (standardized regression coefficient beta = 0.073-0.188, P > .083). V.O-2peak/BM and W-max/LM and BM were positively associated with MC (beta = 0.158-0.610, P < .05). MC ( = -0.186 to -0.665, P < .01), but not V.O-2peak/LM ( = -0.169-0.035, P > .381), was inversely associated with BF%. Furthermore, the associations of MC with BF% were not modified by CRF. These results suggest that the positive associations between MC and CRF scaled by BM are a function of adiposity and not peak aerobic power and that CRF is not modifying factor in the associations of MC and BF%.
  • Bolin, Göran; Velkova, Julia (2020)
    This article argues for an expansion of existing studies on the meaning of metrics in digital environments by evaluating a methodology tested in a pilot study to analyse audience responses to metrics of social media profiles. The pilot study used the software tool Facebook Demetricator by artist Ben Grosser in combination with follow-up interviews. In line with Grosser's intentions, the software indeed provoked reflection among the users. In this article, we reflect on three kinds of disorientations that users expressed, linked to temporality, sociality and value. Relating these to the history of audience measurement in mass media, we argue that there is merit in using this methodology for further analysis of continuities in audience responses to metrics, in order to better understand the ways in which metrics work to create the 'audience commodity'.
  • Skålen, Per; Fougère, Martin (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd, 2007)
  • Katila, Saija; Laamanen, Mikko; Laihonen, Maarit; Lund, Recebba; Meriläinen, Susan; Rinkinen, Jenny; Tienari, Janne (2020)
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze how global and local changes in higher education impact upon writing practices through which doctoral students become academics. The study explores how norms and values of academic writing practice are learned, negotiated and resisted and elucidates how competences related to writing come to determine the academic selves. Design/methodology/approach The study uses memory work, which is a group method that puts attention to written individual memories and their collective analysis and theorizing. The authors offer a comparison of experiences in becoming academics by two generational cohorts (1990s and 2010s) in the same management studies department in a business school. Findings The study indicates that the contextual and temporal enactment of academic writing practice in the department created a situation where implicit and ambiguous criteria for writing competence gradually changed into explicit and narrow ones. The change was relatively slow for two reasons. First, new performance management indicators were introduced over a period of two decades. Second, when the new indicators were gradually introduced, they were locally resisted. The study highlights how the focus, forms and main actors of resistance changed over time. Originality/value The paper offers a detailed account of how exogenous changes in higher education impact upon, over time and cultural space, academic writing practices through which doctoral students become academics.
  • Sinkkonen, Elina; Elovainio, Marko (2020)
    People's threat perceptions play a role in influencing foreign policies towards perceived adversary countries. Earlier research has identified multiple components shaping mass-level threat perceptions including military power, adversary country's perceived intentions, and national identities. On the individual level, education, use of media, and interest in politics have been shown to influence threat perceptions. However, most studies on perceptions of security threats fail to include both contextual and individual-level explanatory factors and to consider that different national threats may be constructed differently. This research bridges formation of threat perceptions on the individual level to wider societal processes and provides an empirical perspective to understanding threat perceptions among the educated section of the Chinese population. To analyze threat perceptions, students from leading Chinese universities (N = 771) took part in a survey in the autumn of 2011 and spring of 2012. Respondents who followed conventional media were more likely to perceive both the United States and Japan as threatening, and the effect of media consumption was particularly strong with regards to perceived threat from Japan. In addition, each threat perception was significantly associated with threat-specific explanatory factors. Potential explanatory factors of threat perceptions were explored with linear regression models.
  • Locatelli, Bruno; Pramova, Emilia; Di Gregorio, Monica; Brockhaus, Maria; Chávez , Dennis Armas; Tubbeh , Ramzi; Sotes, Juan; Perla, Javier (2020)
    Increasing attention is being given to integrating adaptation and mitigation in climate change policies. Policy network analysis is a way to explore connections between adaptation and mitigation, and the opportunities or barriers to effective integration between these two policy subdomains. This study explores climate governance and policy networks by examining collaboration and information flows in national policy processes in Peru, a country with an active climate change policy domain. In contrast to most climate policy network analyses, this study distinguishes adaptation and mitigation subdomains through a multiplex approach. We used ERGM (Exponential Random Graph Models) to explain the existence of information flows and collaborations among 76 key actors in climate change policy in Peru. We identified actors who could connect adaptation and mitigation subdomains. Results show a concentration of influence in national government actors, particularly in the mitigation subdomain, and the isolation of actor groups that matter for policy implementation, such as the private sector or subnational actors. Results highlight the predominance of mitigation over adaptation and the existence of actors well positioned to broker relationships between the subdomains. The top brokers across subdomains were, however, not only actors with high centrality and brokerage roles in the subdomains, but also several "unusual key players" that were not brokers in any of the two layers separately. Key policy insights • National government institutions are central actors in climate change policy networks in Peru, reflecting national ownership of the climate change issue. • Private sector organizations and subnational actors in Peru are the least involved in information sharing and collaboration on climate change. • Actors from different levels and sectors are active in both adaptation and mitigation, which is good for climate policy integration. • Actors with the capacity to bridge the two policy subdomains are not necessarily central to each subdomain but may be actors that close structural holes between subdomains.
  • Ylä-Anttila, Tuomas; Gronow, Antti; Stoddart, Mark C.J.; Broadbent, Jeffrey; Schneider, Volker; Tindall, David B. (2018)
    Why do some countries enact more ambitious climate change policies than others? Macro level economic and political structures, such as the economic weight of fossil fuel industries, play an important role in shaping these policies. So do the national science community and the national culture of science. But the process by which such macro-structural factors translate into political power and national climate change policies can be analyzed through focussing on meso level policy networks. The Comparing Climate Change Policy Networks (COMPON) research project has studied climate change policy networks in twenty countries since 2007. Along with some findings, this paper presents some methodological challenges faced and the solutions developed in the course of the project. After a presentation of the project, we first outline some practical challenges related to conducting cross-national network surveys and solutions to overcome them, and present the solutions adopted during the project. We then turn to challenges related to causal explanation of the national policy differences, and propose Qualitative Comparative Analysis as one solution for combining different levels of analysis (macro and meso) and different data types (quantitative, network and qualitative).
  • Chan, Yingleong; Holmen, Oddgeir L.; Dauber, Andrew; Vatten, Lars; Havulinna, Aki S.; Skorpen, Frank; Kvaloy, Kirsti; Silander, Kaisa; Nguyen, Thutrang T.; Willer, Cristen; Boehnke, Michael; Perola, Markus; Palotie, Aarno; Salomaa, Veikko; Hveem, Kristian; Frayling, Timothy M.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Weedon, Michael N. (2011)
  • Heikkilä, Riie; Katainen, Anu (2021)
    In qualitative interviews, challenges such as deviations from the topic, interruptions, silences or counter-questions are inevitable. It is debatable whether the researcher should try to alleviate them or consider them as important indicators of power relations. In this methodological article, we adopt the latter view and examine the episodes of counter-talk that emerge in qualitative interviews on cultural practices among underprivileged popular classes by drawing on 49 individual and focus group interviews conducted in the highly egalitarian context of Finland. Our main aim is to demonstrate how counter-talk emerging in interview situations could be fruitfully analysed as moral boundary drawing. We identify three types of counter-talk: resisting the situation, resisting the topic, and resisting the interviewer. While the first type unites many of the typical challenges inherent to qualitative interviewing in general (silences, deviations from the topic and so forth), the second one shows that explicit taste distinctions are an important feature of counter-talk, yet the interviewees mostly discuss them as something belonging to the personal sphere. Finally, the third type reveals how the strongest counter-talk and clearest moral boundary stemmed from the interviewees' attitudes towards the interviewer herself. We argue that counter-talk in general should be given more importance as a key element of the qualitative interview. We demonstrate that all three types of counter-talk are crucial to properly understanding the power relations and moral boundaries present in qualitative interviews and that cultural practices are a particularly good topic to tease them out.
  • Lehtiniemi, Tuukka; Haapoja, Jesse (2020)
    Data activism has emerged as a response to asymmetries in how data and the means of knowledge production are distributed. This article examines MyData, a data activism initiative developing principles for a new technical and commercial ecosystem in which individuals control the use of personal data. Analyzing material collected at a formative event shaping MyData activism, we examine how more just data arrangements are framed to enhance equal participation. Our analysis shows agreement on what is ultimately at stake: individual data agency and fair competition in the data economy. However, two alternatives are offered for what participation involves. Collaboration with commercial actors favors framing participation as agency in data markets, thereby potentially limiting the scope of what is at stake. The alternative framing presents a rights-based understanding of economic and civic agency, potentially leading to a broader understanding of participation in a datafied society.
  • Nabavi, Seyed Azad; Hossein Motlagh, Naser; Zaidan, Martha Arbayani; Aslani, Alireza; Zakeri, Behnam (2021)
    Buildings are responsible for 33% of final energy consumption, and 40% of direct and indirect CO2 emissions globally. While energy consumption is steadily rising globally, managing building energy utilization by on-site renewable energy generation can help responding to this demand. This paper proposes a deep learning method based on a discrete wavelet transformation and long short-term memory method (DWT-LSTM) and a scheduling framework for the integrated modelling and management of energy demand and supply for buildings. This method analyzes several factors including electricity price, uncertainty in climatic factors, availability of renewable energy sources (wind and solar), energy consumption patterns in buildings, and the non-linear relationships between these parameters on hourly, daily, weekly and monthly intervals. The method enables monitoring and controlling renewable energy generation, the share of energy imports from the grid, employment of saving strategy based on the user priority list, and energy storage management to minimize the reliance on the grid and electricity cost, especially during the peak hours. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can forecast building energy demand and energy supply with a high level of accuracy, showing a 3.63-8.57% error range in hourly data prediction for one month ahead. The combination of the deep learning forecasting, energy storage, and scheduling algorithm enables reducing annual energy import from the grid by 84%, which offers electricity cost savings by 87%. Finally, two smart active buildings configurations are financially analyzed for the next thirty years. Based on the results, the proposed smart building with solar Photo-Voltaic (PV), wind turbine, inverter, and 40.5 kWh energy storage has a financial breakeven point after 9 years with wind turbine and 8 years without it. This implies that implementing wind turbines in the proposed building is not financially beneficial.
  • Lundell, Richard V.; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne K.; Wuorimaa, Tomi K.; Ojanen, Tommi; Parkkola, Kai I. (2020)
    Introduction Diving close to the Arctic circle means diving in cold water regardless of the time of year. The human body reacts to cold through autonomous nervous system (ANS)-mediated thermoregulatory mechanisms. Diving also induces ANS responses as a result of the diving reflex. Materials and Methods In order to study ANS responses during diving in Arctic water temperatures, we retrospectively analyzed repeated 5-min heart rate variability (HRV) measures and the mean body temperature from dives at regular intervals using naval diving equipment measurement tests in 0 degrees C water. Three divers performed seven dives without physical activity (81-91 min), and two divers performed four dives with physical activity after 10 min of diving (0-10 min HRV recordings were included in the study). Results Our study showed a significant increase in parasympathetic activity (PNS) at the beginning of the dives, after which PNS activity decreased significantly (measure 5-10 min). Subsequent measurements (15-20 min and onward) showed a significant increase in PNS activity over time. Conclusion Our results suggest that the first PNS responses of the human diving reflex decrease quickly. Adverse effects of PNS activity should be considered on long and cold dives. To avoid concurrent sympathetic (SNS) and PNS activity at the beginning of dives, which in turn may increase the risk of arrhythmia in cold water, we suggest a short adaptation phase before physical activity. Moreover, we suggest it is prudent to give special attention to cardiovascular risk factors during pre-dive examinations for cold water divers.
  • Gronow, Antti; Wagner, Paul; Yla-Anttila, Tuomas (2020)
    The conditions under which policy beliefs and influential actors shape collaborative behaviour in governance networks are not well understood. This article applies exponential random graph models to network data from Finland and Sweden to investigate how beliefs, reputational power and the role of public authorities' structure collaboration ties into the two countries' climate change governance networks. Results show that only in Finland's conflictual climate policy domain do actors collaborate with those with similar beliefs and with reputational power, while only in Sweden's consensual climate policy domain do public authorities play central impartial coordinating roles. These results indicate that conflict is present in a governance network when beliefs and reputational power determine collaboration and that it is absent when public authorities occupy central roles. They also suggest that relative success in climate policy action is likely to occur when public authorities take on network manager roles.