Browsing by Subject "POWER"

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  • Bodea, Corneliu A.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Ripke, Stephan; Daly, Mark J.; Devlin, Bernie; Roeder, Kathryn; Int IBD Genetics Consortium; Palotie, A. (2016)
    One goal of human genetics is to understand the genetic basis of disease, a challenge for diseases of complex inheritance because risk alleles are few relative to the vast set of benign variants. Risk variants are often sought by association studies in which allele frequencies in case subjects are contrasted with those from population-based samples used as control subjects. In an ideal world we would know population-level allele frequencies, releasing researchers to focus on case subjects. We argue this ideal is possible, at least theoretically, and we outline a path to achieving it in reality. If such a resource were to exist, it would yield ample savings and would facilitate the effective use of data repositories by removing administrative and technical barriers. We call this concept the Universal Control Repository Network (UNICORN), a means to perform association analyses without necessitating direct access to individual-level control data. Our approach to UNICORN uses existing genetic resources and various statistical tools to analyze these data, including hierarchical clustering with spectral analysis of ancestry; and empirical Bayesian analysis along with Gaussian spatial processes to estimate ancestry-specific allele frequencies. We demonstrate our approach using tens of thousands of control subjects from studies of Crohn disease, showing how it controls false positives, provides power similar to that achieved when all control data are directly accessible, and enhances power when control data are limiting or even imperfectly matched ancestrally. These results highlight how UNICORN can enable reliable, powerful, and convenient genetic association analyses without access to the individual-level data.
  • Wallin, Antti; Leino, Helena; Jokinen, Ari; Laine, Markus; Tuomisaari, Johanna; Backlund, Pia (2018)
    Urban strategies, representing stories of possible futures, often intervene in already established local communities and therefore call for a considerate urban intervention. This article utilises the ideas of Henri Lefebvre's socially produced space and of literature on stories involved in planning. Our empirical example tells a story of urban densification aspirations for an inner-city neighbourhood in Tampere, Finland. By combining the interviews of local people and planners with policy documents, we argue that planners' stories pay too little attention to the place and to local stories. Planners' abstract visions of the future and local stories building on lived experiences both draw meanings from the same place but have very different intentions. In our case, the consultation of the project started out wrong because the planners neglected a neighbourhood thick in symbolic meanings and the local stories' power in resistance. By understanding the place as polyphonic in its foundation, planners could learn about the symbolic elements and reasons for people's place attachment, and thus end up re-writing the place together. Urban interventions such as urban densification should connect to the place as part of its polyphonic historical continuum and acknowledge the residents' place attachments.
  • Kulmala, Juha-Pekka; Korhonen, Marko T.; Ruggiero, Luca; Kuitunen, Sami; Suominen, Harri; Heinonen, Ari; Mikkola, Aki; Avela, Janne (2020)
    Age-related reduction in muscle force generation capacity is similarly evident across different lower limb muscle groups, yet decline in locomotor performance with age has been shown to depend primarily on reduced ankle extensor muscle function. To better understand why ageing has the largest detrimental effect on ankle joint function during locomotion, we examined maximal ankle and knee extensor force development during a two-leg hopping test in older and young men, and used these forces as a reference to calculate relative operating efforts for the knee and ankle extensors as participants walked, ran and sprinted. We found that, across locomotion modes in both age groups, ankle extensors operated at a greater relative effort compared to knee extensors; however, slightly less pronounced differences between ankle and knee extensor muscle efforts were present among older men, mainly due to a reduction in the ankle extensor force generation during locomotion modes. We consider these findings as evidence that reduced ankle push-off function in older age is driven by a tendency to keep ankle extensor effort during locomotion lower than it would otherwise be, which, in turn, may be an important self-optimisation strategy to prevent locomotor-induced fatigue of ankle extensor muscles.
  • Haapala, Eero A.; Gao, Ying; Lintu, Niina; Väistö, Juuso; Vanhala, Anssi; Tompuri, Tuomo; Lakka, Timo A.; Finni, Taija (2021)
    We investigated the associations of motor competence (MC) with peak oxygen uptake (V.O-2peak), peak power output (W-max), and body fat percentage (BF%) and whether measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) modify the associations between MC and BF%. Altogether, 35 children (aged 7-11 years) in the CHIPASE Study and 297 in PANIC Study (aged 9-11 years) participated in the study. MC was assessed using KTK and modified Eurofit tests. V.O-2peak and W-max were measured by maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer and scaled by lean mass (LM) or body mass (BM). BF% was assessed either by bioimpedance (CHIPASE) or DXA (PANIC). MC was not associated with V.O-2peak/LM (standardized regression coefficient beta = 0.073-0.188, P > .083). V.O-2peak/BM and W-max/LM and BM were positively associated with MC (beta = 0.158-0.610, P < .05). MC ( = -0.186 to -0.665, P < .01), but not V.O-2peak/LM ( = -0.169-0.035, P > .381), was inversely associated with BF%. Furthermore, the associations of MC with BF% were not modified by CRF. These results suggest that the positive associations between MC and CRF scaled by BM are a function of adiposity and not peak aerobic power and that CRF is not modifying factor in the associations of MC and BF%.
  • Bolin, Göran; Velkova, Julia (2020)
    This article argues for an expansion of existing studies on the meaning of metrics in digital environments by evaluating a methodology tested in a pilot study to analyse audience responses to metrics of social media profiles. The pilot study used the software tool Facebook Demetricator by artist Ben Grosser in combination with follow-up interviews. In line with Grosser's intentions, the software indeed provoked reflection among the users. In this article, we reflect on three kinds of disorientations that users expressed, linked to temporality, sociality and value. Relating these to the history of audience measurement in mass media, we argue that there is merit in using this methodology for further analysis of continuities in audience responses to metrics, in order to better understand the ways in which metrics work to create the 'audience commodity'.
  • Skålen, Per; Fougère, Martin (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd, 2007)
  • Katila, Saija; Laamanen, Mikko; Laihonen, Maarit; Lund, Recebba; Meriläinen, Susan; Rinkinen, Jenny; Tienari, Janne (2020)
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze how global and local changes in higher education impact upon writing practices through which doctoral students become academics. The study explores how norms and values of academic writing practice are learned, negotiated and resisted and elucidates how competences related to writing come to determine the academic selves. Design/methodology/approach The study uses memory work, which is a group method that puts attention to written individual memories and their collective analysis and theorizing. The authors offer a comparison of experiences in becoming academics by two generational cohorts (1990s and 2010s) in the same management studies department in a business school. Findings The study indicates that the contextual and temporal enactment of academic writing practice in the department created a situation where implicit and ambiguous criteria for writing competence gradually changed into explicit and narrow ones. The change was relatively slow for two reasons. First, new performance management indicators were introduced over a period of two decades. Second, when the new indicators were gradually introduced, they were locally resisted. The study highlights how the focus, forms and main actors of resistance changed over time. Originality/value The paper offers a detailed account of how exogenous changes in higher education impact upon, over time and cultural space, academic writing practices through which doctoral students become academics.
  • Sinkkonen, Elina; Elovainio, Marko (2020)
    People's threat perceptions play a role in influencing foreign policies towards perceived adversary countries. Earlier research has identified multiple components shaping mass-level threat perceptions including military power, adversary country's perceived intentions, and national identities. On the individual level, education, use of media, and interest in politics have been shown to influence threat perceptions. However, most studies on perceptions of security threats fail to include both contextual and individual-level explanatory factors and to consider that different national threats may be constructed differently. This research bridges formation of threat perceptions on the individual level to wider societal processes and provides an empirical perspective to understanding threat perceptions among the educated section of the Chinese population. To analyze threat perceptions, students from leading Chinese universities (N = 771) took part in a survey in the autumn of 2011 and spring of 2012. Respondents who followed conventional media were more likely to perceive both the United States and Japan as threatening, and the effect of media consumption was particularly strong with regards to perceived threat from Japan. In addition, each threat perception was significantly associated with threat-specific explanatory factors. Potential explanatory factors of threat perceptions were explored with linear regression models.
  • Locatelli, Bruno; Pramova, Emilia; Di Gregorio, Monica; Brockhaus, Maria; Chávez, Dennis Armas; Tubbeh, Ramzi; Sotes, Juan; Perla, Javier (2020)
    Increasing attention is being given to integrating adaptation and mitigation in climate change policies. Policy network analysis is a way to explore connections between adaptation and mitigation, and the opportunities or barriers to effective integration between these two policy subdomains. This study explores climate governance and policy networks by examining collaboration and information flows in national policy processes in Peru, a country with an active climate change policy domain. In contrast to most climate policy network analyses, this study distinguishes adaptation and mitigation subdomains through a multiplex approach. We used ERGM (Exponential Random Graph Models) to explain the existence of information flows and collaborations among 76 key actors in climate change policy in Peru. We identified actors who could connect adaptation and mitigation subdomains. Results show a concentration of influence in national government actors, particularly in the mitigation subdomain, and the isolation of actor groups that matter for policy implementation, such as the private sector or subnational actors. Results highlight the predominance of mitigation over adaptation and the existence of actors well positioned to broker relationships between the subdomains. The top brokers across subdomains were, however, not only actors with high centrality and brokerage roles in the subdomains, but also several "unusual key players" that were not brokers in any of the two layers separately. Key policy insights • National government institutions are central actors in climate change policy networks in Peru, reflecting national ownership of the climate change issue. • Private sector organizations and subnational actors in Peru are the least involved in information sharing and collaboration on climate change. • Actors from different levels and sectors are active in both adaptation and mitigation, which is good for climate policy integration. • Actors with the capacity to bridge the two policy subdomains are not necessarily central to each subdomain but may be actors that close structural holes between subdomains.
  • Ylä-Anttila, Tuomas; Gronow, Antti; Stoddart, Mark C.J.; Broadbent, Jeffrey; Schneider, Volker; Tindall, David B. (2018)
    Why do some countries enact more ambitious climate change policies than others? Macro level economic and political structures, such as the economic weight of fossil fuel industries, play an important role in shaping these policies. So do the national science community and the national culture of science. But the process by which such macro-structural factors translate into political power and national climate change policies can be analyzed through focussing on meso level policy networks. The Comparing Climate Change Policy Networks (COMPON) research project has studied climate change policy networks in twenty countries since 2007. Along with some findings, this paper presents some methodological challenges faced and the solutions developed in the course of the project. After a presentation of the project, we first outline some practical challenges related to conducting cross-national network surveys and solutions to overcome them, and present the solutions adopted during the project. We then turn to challenges related to causal explanation of the national policy differences, and propose Qualitative Comparative Analysis as one solution for combining different levels of analysis (macro and meso) and different data types (quantitative, network and qualitative).
  • Chan, Yingleong; Holmen, Oddgeir L.; Dauber, Andrew; Vatten, Lars; Havulinna, Aki S.; Skorpen, Frank; Kvaloy, Kirsti; Silander, Kaisa; Nguyen, Thutrang T.; Willer, Cristen; Boehnke, Michael; Perola, Markus; Palotie, Aarno; Salomaa, Veikko; Hveem, Kristian; Frayling, Timothy M.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Weedon, Michael N. (2011)
  • Heikkilä, Riie; Katainen, Anu (2021)
    In qualitative interviews, challenges such as deviations from the topic, interruptions, silences or counter-questions are inevitable. It is debatable whether the researcher should try to alleviate them or consider them as important indicators of power relations. In this methodological article, we adopt the latter view and examine the episodes of counter-talk that emerge in qualitative interviews on cultural practices among underprivileged popular classes by drawing on 49 individual and focus group interviews conducted in the highly egalitarian context of Finland. Our main aim is to demonstrate how counter-talk emerging in interview situations could be fruitfully analysed as moral boundary drawing. We identify three types of counter-talk: resisting the situation, resisting the topic, and resisting the interviewer. While the first type unites many of the typical challenges inherent to qualitative interviewing in general (silences, deviations from the topic and so forth), the second one shows that explicit taste distinctions are an important feature of counter-talk, yet the interviewees mostly discuss them as something belonging to the personal sphere. Finally, the third type reveals how the strongest counter-talk and clearest moral boundary stemmed from the interviewees' attitudes towards the interviewer herself. We argue that counter-talk in general should be given more importance as a key element of the qualitative interview. We demonstrate that all three types of counter-talk are crucial to properly understanding the power relations and moral boundaries present in qualitative interviews and that cultural practices are a particularly good topic to tease them out.
  • Lehtiniemi, Tuukka; Haapoja, Jesse (2020)
    Data activism has emerged as a response to asymmetries in how data and the means of knowledge production are distributed. This article examines MyData, a data activism initiative developing principles for a new technical and commercial ecosystem in which individuals control the use of personal data. Analyzing material collected at a formative event shaping MyData activism, we examine how more just data arrangements are framed to enhance equal participation. Our analysis shows agreement on what is ultimately at stake: individual data agency and fair competition in the data economy. However, two alternatives are offered for what participation involves. Collaboration with commercial actors favors framing participation as agency in data markets, thereby potentially limiting the scope of what is at stake. The alternative framing presents a rights-based understanding of economic and civic agency, potentially leading to a broader understanding of participation in a datafied society.
  • Nabavi, Seyed Azad; Hossein Motlagh, Naser; Zaidan, Martha Arbayani; Aslani, Alireza; Zakeri, Behnam (2021)
    Buildings are responsible for 33% of final energy consumption, and 40% of direct and indirect CO2 emissions globally. While energy consumption is steadily rising globally, managing building energy utilization by on-site renewable energy generation can help responding to this demand. This paper proposes a deep learning method based on a discrete wavelet transformation and long short-term memory method (DWT-LSTM) and a scheduling framework for the integrated modelling and management of energy demand and supply for buildings. This method analyzes several factors including electricity price, uncertainty in climatic factors, availability of renewable energy sources (wind and solar), energy consumption patterns in buildings, and the non-linear relationships between these parameters on hourly, daily, weekly and monthly intervals. The method enables monitoring and controlling renewable energy generation, the share of energy imports from the grid, employment of saving strategy based on the user priority list, and energy storage management to minimize the reliance on the grid and electricity cost, especially during the peak hours. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can forecast building energy demand and energy supply with a high level of accuracy, showing a 3.63-8.57% error range in hourly data prediction for one month ahead. The combination of the deep learning forecasting, energy storage, and scheduling algorithm enables reducing annual energy import from the grid by 84%, which offers electricity cost savings by 87%. Finally, two smart active buildings configurations are financially analyzed for the next thirty years. Based on the results, the proposed smart building with solar Photo-Voltaic (PV), wind turbine, inverter, and 40.5 kWh energy storage has a financial breakeven point after 9 years with wind turbine and 8 years without it. This implies that implementing wind turbines in the proposed building is not financially beneficial.
  • Lundell, Richard V.; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne K.; Wuorimaa, Tomi K.; Ojanen, Tommi; Parkkola, Kai I. (2020)
    Introduction Diving close to the Arctic circle means diving in cold water regardless of the time of year. The human body reacts to cold through autonomous nervous system (ANS)-mediated thermoregulatory mechanisms. Diving also induces ANS responses as a result of the diving reflex. Materials and Methods In order to study ANS responses during diving in Arctic water temperatures, we retrospectively analyzed repeated 5-min heart rate variability (HRV) measures and the mean body temperature from dives at regular intervals using naval diving equipment measurement tests in 0 degrees C water. Three divers performed seven dives without physical activity (81-91 min), and two divers performed four dives with physical activity after 10 min of diving (0-10 min HRV recordings were included in the study). Results Our study showed a significant increase in parasympathetic activity (PNS) at the beginning of the dives, after which PNS activity decreased significantly (measure 5-10 min). Subsequent measurements (15-20 min and onward) showed a significant increase in PNS activity over time. Conclusion Our results suggest that the first PNS responses of the human diving reflex decrease quickly. Adverse effects of PNS activity should be considered on long and cold dives. To avoid concurrent sympathetic (SNS) and PNS activity at the beginning of dives, which in turn may increase the risk of arrhythmia in cold water, we suggest a short adaptation phase before physical activity. Moreover, we suggest it is prudent to give special attention to cardiovascular risk factors during pre-dive examinations for cold water divers.
  • Vaissiere, James; Thorp, Jackson G.; Ong, Jue-Sheng; Ortega-Alonzo, Alfredo; Derks, Eske M. (2020)
    There is a well-established relationship between cannabis use and psychosis, although the exact nature of this relationship is not fully understood. Recent studies have observed significant genetic overlap between a diagnosis of schizophrenia and lifetime cannabis use. Expanding on this work, the current study aimed to examine whether genetic overlap also occurs for subclinical psychosis (schizotypy) and cannabis use, as well as examining the phenotypic association between the traits. Phenotypic correlations were calculated for a variety of schizotypy and cannabis phenotypes in the UK Biobank (UKB), and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability estimates and genetic correlations were calculated for these UKB phenotypes as well as for several other variables taken from recent genomewide association studies. Positive phenotypic correlations were observed between 11 out of 12 pairs of the cannabis use and schizotypy phenotypes (correlation range .05-.18), indicating a robust association between increased symptoms of schizotypy and cannabis use. SNP-based heritability estimates for two schizotypy phenotypes remained significant after multiple testing correction:social anhedonia(h(SNP)(2)= .08,SE= .02,N= 4025) andever seen an unreal vision(h(SNP)(2)= .35,SE= .10,N= 150,717). Finally, one significant genetic correlation was observed between schizotypy and cannabis use, a negative correlation betweensocial anhedoniaandnumber of times used cannabis(r(g)= -.30,p= .012). The current study suggests the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis is also seen in subclinical symptoms of psychosis, but further research with larger samples is needed to determine the biological mechanisms underlying this association.
  • Paananen, Jenny; Stevanovic, Melisa; Valkeapää, Taina (2021)
    This paper focuses on the stancetaking formats used to express personal thoughts, namely Finnish ma aattelen/aattelin 'I think/thought', ma mietin 'I think/wonder', and mun mielesta/musta 'I think/in my opinion'. We study how these first-person formats are used in mental health rehabilitation group meetings, which aim to promote joint decision-making. In particular, we analyze whether the institutional asymmetry between support workers and clients is reflected in the use of these thought expressions. Our data comprise 23 video-recorded rehabilitation meetings, and the adopted methods are conversation analysis and interactional linguistics. Most of the stancetaking formats in our data are produced by support workers (106/129). The results of a sequential analysis conducted in this study demonstrate that support workers' thought expressions are embedded in their institutional actions, which are beyond the clients' authority. Moreover, our data suggest that support workers' and rehabilitants' thought expressions generate different participation dynamics. Although previous research has considered I think-formats typically as calls for other views, in institutional settings such as ours, these formats can also be interpreted as highlighting an institutional agent's controlling position. Acknowledging the existence of such differences in stancetaking practices can advance the design of new protocols to facilitate client participation.
  • Ryynanen, Toni; Heinonen, Visa (2018)
    Studies of nostalgia are one of the research subfields of recalled consumption experiences. In addition to the nostalgic recall, the consumers' remembered experiences situate in other temporal frames, a theme rarely touched in the extant research. The aim of this research was to examine the differences between nostalgic and other recalled consumption experiences by identifying and analysing the characteristics of the temporal frames. The data set for this task comprised 480 descriptions of consumers' experiences involving an everyday consumer object. An interpretive approach was utilized to analyse the temporal frames. The results of the study indicate that the consumers described their memories in four temporal structures. These are the strong nostalgia from childhood, light nostalgia from youth, descriptions of recent past and memories linked to consumption practices and traditions that will be fostered in the future. The article proposes a conceptual framework describing the temporal frames of consumers' remembered consumption experiences that opens further avenues for research alongside of nostalgic recall.
  • Kantola, Anu (2020)
    Growing inequalities have prompted research on the wealthiest groups and their cohesive practices and ideologies. This article suggests that emotional expression - how the members of the wealthy upper class feel about themselves and the rest of society - provides a way to examine their position in society. Drawing from interviews with business executives who belong to the richest 0.1% in Finland and to their society's power elites, I argue that just as low-income groups feel resentful towards more affluent groups, the wealthy also harbour resentment towards more disadvantaged groups. The wealthy executives create an emotionally laden self-justification - a deep story - in which they feel positively about themselves but assign negative feelings to other classes. In this narrative, the optimistic business elites thus become gloomy societal elites, who build empathy walls against the less advantaged groups even in Finland, one of the world's most equal countries.
  • Di Gregorio, Monica; Gallemore, Caleb Tyrell; Brockhaus, Maria; Fatorelli, Leandra; Efrian, Muharrom (2017)
    This paper investigates the adoption of discourses on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD +) across different national contexts. It draws on institutional theories to develop and test a number of hypotheses on the role of shared beliefs and politico-economic institutions in determining the discursive choices of policy actors. The results show that win win ecological modernization discourse, embraced by powerful government agencies and international actors, dominates national REDD + policy arenas. This discourse is challenged primarily by a minority reformist civic environmentalist discourse put forward primarily by domestic NGOs. We find evidence that countries with a less democratic political system and large-scale primary sector investments facilitate the adoption of reconciliatory ecological modernization discourse, which may not directly challenge the drivers of deforestation. Policy actors who believe in and are engaged in market-based approaches to REDD + are much more likely to adopt ecological modernization discourses, compared to policy actors who work on community development and livelihoods issues.