Browsing by Subject "PRACTICE GUIDELINES"

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  • Barnieh, Lianne; Clement, Fiona; Harris, Anthony; Blom, Marja; Donaldson, Cam; Klarenbach, Scott; Husereau, Don; Lorenzetti, Diane; Manns, Braden (2014)
  • Delles, Christian; Rankin, Naomi J.; Boachie, Charles; McConnachie, Alex; Ford, Ian; Kangas, Antti; Soininen, Pasi; Trompet, Stella; Mooijaart, Simon P.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Zannad, Faiez; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Salomaa, Veikko; Havulinna, Aki S.; Welsh, Paul; Wurtz, Peter; Sattar, Naveed (2018)
    Aims We investigated the association between quantified metabolite, lipid and lipoprotein measures and incident heart failure hospitalisation (HFH) in the elderly, and examined whether circulating metabolic measures improve HFH prediction.& para;& para;Methods and results Overall, 80 metabolic measures from the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) trial were measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (n = 5341; 182 HFH events during 2.7-year follow-up). We repeated the work in FINRISK 1997 (n = 7330; 133 HFH events during 5-year follow-up). In PROSPER, the circulating concentrations of 13 metabolic measures were found to be significantly different in those who were later hospitalised for heart failure after correction for multiple comparisons. These included creatinine, phenylalanine, glycoprotein acetyls, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and various high-density lipoprotein measures. In Cox models, two metabolites were associated with risk of HFH after adjustment for clinical risk factors and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP): phenylalanine [hazard ratio (HR) 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.53; P = 0.002] and acetate (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.98; P = 0.026). Both were retained in the final model after backward elimination. Compared to a model with established risk factors and NT-proBNP, this model did not improve the C-index but did improve the overall continuous net reclassification index (NRI 0.21; 95% CI 0.06-0.35; P = 0.007) due to improvement in classification of non-cases (NRI 0.14; 95% CI 0.12-0.17; P
  • Vahtera, Annukka; Valkonen, Miia; Huhtala, Heini; Pettila, Ville; Kuitunen, Anne (2017)
    Introduction: In intensive care unit (ICU) patients, subcutaneous low-molecular weight heparin thromboprophylaxis results in lower plasma anti-factor Xa (anti-FXa) levels compared to general ward patients. The aim of this study was to examine whether enoxaparin thromboprophylaxis given as a continuous intravenous infusion (CII) results in more constant and predictable anti-FXa concentration than standard subcutaneous bolus (SCB) administration. Materials and methods: This was a prospective, single-blind, multicenter, randomized controlled trial where ICU patients requiring thromboprophylaxis received enoxaparin either 40 mg as a SCB once daily or 40 mg as a CII over 24 h for three consecutive days. The primary outcome was maximum serum anti-FXa concentration (C-max24 (h)) within the first 24 h; the secondary outcome was anti-FXa area under the curve (AUC)((0-24 h)). Trough level was measured at 72 h. Results: Thirty-nine patients were included in the intention to treat analysis. The median anti-FXa C-max24 (h) was 0.05 (interquartile range, IQR, 0.05-0.18) IU/ml in the CII group and 0.18 (IQR, 0.12-0.33) IU/ml in the SCB group (p= 0.05). Median anti-FXa AUC((0-24 h)) was 1.20 (IQR, 0.98-2.88) in the CII and 1.54 (IQR, 1.22-4.12) in the SCB group (p = 0.095). After 72 h, 66.7% of patients in the CII group had a detectable anti-FXa concentration of > 0.1 IU/ml, compared with 16.7% in the SCB group (p = 0.019). Conclusions: Continuous infusion of enoxaparin led to lower anti-FXa C-max24 h than standard SCB administration. No difference in anti-FXa AUC(0-24) (h) was detected.
  • Pihlajamaa, Katriina; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Räsänen, Jari V.; Kauppi, Juha T.; Hodgson, Ulla (2019)
    Background: Patients with pulmonary aspergillomas occasionally undergo surgery but it is somewhat unclear who of these patients benefit from surgical treatment. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated all 22 patients that underwent surgery in Helsinki University Central Hospital between 2004 and 2017. We assessed their clinical backgrounds, anti-fungal medication, indication for surgery, complications, recurrent infections and survival. Results: Of the 22 patients, 14 male and 8 female, mean age 56, an underlying pulmonary disease was present in 20. On immunosuppressive medication were 8 (36%). Most received anti-fungal medication preoperatively (n=12) and/or postoperatively (n=17), 3 patients did not receive anti-fungal medication. Length of the medication periods were diverse. Main indication for surgery was haemoptysis. One in-hospital-death occurred, and other complications included prolonged air-leak, postoperative pneumonia, pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. No Aspergillus empyema or pleurites occurred. Five-year survival was 54%. One in-hospital-death and one other death were the result of Aspergillus disease, other deaths were unrelated to Aspergillus. Recurrent disease occurred in four cases. Three of these patients were asthma patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). Conclusions: Overall results of surgery in this cohort were good and number of complications was low. Therapy with antifungals was diverse. Surgical treatment of aspergilloma can be life-saving for patients suffering of haemoptysis, and patients with restricted disease and well-preserved pulmonary capacity may benefit from surgery. Careful patient selection is crucial.
  • Hautala, J.; Gissler, M.; Ritvanen, A.; Tekay, A.; Pitkänen-Argillander, O.; Stefanovic, V.; Sarkola, T.; Helle, E.; Pihkala, J.; Pätilä, T.; Mattila, I. P.; Jokinen, E.; Räsänen, J.; Ojala, T. (2019)
    Objective To evaluate whether a nationwide prenatal anomaly screening programme improves detection rates of univentricular heart (UVH) and transposition of great arteries (TGA), and whether maternal risk factors for severe fetal heart disease affect prenatal detection. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Nationwide data from Finnish registries 2004-14. Population A total of 642 456 parturients and 3449 terminated pregnancies due to severe fetal anomaly. Methods Prenatal detection rates were calculated in three time periods (prescreening, transition and screening phase). The effect of maternal risk factors (obesity, in vitro fertilisation, pregestational diabetes and smoking) was evaluated. Main outcome measures Change in detection rates and impact of maternal risk factors on screening programme efficacy. Results In total, 483 cases of UVH and 184 of TGA were detected. The prenatal detection rate of UVH increased from 50.4% to 82.8% and of TGA from 12.3% to 41.0% (P <0.0001). Maternal risk factors did not affect prenatal detection rate, but detection rate differed substantially by region. Conclusions A nationwide screening programme improved overall UVH and TGA detection rates, but regional differences were observed. Obesity or other maternal risk factors did not affect the screening programme efficacy. The establishment of structured guidelines and recommendations is essential when implementing the screening programme. In addition, a prospective screening register is highly recommended to ensure high quality of screening.
  • Beck, Adam W.; Sedrakyan, Art; Mao, Jialin; Venermo, Maarit; Faizer, Rumi; Debus, Sebastian; Behrendt, Christian-Alexander; Scali, Salvatore; Altreuther, Martin; Schermerhorn, Marc; Beiles, Barry; Szeberin, Zoltan; Eldrup, Nikolaj; Danielsson, Gudmundur; Thomson, Ian; Wigger, Pius; Bjorck, Martin; Cronenwett, Jack L.; Mani, Kevin; Int Consortium Vasc Registries (2016)
    BACKGROUND: This project by the ICVR (International Consortium of Vascular Registries), a collaboration of 11 vascular surgical quality registries, was designed to evaluate international variation in the contemporary management of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with relation to recommended treatment guidelines from the Society for Vascular Surgery and the European Society for Vascular Surgery. METHODS: Registry data for open and endovascular AAA repair (EVAR) during 2010 to 2013 were collected from 11 countries. Variations in patient selection and treatment were compared across countries and across centers within countries. RESULTS: Among 51 153 patients, 86% were treated for intact AAA (iAAA) and 14% for ruptured AAA. Women constituted 18% of the entire cohort (range, 12% in Switzerland-21% in the United States; P CONCLUSIONS: Despite homogeneous guidelines from professional societies, significant variation exists in the management of AAA, most notably for iAAA diameter at repair, use of EVAR, and the treatment of elderly patients. ICVR provides an opportunity to study treatment variation across countries and to encourage optimal practice by sharing these results.