Browsing by Subject "PRECURSORS"

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  • Zhang, Chao; Vehkamäki, Marko; Pietikäinen, Mika; Leskelä, Markku; Ritala, Mikko (2020)
    Novel area-selective molecular layer deposition (AS-MLD) of polyimide (PI) on Cu versus native SiO2 was studied. By use of 1,6-diaminohexane (DAH) and pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) as precursors, PI films can be selectively deposited on the Cu surface at 200-210 degrees C with a rate around 7.8 A/cycle while negligible growth takes place on SiO2. The selectivity was successfully demonstrated also on Cu/SiO2 patterns at 200 degrees C; after 180 MLD cycles, around 140 nm thick PI was deposited on Cu regions while
  • Mattinen, Miika; King, Peter J.; Khriachtchev, Leonid; Heikkilä, Mikko J.; Fleming, Ben; Rushworth, Simon; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Meinander, Kristoffer; Räisänen, Jyrki; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku (2018)
    Molybdenum forms a range of oxides with different stoichiometries and crystal structures, which lead to different properties and performance in diverse applications. Herein, crystalline molybdenum oxide thin films with controlled phase composition are deposited by atomic layer deposition. The MoO2(thd)2 and O3 as precursors enable well-controlled growth of uniform and conformal films at 200–275 °C. The as-deposited films are rough and, in most cases, consist of a mixture of α- and β-MoO3 as well as an unidentified suboxide MoOx (2.75 ≤ x ≤ 2.89) phase. The phase composition can be tuned by changing deposition conditions. The film stoichiometry is close to MoO3 and the films are relatively pure, the main impurity being hydrogen (2–7 at-%), with ≤1 at-% of carbon and nitrogen. Post-deposition annealing is studied in situ by high-temperature X-ray diffraction in air, O2, N2, and forming gas (10% H2/90% N2) atmospheres. Phase-pure films of MoO2 and α-MoO3 are obtained by annealing at 450 °C in forming gas and O2, respectively. The ability to tailor the phase composition of MoOx films deposited by scalable atomic layer deposition method represents an important step towards various applications of molybdenum oxides.
  • Garcia-Romero, Noemi; Gonzalez-Tejedo, Carmen; Carrion-Navarro, Josefa; Esteban-Rubio, Susana; Rackov, Gorjana; Rodriguez-Fanjul, Vanessa; Oliver-De La Cruz, Jorge; Prat-Acin, Ricardo; Peris-Celda, Maria; Blesa, David; Ramirez-Jimenez, Laura; Sanchez-Gomez, Pilar; Perona, Rosario; Escobedo-Lucea, Carmen; Belda-Iniesta, Cristobal; Ayuso-Sacido, Angel (2016)
    Human gliomas harbour cancer stem cells (CSCs) that evolve along the course of the disease, forming highly heterogeneous subpopulations within the tumour mass. These cells possess self-renewal properties and appear to contribute to tumour initiation, metastasis and resistance to therapy. CSC cultures isolated from surgical samples are considered the best preclinical in vitro model for primary human gliomas. However, it is not yet well characterized to which extent their biological and functional properties change during in vitro passaging in the serum-free culture conditions. Here, we demonstrate that our CSC-enriched cultures harboured from one to several CSC clones from the human glioma sample. When xenotransplanted into mouse brain, these cells generated tumours that reproduced at least three different dissemination patterns found in original tumours. Along the passages in culture, CSCs displayed increased expression of stem cell markers, different ratios of chromosomal instability events, and a varied response to drug treatment. Our findings highlight the need for better characterization of CSC-enriched cultures in the context of their evolution in vitro, in order to uncover their full potential as preclinical models in the studies aimed at identifying molecular biomarkers and developing new therapeutic approaches of human gliomas.
  • Sharygin, Victor V.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Zhitova, Liudmila M.; Belousov, Alexander B.; Abersteiner, Adam (2018)
    Cu-rich magnesioferrite was found in vesicular basaltic trachyandesite in one of lava tubes (Duplex) that formed during the 2012-2013 eruption of the Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka. This mineral is commonly associated with hematite, tenorite, halite, sylvite, and Ca-rich silicates (mainly, esseneite and Na-rich melilite) in high-temperature (800-1000 degrees C) reactionary zones (up to 100 mu m) covering vesicular rocks and lava stalactites in the Duplex tube. The mineral relationships of this assemblage indicate the following crystallization sequence: Ca-rich silicates + hematite -> Cu-rich magnesioferrite -> tenorite -> chlorides. This formed due to the reaction of hot gases containing Cu, alkalis, and Cl with solidified lava rock. The composition of magnesioferrite varies strongly in CuO (5.8-17.3 wt %; cuprospinel end-member-15-47 mol %), whereas the contents of other oxides are minor, indicating the main isomorphic substitution is Mg2+ Cu2+. Compositions with maximal CuO content nominally belong to Mg-rich cuprospinel: (Cu0.48Mg0.41Mn0.09Zn0.02Ca0.02) (Fe1.943+Al0.03Ti0.02)O-4. Increasing CuO content of the Duplex Cu-rich magnesioferrite is reflected in Raman spectra by moderate right shifting bands at approximate to 700-710 and 200-210 cm(-1) and the appearance of an additional band at 596 cm(-1). This supports the main isomorphic scheme and may indicate a degree of inversion in the spinel structure.
  • Saarinen, Harri Juhani; Sittiwet, Chaiyasit; Simonen, Piia; Nissinen, Markku J.; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Gylling, Helena; Palomäki, Ari (2018)
    We have earlier reported the reduction of total cholesterol low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and oxidized LDL caused by short-term modification of diet with cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil (CPTRO) instead of butter. The aim of this supplementary study was to determine whether the beneficial effects resulted from altered cholesterol metabolism during the intervention. Thirty-seven men with metabolic syndrome (MetS) completed an open, randomized and balanced crossover study. Subjects' usual diet was supplemented with either 37.5 g of butter or 35 mL of CPTRO for 6-8 weeks. Otherwise normal dietary habits and physical activity were maintained without major variations. Serum non-cholesterol sterols were assayed with gas-liquid chromatography and used as surrogate markers of whole-body cholesterol synthesis and absorption efficiency. Serum proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) concentration was analyzed with Quantikine ELISA Immunoassay. Serum cholesterol synthesis markers and serum cholestanol (absorption marker), all as ratios to cholesterol, did not differ between the periods. Serum campesterol and sitosterol ratios to cholesterol were significantly increased after the administration of CPTRO resulting from the increased intake of 217 mg/day of plant sterols in CPTRO. Serum PCSK9 concentration did not differ between CPTRO and butter periods. The reduction in serum cholesterol by 7.2% after consumption of rapeseed oil could not be explained by changes in cholesterol absorption, synthesis or PCSK9 metabolism in MetS.
  • Miettinen, Helena E.; Rönö, Kristiina; Koivusalo, Saila; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Pöyhönen-Alho, Maritta; Eriksson, Johan G.; Hiltunen, Timo P.; Gylling, Helena (2014)
  • Caballero-Folch, R.; Dillmann, I.; Agramunt, J.; Tain, J. L.; Algora, A.; Äystö, J.; Calvino, F.; Canete, L.; Cortes, G.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Eronen, T.; Ganioglu, E.; Gelletly, W.; Gorelov, D.; Guadilla, V.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S; Koponen, J.; Marta, M.; Mendoza, E.; Montaner-Piza, A.; Moore, I.; Nobs, C. R.; Orrigo, S. E. A.; Penttilä, H.; Pohjalainen, J.; Reinikainen, J.; Riego, A.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rubio, B.; Salvador-Castineira, P.; Simutkin, V.; Tarifeno-Saldivia, A.; Tolosa-Delgado, A.; Vos, A. (2018)
    Background: beta-delayed multiple neutron emission has been observed for some nuclei with A 100 to test the predictions of theoretical models and simulation tools for the decays of heavy nuclei in the region of very neutron-rich nuclei. In addition the decay properties of these nuclei are fundamental for the understanding of astrophysical nucleosynthesis processes such as the r-process and safety inputs for nuclear reactors. Purpose: To determine for the first time the two-neutron branching ratio the P-2n value for Sb-136 through a direct neutron measurement and to provide precise P-1n values for Sb-136 and Te-136. Method: A pure beam of each isotope of interest was provided by the JYFLTRAP Penning trap at the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) facility of the University of Jyvaskyla Finland. The purified ions were implanted into a moving tape at the end of the beam line. The detection setup consisted of a plastic scintillator placed right behind the implantation point after the tape to register the beta decays and the BELEN detector based on neutron counters embedded in a polyethylene matrix. The analysis was based on the study of the beta- and neutron-growth-and-decay curves and the beta-one-neutron and beta-two-neutron time correlations which allowed us the determination of the neutron branching ratios. Results: The P-2n value of Sb-136 was found to be 0.14(3)% and the measured P-1n values for Sb-136 and Te-136 were found to be 32.2(15)% and 1.47(6)% respectively. Conclusions: The measured P-2n value is a factor 44 smaller than predicted by the finite-range droplet model plus the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (FRDM+QRPA) model used for r-process calculations.
  • Luetjohann, Dieter; Björkhem, Ingemar; Friedrichs, Silvia; Kerksiek, Anja; Lovgren-Sandblom, Anita; Geilenkeuser, Wolf-Jochen; Ahrends, Robert; Andrade, Isabel; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasaran, Iciar; Baila-Rueda, Lucia; Barriuso, Bianca; Becker, Susen; Bretillon, Lionel; Browne, Richard W.; Caccia, Claudio; Ceglarek, Uta; Cenarro, Ana; Crick, Peter J.; Fauler, Günter; Garcia-Llatas, Guadalupe; Gray, Robert; Griffiths, William J.; Gylling, Helena; Harding, Scott; Helmschrodt, Christin; Iuliano, Luigi; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Jones, Peter; Kaipiainen, Leena; Kannenberg, Frank; Jesus Lagarda, Maria; Leoni, Valerio; Lottenberg, Ana Maria; MacKay, Dylan S.; Matysik, Silke; McDonald, Jeff; Menendez-Carreno, Maria; Myrie, Semone B.; Nunes, Valeria Sutti; Ostlund, Richard E.; Polisecki, Eliana; Ramos, Fernando; Rideout, Todd C.; Schaefer, Ernst J.; Schmitz, Gerd; Wang, Yuqin; Zerbinati, Chiara; Diczfalusy, Ulf; Schött, Hans-Frieder (2019)
    Serum concentrations of lathosterol, the plant sterols campesterol and sitosterol and the cholesterol metabolite 5 alpha-cholestanol are widely used as surrogate markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption, respectively. Increasing numbers of laboratories utilize a broad spectrum of well-established and recently developed methods for the determination of cholesterol and non-cholesterol sterols (NCS). In order to evaluate the quality of these measurements and to identify possible sources of analytical errors our group initiated the first international survey for cholesterol and NCS. The cholesterol and NCS survey was structured as a two-part survey which took place in the years 2013 and 2014. The first survey part was designed as descriptive, providing information about the variation of reported results from different laboratories. A set of two lyophilized pooled sera (A and B) was sent to twenty laboratories specialized in chromatographic lipid analysis. The different sterols were quantified either by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection, gas chromatography- or liquid chromatography-mass selective detection. The participants were requested to determine cholesterol and NCS concentrations in the provided samples as part of their normal laboratory routine. The second part was designed as interventional survey. Twenty-two laboratories agreed to participate and received again two different lyophilized pooled sera (C and D). In contrast to the first international survey, each participant received standard stock solutions with defined concentrations of cholesterol and NCS. The participants were requested to use diluted calibration solutions from the provided standard stock solutions for quantification of cholesterol and NCS. In both surveys, each laboratory used its own internal standard (5 alpha-cholestane, epicoprostanol or deuterium labelled sterols). Main outcome of the survey was, that unacceptably high interlaboratory variations for cholesterol and NCS concentrations are reported, even when the individual laboratories used the same calibration material. We discuss different sources of errors and recommend all laboratories analysing cholesterol and NCS to participate in regular quality control programs.
  • Liu, Ming; Namyslo, Jan C.; Nieger, Martin; Polamo, Mika; Schmidt, Andreas (2016)
    The mesomeric betaine imidazolium-1-ylphenolate forms a borane adduct with tris(pentafluorophenyl) borane by coordination with the phenolate oxygen, whereas its NHC tautomer 1-(2-phenol) imidazol-2-ylidene reacts with (triphenylphosphine) gold(I) chloride to give the cationic NHC complex [Au(NHC)(2)][Cl] by coordination with the carbene carbon atom. The anionic N-heterocyclic carbene 1-(2-phenolate) imidazol-2-ylidene gives the complexes [K][Au(NHC-)(2)], [Rh(NHC-)(3)] and [Ni(NHC-)(2)], respectively. Results of four single crystal analyses are presented.
  • Nissinen, Markku J.; Pitkänen, Niina; Simonen, Piia; Gylling, Helena; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli; Lehtimäki, Terho; Juonala, Markus; Pakarinen, Mikko P. (2018)
    Background & aims: Gallstone disease is related to hypersecretion of cholesterol in bile, and low serum phytosterol levels. We examined how genetic polymorphisms of sterol transporters affect childhood cholesterol metabolism trait predicting adult gallstone disease. Patients and methods: In retrospective controlled study, we determined D19H polymorphism of ABCG8 gene, genetic variation at Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) gene locus (rs41279633, rs17655652, rs2072183, rs217434 and rs2073548), and serum cholesterol, noncholesterol sterols and lipids in children affected by gallstones decades later (n = 66) and controls (n = 126). Results: In childhood, phytosterols were lower (9.7%-23.4%) in carriers of risk allele 19H compared to 19D homozygotes. Lowest campesterol/cholesterol tertile consisted of 1.9-times more future gallstone subjects, and 3.7-times more 19H carriers than highest one. Campesterol/cholesterol-ratio was highest in 19D homozygote controls, but similar to 11% lower in gallstone 19D homozygotes and similar to 25% lower among gallstone and control carriers of 19H. Gallstone subjects with alleles CC of rs41279633 and TT of rs217434 of NPC1L1 had similar to 18% lower campesterol/cholesterol-ratio compared to mutation carriers. Conclusions: Risk trait of cholesterol metabolism (low phytosterols) in childhood favouring cholesterol gallstone disease later in adulthood is influenced by risk variant 19H of ABCG8 and obviously also other factors. NPC1L1 variants have minor influence on noncholesterol sterols. (c) 2018 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Mattinen, Miika; Hatanpaa, Timo; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Raisanen, Jyrki; Leskela, Markku; Ritala, Mikko (2021)
    Co9S8 is an interesting sulfide material with metallic conductivity that has shown promise for various energy applications. Herein, we report a new atomic layer deposition process producing crystalline, pure, and highly conductive Co9S8 thin films using CoCl2(TMEDA) (TMEDA = N,N,N ',N '-tetramethylethylenediamine) and H2S as precursors at 180-300 degrees C. The lowest resistivity of 80 mu omega cm, best uniformity, and highest growth rate are achieved at 275 degrees C. Area-selective deposition is enabled by inherent substrate-dependency of film nucleation. We show that a continuous and conductive Co9S8 film can be prepared on oxide-covered silicon without any growth on Si-H. Besides silicon, Co9S8 films can be grown on a variety of substrates. The first example of an epitaxial Co9S8 film is shown using a GaN substrate. The Co9S8 films are stable up to 750 degrees C in N-2, 400 degrees C in forming gas, and 225 degrees C in O-2 atmosphere. The reported ALD process offers a scalable and cost-effective route to high-quality Co9S8 films, which are of interest for applications ranging from electrocatalysis and rechargeable batteries to metal barrier and liner layers in microelectronics and beyond.
  • Soam, Archana; Liu, Tie; Andersson, B-G; Lee, Chang Won; Liu, Junhao; Juvela, Mika; Li, Pak Shing; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Zhang, Qizhou; Koch, Patrick M.; Kim, Kee-Tae; Qiu, Keping; Evans, Neal J.; Johnstone, Doug; Thompson, Mark; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Di Francesco, James; Tang, Ya-Wen; Montillaud, Julien; Kim, Gwanjeong; Mairs, Steve; Sanhueza, Patricio; Kim, Shinyoung; Berry, David; Gordon, Michael S.; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Pattle, Kate; Eden, David; McGehee, Peregrine M.; Wang, Ke; Ristorcelli, I.; Graves, Sarah F.; Alina, Dana; Lacaille, Kevin M.; Montier, Ludovic; Park, Geumsook; Kwon, Woojin; Chung, Eun Jung; Pelkonen, Veli-Matti; Micelotta, Elisabetta R.; Saajasto, Mika; Fuller, Gary (2019)
    We present the B-fields mapped in IRDC G34.43+0.24 using 850 mu m polarized dust emission observed with the POL-2 instrument at the James Clerk Maxwell telescope. We examine the magnetic field geometries and strengths in the northern, central, and southern regions of the filament. The overall field geometry is ordered and aligned closely perpendicular to the filament's main axis, particularly in regions containing the central clumps MM1 and MM2, whereas MM3 in the north has field orientations aligned with its major axis. The overall field orientations are uniform at large (POL-2 at 14 '' and SHARP at 10 '') to small scales (TADPOL at 2 ''.5 and SMA at 1 ''.5) in the MM1 and MM2 regions. SHARP/CSO observations in MM3 at 350 mu m from Tang et al. show a similar trend as seen in our POL-2 observations. TADPOL observations demonstrate a well-defined field geometry in MM1/MM2 consistent with MHD simulations of accreting filaments. We obtained a plane-of-sky magnetic field strength of 470 +/- 190 mu G, 100 +/- 40 mu G, and 60 +/- 34 mu G in the central, northern, and southern regions of G34, respectively, using the updated Davis-Chandrasekhar-Fermi relation. The estimated value of field strength, combined with column density and velocity dispersion values available in the literature, suggests G34 to be marginally critical with criticality parameter lambda values 0.8 +/- 0.4, 1.1 +/- 0.8, and 0.9 +/- 0.5 in the central, northern, and southern regions, respectively. The turbulent motions in G34 are sub-AlfvEnic with Alfvenic Mach numbers of 0.34 +/- 0.13, 0.53 +/- 0.30, and 0.49 +/- 0.26 in the three regions. The observed aligned B-fields in G34.43+0.24 are consistent with theoretical models suggesting that B-fields play an important role in guiding the contraction of the cloud driven by gravity.
  • Keskivali, Laura; Putkonen, Matti; Puhakka, Eini; Kenttä, Eija; Kint, Jeroen; Ramachandra, Ranjith K.; Detavernier, Christophe; Simell, Pekka (2018)
    Novel coating materials are constantly needed for current and future applications in the area of microelectronics, biocompatible materials, and energy-related devices. Molecular layer deposition (MLD) is answering this cry and is an increasingly important coating method for organic and hybrid organic-inorganic thin films. In this study, we have focused on hybrid inorganic-organic coatings, based on trimethylaluminum, monofunctional aromatic precursors, and ring-opening reactions with ozone. We present the MLD processes, where the films are produced with trimethylaluminum, one of the three aromatic precursors (phenol, 3-(trifluoromethyl) phenol, and 2-fluoro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzaldehyde), ozone, and the fourth precursor, hydrogen peroxide. According to the in situ Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements, the hydrogen peroxide reacts with the surface carboxylic acid group, forming a peroxyacid structure (C(O)-O-OH), in the case of all three processes. In addition, molecular modeling for the processes with three different aromatic precursors was carried out. When combining these modeling results with the experimental research data, new interesting aspects of the film growth, reactions, and properties are exploited.
  • Gylling, Helena; Korhonen, Matilda; Mutanen, Annika; Nissinen, Markku J.; Pakarinen, Mikko; Simonen, Piia (2018)
    Background and aims: The profile of cholesterol metabolism, i.e., high absorption vs. high synthesis, may have a role in the development of atherosclerosis, the early lesions of which can be present already in childhood. Since there is no information on cholesterol metabolism in children from birth to adolescence, we evaluated cholesterol metabolism in 0-15 year-old children and adolescents without dyslipidemia. Methods: The study population consisted of 96 children (39 girls, 57 boys) divided into age groups Results: Serum non-cholesterol sterol ratios to cholesterol did not differ between gender. Cholesterol precursors squalene, cholestenol, and desmosterol were higher in the Conclusions: Serum non-cholesterol sterols had different individual profiles by age in childhood and adolescence. From 1 to 10 years of age, cholesterol absorption prevailed cholesterol synthesis. This novel finding emphasizes the importance of dietary aspects related to cardiovascular risk even from early childhood.
  • Elm, Jonas; Hyttinen, Noora; Lin, Jack J.; Kurten, Theo; Prisle, Nonne L. (2019)
    The physical properties of small straight-chain dicarboxylic acids are well known to exhibit even/odd alternations with respect to the carbon chain length. For example, odd numbered diacids have lower melting points and higher saturation vapor pressures than adjacent even numbered diacids. This alternation has previously been explained in terms of solid-state properties, such as higher torsional strain of odd number diacids. Using quantum chemical methods, we demonstrate an additional contribution to this alternation in properties resulting from gas-phase dimer formation. Due to a combination of hydrogen bond strength and torsional strain, dimer formation in the gas phase occurs efficiently for glutaric acid (CS) and pimelic acid (C7) but is unfavorable for succinic acid (C4) and adipic acid (C6). Our results indicate that a significant fraction of the total atmospheric gas-phase concentration of glutaric and pimelic acid may consist of dimers.
  • Freese, Tyll; Namyslo, Jan C.; Nieger, Martin; Schmidt, Andreas (2019)
    The sydnone imines (5-benzoylimino)-3-(2-methoxyphenyl)-sydnone imine and molsidomine were deprotonated at C4 to give sydnone imine anions which can be represented as anionic N-heterocyclic carbenes, respectively. Trapping reactions with sulfur gave unstable sydnone imine sulfides which were stabilized by the formation of methyl thioethers, methyl sulfoxides, gold complexes [(PPh3) Au-S-sydnone imine] and a bis(ligand) mercury(II) complex. The latter possesses a tetrahedral coordination of the mercury central atom to the sulfur atoms with the N6 nitrogen atoms coordinating as neutral ligands. Water converted the molsidomine anion into ethyl(2-morpholino-2-thioxoacetyl) carbamate. Mercury(II) chloride and triphenylborane were employed to trap the sydnone imine carbenes as mercury complexes as well as BPh3 adducts.
  • Zhang, Jiaxi; Pidlypnyi, Nazar; Nieger, Martin; Namyslo, Jan C.; Schmidt, Andreas (2014)