Browsing by Subject "PREDICT"

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  • Douglass Jr., Eugene F.; Allaway, Robert J.; Szalai, Bence; Wang, Wenyu; Tian, Tingzhong; Fernández-Torras, Adrià; Realubit, Ron; Karan, Charles; Zheng, Shuyu; Pessia, Alberto; Tanoli, Ziaurrehman; Jafari, Mohieddin; Wan, Fangping; Li, Shuya; Xiong, Yuanpeng; Duran-Frigola, Miquel; Bertoni, Martino; Badia-i-Mompel, Pau; Mateo, Lídia; Guitart-Pla, Oriol; Chung, Verena; Tang, Jing; Zeng, Jianyang; Aloy, Patrick; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Guinney, Justin; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Califano, Andrea (2022)
    The Columbia Cancer Target Discovery and Development (CTD2) Center is developing PANACEA, a resource comprising dose-responses and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) profiles of 25 cell lines perturbed with similar to 400 clinical oncology drugs, to study a tumor-specific drug mechanism of action. Here, this resource serves as the basis for a DREAM Challenge assessing the accuracy and sensitivity of computational algorithms for de novo drug polypharmacology predictions. Dose-response and perturbational profiles for 32 kinase inhibitors are provided to 21 teams who are blind to the identity of the compounds. The teams are asked to predict high-affinity binding targets of each compound among similar to 1,300 targets cataloged in DrugBank. The best performing methods leverage gene expression profile similarity analysis as well as deep-learning methodologies trained on individual datasets. This study lays the foundation for future integrative analyses of pharmacogenomic data, reconciliation of polypharmacology effects in different tumor contexts, and insights into network-based assessments of drug mechanisms of action.
  • Haq, Ehsan ul; Braud, Tristan; Kwon, Young D.; Hui, Pan (2020)
    Computational Politics is the study of computational methods to analyze and moderate users' behaviors related to political activities such as election campaign persuasion, political affiliation, and opinion mining. With the rapid development and ease of access to the Internet, Information Communication Technologies (ICT) have given rise to massive numbers of users joining online communities and the digitization of political practices such as debates. These communities and digitized data contain both explicit and latent information about users and their behaviors related to politics and social movements. For researchers, it is essential to utilize data from these sources to develop and design systems that not only provide solutions to computational politics but also help other businesses, such as marketers, to increase users' participation and interactions. In this survey, we attempt to categorize main areas in computational politics and summarize the prominent studies in one place to better understand computational politics across different and multidimensional platforms. e.g., online social networks, online forums, and political debates. We then conclude this study by highlighting future research directions, opportunities, and challenges.
  • Limonte, Christine P.; Valo, Erkka; Montemayor, Daniel; Afshinnia, Farsad; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Costacou, Tina; Darshi, Manjula; Forsblom, Carol; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Groop, Per-Henrik; Miller, Rachel G.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Rossing, Peter; Sandholm, Niina; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Ye, Hongping; Zhang, Jing; Natarajan, Loki; de Boer, Ian H.; Sharma, Kumar (2020)
    Background: Individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) demonstrate varied trajectories of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline. The molecular pathways underlying rapid eGFR decline in T1D are poorly understood, and individual-level risk of rapid eGFR decline is difficult to predict. Methods: We designed a case-control study with multiple exposure measurements nested within 4 well-characterized T1D cohorts (FinnDiane, Steno, EDC, and CACTI) to identify biomarkers associated with rapid eGFR decline. Here, we report the rationale for and design of these studies as well as results of models testing associations of clinical characteristics with rapid eGFR decline in the study population, upon which "omics" studies will be built. Cases (n = 535) and controls (n = 895) were defined as having an annual eGFR decline of >= 3 and
  • Annanmaki, Tua; Palmu, Kirsi; Murros, Kari; Partanen, Juhani (2017)
    The diagnosis of cognitive impairment and dementia often occurring with Parkinson's disease (PD) is still based on the clinical picture and neuropsychological examination. Ancillary methods to detect cognitive decline in these patients are, therefore, needed. Alterations in the latencies and amplitudes of evoked response potential (ERP) components N100 and P200 have been described in PD. Due to limited number of studies their relation to cognitive deficits in PD remains obscure. The present study was designed to examine if alterations in the N100- and P200-potentials associate with neuropsychological impairment in PD. EEG-ERP was conducted to 18 PD patients and 24 healthy controls. The patients underwent a thorough neuropsychological evaluation. The controls were screened for cognitive impairment with Consortium to Establish Alzheimer's disease (CERAD)-testing and a normal result were required to be included in the study. The N100-latency was prolonged in the patients compared to the controls (p = 0.05). In the patients, the N100 latency correlated significantly with a visual working memory task (p = 0.01). Also N100 latency was prolonged and N100 amplitude habituation diminished in the patients achieving poorly in this task. We conclude that prolonged N100-latency and diminished amplitude habituation associate with visual working memory impairment in PD.
  • Nislin, Mari; Pesonen, Henri (2019)
    In this article, we sought to determine the extent to which pre-service and in-service teachers' self-perceived competence is associated with sense of belonging and well-being during special education teacher studies, as well as determine whether there are differences among these factors between pre-service and in-service teachers. These are areas in which there is currently a shortage of research. Our data were collected using a survey with close-ended questions. The respondents consisted of 58 in-service and 29 pre-service teachers, aged 21-56 years. Data were analysed utilising quantitative methods. The findings revealed that the respondents demonstrated generally high levels of engagement and low to moderate levels of burnout. The results further indicated that the respondents reported themselves to be most competent when dealing with children of drug-related family abuse and less competent in working with children with severe disabilities. Although well-being and self-perceived competence were associated, we could not find any association between these factors and the sense of belonging. Given the theoretical and empirical evidence, a deeper understanding of the factors relating to teachers' ability to encounter diverse needs is unquestionably needed. The key findings are discussed in detail, and practical implications for teacher education are given.
  • Tang, Xin; Wang, Ming-Te; Guo, Jiesi; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2019)
    Despite academics' enthusiasm about the concept of grit (defined as consistency of interest and perseverance of effort), its benefit for academic achievement has recently been challenged. Drawing from a longitudinal sample (N=2018; 55.3% female; sixth-nineth grades) from Finland, this study first aimed to investigate and replicate the association between grit and achievement outcomes (i.e., academic achievement and engagement). Further, the present study examined whether growth mindset and goal commitment impacted grit and whether grit acted as a mediator between growth mindset, goal commitment, and achievement outcomes. The results showed that the perseverance facet of grit in the eighth grade was associated with school achievement and engagement in the nineth grade, after controlling for students' conscientiousness, academic persistence, prior achievement and engagement, gender and SES, although the effect on engagement was stronger than on achievement. In addition, grit was predicted by goal commitment in the sixth grade, but not by the growth mindset in the sixth grade. Finally, the perseverance of effort (not the consistency of interest) mediated the effect of goal commitment on engagement. These findings suggest that grit is associated with increased engagement and academic achievement; and practitioners who wish to improve grit of adolescents may encourage goal commitment more than growth mindset.
  • Stolt, Suvi; Lind, Annika; Matomäki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa (2016)
  • Taskinen, Seppo; Leskinen, Outi; Lohi, Jouko; Koskenvuo, Minna; Taskinen, Mervi (2019)
    Purpose: To evaluate the association between Wilms tumor histology at diagnosis and the change in Wilms' tumor volume during preoperative chemotherapy. Methods: We included all the 52 patients operated for Wilms tumor at 1988-2015, who had both pathology samples and either CT or MRI-images before and after preoperative chemotherapy, available for reevaluation. Results: The median tumor volume was 586 ml (IQR 323-903) at diagnosis. The median change in tumor volume was -68% (IQR -85 to -40, p <0.001) and the proportion of tumor necrosis 85% (IQR 24-97), after preoperative chemotherapy. There was a correlation between blastemal cell content in prechemotherapy cutting needle biopsy (CNB) sample and the reduction in tumor volume (Rho = -0.452, p = 0.002). High stromal and epithelial cell contents in CNB samples were associated with the lesser change in tumor volume (Rho = 0.279, p = 0.053 and Rho = 0.300, p = 0.038 respectively). Reduction of tumor volume and the proportion of tumor necrosis after chemotherapy were associated (Rho = -0.502, p <0.001). The actual viable tumor volume decreased in median by 97% (IQR 65-100), and the decrease could be seen in all cellular components. In three patients, the tumor volume increased more than 10% during the preoperative chemotherapy. Two of them had anaplastic tumor in the nephrectomy specimen. Conclusion: Wilms tumor total and viable tumor volumes were reduced by 68% and 97% with preoperative chemotherapy, respectively. High proportion of blastemal cells in CNB was associated with greatest decrease in Wilms tumor volume. Increase in tumor volume during preoperative chemotherapy may indicate anaplastic tumor and prolonging of preoperative therapy should be avoided. Type of study: Retrospective review. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Salminen, Liina; Gidwani, Kamlesh; Grenman, Seija; Carpen, Olli; Hietanen, Sakari; Pettersson, Kim; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Hynninen, Johanna (2020)
    Objective Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a validated, complementary biomarker to cancer antigen 125 (CA125) for high grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC). Currently, there are insufficient data on the utility of longitudinal HE4 measurement during HGSC treatment and follow up. We set to provide a comprehensive analysis on the kinetics and prognostic performance of HE4 with serial measurements during HGSC treatment and follow up. Methods This prospective study included 143 patients with advanced HGSC ( identifier: NCT01276574). Serum CA125 and HE4 were measured at baseline, before each cycle of chemotherapy and during follow up until first progression. Baseline biomarker values were compared to the tumor load assessed during surgery and to residual disease. Biomarker nadir values and concentrations at progression were correlated to survival. Results The baseline HE4 concentration distinguished patients with a high tumor load from patients with a low tumor load assessed during surgery (p
  • Tiira, Katriina; Tikkanen, Antti; Vainio, Outi (2020)
    Working dogs are used for a range of important operational tasks. Identifying potentially successful working dogs as early as possible is important as rejection rates are high and training is costly. Earlier research has mainly concentrated on personality traits such as boldness, and there is only little knowledge on the possible association between cognitive traits and the actual working dog performance. This study investigated whether motor inhibition, persistence, problem-solving strategies, and spatial problem-solving are associated with explosive detection success in specially trained police dogs. Dogs (N = 24) were tested with a cognitive test battery, and subsequently they participated in an explosive detection test. The explosive searching situation and the location of the test was such that it would reflect as much as possible a real-life situation. Canine handlers also filled in a questionnaire regarding their dog's working behaviour. We found that those dogs that were more successful in explosive detection task had better motor inhibition in a cylinder task compared to dogs with lower success in an explosive search task. Furthermore, we found that dogs that made more errors in the cylinder task were generally more likely to give up searching sooner, as reported by their handlers, and also abandon sooner the problem-solving task in behavioural test. This study suggests that inhibitory control, specifically motor inhibition, may be an important aspect to consider when selecting suitable dogs for explosive detection tasks. Cylinder task is an easy and quick way to assess inhibitory control, although a larger dataset is needed to verify its association with working performance.
  • Gronvall, Maiju; Stefanovic, Vedran; Paavonen, Jorma; Loukovaara, Mikko; Tikkanen, Minna (2019)
    Introduction: Placenta previa is a severe pregnancy complication with considerable maternal and neonatal morbidity. Placenta previa can be defined as major or minor by location. Major placenta previa is associated with higher complication rates. Management of women with minor placenta previa has not been well defined. The primary goal of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of our existing screening protocol for placenta previa. Secondly, we wanted to compare pregnancy and delivery outcomes by the type of placenta previa. Methods: The study was conducted at the Helsinki University Hospital between June 2010 and September 2014. The study population consisted of all women with the antenatal ultrasound diagnosis of placenta previa during delivery. Data were retrospectively collected and analysed. Results: Altogether 176 women had placenta previa at delivery (major 129, minor 47). Placenta previa remained undiagnosed at second trimester screening ultrasound in 32 women (18.2%). Twenty (62.5%) of these cases had minor placenta previa and 12 (37.5%) had major placenta previa. Five (15.6%) of the undiagnosed cases developed life-threatening hemorrhage (>= 2500 ml) during the delivery and two had abnormally invasive placenta followed by hysterectomy. Women with major placenta previa had significantly more blood loss and delivered earlier than women with minor placenta previa. The groups were otherwise similar, including the rate of abnormally invasive placenta. Discussion: The existing protocol for placenta previa missed almost one fifth of cases. Both major and minor placenta previa are risk factors for abnormally invasive placenta and should be treated as severe conditions.
  • Olive, Montse; Engvall, Martin; Ravenscroft, Gianina; Cabrera-Serrano, Macarena; Jiao, Hong; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; Pignataro, Marcello; Lambrughi, Matteo; Jiang, Haibo; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Benseny-Cases, Nuria; Hofbauer, Stefan; Obinger, Christian; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bellei, Marzia; Borsari, Marco; Di Rocco, Giulia; Viola, Helena M.; Hoo, Livia C.; Cladera, Josep; Lagerstedt-Robinson, Kristina; Xiang, Fengqing; Wredenberg, Anna; Miralles, Francesc; Jose Baiges, Juan; Malfatti, Edoardo; Romero, Norma B.; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Via, Christophe; Claeys, Kristl G.; Straathof, Chiara S. M.; Goris, An; Freyer, Christoph; Lammens, Martin; Bassez, Guillaume; Kere, Juha; Clemente, Paula; Sejersen, Thomas; Udd, Bjarne; Vidal, Noemi; Ferrer, Isidre; Edstrom, Lars; Wedell, Anna; Laing, Nigel G. (2019)
    Myoglobin, encoded by MB, is a small cytoplasmic globular hemoprotein highly expressed in cardiac myocytes and oxidative skeletal myofibers. Myoglobin binds O-2, facilitates its intracellular transport and serves as a controller of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species. Here, we identify a recurrent c.292C>T ( p.His98Tyr) substitution in MB in fourteen members of six European families suffering from an autosomal dominant progressive myopathy with highly characteristic sarcoplasmic inclusions in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Myoglobinopathy manifests in adulthood with proximal and axial weakness that progresses to involve distal muscles and causes respiratory and cardiac failure. Biochemical characterization reveals that the mutant myoglobin has altered O-2 binding, exhibits a faster heme dissociation rate and has a lower reduction potential compared to wild-type myoglobin. Preliminary studies show that mutant myoglobin may result in elevated superoxide levels at the cellular level. These data define a recognizable muscle disease associated with MB mutation.
  • Inkinen, Nina; Selander, Tuomas; Pettila, Ville; Valkonen, Miia; Bäcklund, Minna; Wennervirta, Johanna; Pulkkinen, Anni; Hästbacka, Johanna; Vaara, Suvi T. (2020)
    Background Oliguria is a frequent trigger for administering a fluid bolus, but the effect of fluid bolus in improving urine output is inadequately demonstrated. Here, we summarize the protocol and detailed statistical analysis plan of the randomized, controlled RESPONSE trial comparing follow-up as the experimental group and a 500 mL crystalloid fluid bolus as the control group for oliguria in critically ill oliguric patients. Methods Our trial is an investigator-initiated, randomized, controlled, pilot trial conducted in three ICUs in two centers. We aim to randomize 1:1 altogether 130 hemodynamically stable oliguric patients either to a 2-hour follow-up without interventions or to receive a crystalloid bolus of 500 mL over 30 minutes. The primary outcome is the change in individual urine output during the 2-hour period compared to 2 hours preceding randomization. Doubling of the urine output is considered clinically significant. Additionally, we record the duration of oliguria, physiological and biochemical variables, adverse events, and the incidences of acute kidney injury and renal replacement therapy. Conclusions Oliguria is a frequent trigger for potentially harmful fluid loading. Therefore, the RESPONSE trial will give information of the potential effect of fluid bolus on oliguria in critically ill patients. Trial registration, NCT02860572.
  • Pang, Sean E. H.; Zeng, Yiwen; De Alban, Jose Don T.; Webb, Edward L. (2022)
    Aims Human-induced pressures such as deforestation cause anthropogenic range contractions (ARCs). Such contractions present dynamic distributions that may engender data misrepresentations within species distribution models. The temporal bias of occurrence data-where occurrences represent distributions before (past bias) or after (recent bias) ARCs-underpins these data misrepresentations. Occurrence-habitat mismatching results when occurrences sampled before contractions are modelled with contemporary anthropogenic variables; niche truncation results when occurrences sampled after contractions are modelled without anthropogenic variables. Our understanding of their independent and interactive effects on model performance remains incomplete but is vital for developing good modelling protocols. Through a virtual ecologist approach, we demonstrate how these data misrepresentations manifest and investigate their effects on model performance. Location Virtual Southeast Asia. Methods Using 100 virtual species, we simulated ARCs with 100-year land-use data and generated temporally biased (past and recent) occurrence datasets. We modelled datasets with and without a contemporary land-use variable (conventional modelling protocols) and with a temporally dynamic land-use variable. We evaluated each model's ability to predict historical and contemporary distributions. Results Greater ARC resulted in greater occurrence-habitat mismatching for datasets with past bias and greater niche truncation for datasets with recent bias. Occurrence-habitat mismatching prevented models with the contemporary land-use variable from predicting anthropogenic-related absences, causing overpredictions of contemporary distributions. Although niche truncation caused underpredictions of historical distributions (environmentally suitable habitats), incorporating the contemporary land-use variable resolved these underpredictions, even when mismatching occurred. Models with the temporally dynamic land-use variable consistently outperformed models without. Main conclusions We showed how these data misrepresentations can degrade model performance, undermining their use for empirical research and conservation science. Given the ubiquity of ARCs, these data misrepresentations are likely inherent to most datasets. Therefore, we present a three-step strategy for handling data misrepresentations: maximize the temporal range of anthropogenic predictors, exclude mismatched occurrences and test for residual data misrepresentations.
  • Peltonen, Kati; Vartiainen, Matti; Koskinen, Sanna; Pertab, Jon; Laitala, Tiina; Hokkanen, Laura (2021)
    Objective In sports concussion research, the importance of an individualized approach incorporating neuropsychological assessment data has been emphasized. This study examined the impact of acute signs of concussion on post-injury cognitive functioning using reliable change methodology in a sample of Finnish, elite-level, youth ice hockey players. Methods From a sample of 1,823 players (all male, 14-20 years old) who completed preseason baseline testing with the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT (R)) battery, two subgroups were identified. First, in total, 312 uninjured athletes, who completed baseline testing twice-1 year apart. The scores were contrasted to calculate reliable change indices (RCIs). Second, from a subsample of 570 athletes participating in an intensive follow-up arm of the project, the analysis included 32 concussed athletes. The RCIs were determined for the five ImPACT composite scores and used in identifying athletes with declined performance 3 days post-injury. Results Test-retest reliability ranged from .39 to .71. Athletes who had experienced an acute loss of consciousness, amnesia, or postural instability had increased odds for declines in two or more areas assessed by ImPACT (odds ratio = 7.67-8.00, p < .05). In contrast, acute disorientation or vacant look did not lead to cognitive change that met the reliable change threshold. Conclusions The reliability coefficients and RCIs differed from those published earlier emphasizing the importance of national reference values. The presence of acute loss of consciousness, amnesia, or postural instability may indicate a more severe injury and predict the need for more intensive cognitive follow-up.
  • Korpipää, Heidi; Niemi, Pekka; Aunola, Kaisa; Koponen, Tuire; Hannula-Sormunen, Minna; Stolt, Suvi; Aro, Mikko; Nurmi, Jan-Erik; Rautava, Päivi; the PIPARI Study Group (2019)
    It is well-known that very preterm children perform at lower levels than full-term children in reading and arithmetic at school. Whether the lower performance levels of preterm children in these two separate domains have the same or different origins, however, is not clear. The present study examined the extent to which prematurity is associated with the overlap (i.e., common variance) of reading and arithmetic among Finnish school beginners. We also examined the extent to which the association of prematurity with the overlap between reading and arithmetic is due to different prereading skills, basic number skills, and general cognitive abilities. The participants (age 6-7) consisted of 193 very preterm children ( <32 weeks of gestation or birth weight <1501 g) and 175 full-term control children assessed at the beginning of Grade 1. The results showed that about 40% of the variation in reading and arithmetic skills was common to these two domains and thus, represented the overlap between reading and arithmetic. Prematurity was found to be negatively associated with the overlapping part of reading and arithmetic skills. This association was explained particularly by differences between very preterm and full-term children in prereading (letter knowledge, phonological awareness, and rapid automatized naming) and basic number skills (counting sequence knowledge): Very preterm children showed lower levels of phonological awareness, letter knowledge, counting, and rapid serial naming than full-term children and thus, also demonstrated lower skill level common for reading and arithmetic. Early screening of very preterm children according to the cognitive antecedents that predict the overlap between reading and arithmetic is needed to prevent comorbid difficulties in these domains.
  • FinnProstate Grp; Hackman, Greetta; Taari, Kimmo; Tammela, Teuvo L.; Matikainen, Mika; Kouri, Mauri; Joensuu, Timo; Luukkaala, Tiina; Salonen, Arto; Isotalo, Taina; Petas, Anssi; Hendolin, Niilo; Boström, Peter J.; Aaltomaa, Sirpa; Lehtoranta, Kari; Hellström, Pekka; Riikonen, Jarno; Korpela, Merja; Minn, Heikki; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Pukkala, Eero; Hemminki, Akseli (2019)
    Background: It remains unclear whether patients with positive surgical margins or extracapsular extension benefit from adjuvant radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy. Objective: To compare the effectiveness and tolerability of adjuvant radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy. Design, setting, and participants: This was a randomised, open-label, parallel-group trial. A total of 250 patients were enrolled between April 2004 and October 2012 in eight Finnish hospitals, with pT2 with positive margins or pT3a, pN0, M0 cancer without seminal vesicle invasion. Intervention: A total of 126 patients received adjuvant radiotherapy at 66.6 Gy. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The primary endpoint was biochemical recurrence-free survival, which we analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard regression. Overall survival, cancer-specific survival, local recurrence, and adverse events were secondary endpoints. Results and limitations: The median follow-up time for patients who were alive when the follow-up ended was 9.3 yr in the adjuvant group and 8.6 yr in the observation group. The 10-yr survival for biochemical recurrence was 82% in the adjuvant group and 61% in the observation group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.26 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.14-0.48], p <0.001), and for overall survival 92% and 87%, respectively (HR 0.69 [95% CI 0.29-1.60], p = 0.4). Two and four metastatic cancers occurred, respectively. Out of the 43 patients with biochemical recurrence in the observation group, 37 patients received salvage radiotherapy. In the adjuvant group, 56% experienced grade 3 adverse events, versus 40% in the observation group (p = 0.016). Only one grade 4 adverse event occurred (adjuvant group). A limitation of this study was the number of patients. Conclusions: Adjuvant radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy is generally well tolerated and prolongs biochemical recurrence-free survival compared with radical prostatectomy alone in patients with positive margins or extracapsular extension. Patient summary: Radiotherapy given immediately after prostate cancer surgery prolongs prostate-specific antigen progression-free survival, but causes more adverse events, when compared with surgery alone. (C) 2019 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Cowley, Benjamin Ultan; Juurmaa, Kristiina; Palomaki, Jussi (2022)
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is understudied, especially regarding neural mechanisms such as oscillatory control of attention sampling. We report an electroencephalography (EEG) study of such cortical mechanisms, in ADHD-diagnosed adults during administration of Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA), a gold-standard continuous performance test for ADHD that measures the ability to sustain attention and inhibit impulsivity. We recorded 53 adults (28 female, 25 male, aged 18-60), and 18 matched healthy controls, using 128-channel EEG. We analyzed sensor-space features established as neural correlates of attention: timing-sensitivity and phase-synchrony of response activations, and event-related (de)synchronization (ERS/D) of alpha and theta frequency band activity; in frontal and parietal scalp regions. TOVA test performance significantly distinguished ADHD adults from neurotypical controls, in commission errors, response time variability (RTV) and d' (response sensitivity). The ADHD group showed significantly weaker target-locked and responselocked amplitudes, that were strongly right-lateralized at the N2 wave, and weaker phase synchrony (longer reset poststimulus). They also manifested significantly less parietal prestimulus 8-Hz theta ERS, less frontal and parietal poststimulus 4-Hz theta ERS, and more frontal and parietal prestimulus alpha ERS during correct trials. These differences may reflect excessive modulation of endogenous activity by strong entrainment to stimulus (alpha), combined with deficient modulation by neural entrainment to task (theta), which in TOVA involves monitoring stimulus spatial location (not predicted occurrence onset which is regular and task-irrelevant). Building on the hypotheses of theta coding for relational structure and rhythmic attention sampling, our results suggest that ADHD adults have impaired attention sampling in relational categorization tasks.
  • Saarinen, Aino; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Dobewall, Henrik; Ahola-Olli, Ari; Salmi, Marko; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Hintsanen, Mirka (2021)
    Background: Previously, compassion has been found to protect against depressive symptoms, while emotional adversities in childhood are suggested to increase inflammatory responses. The current study investigated (a) whether emotional family environment in childhood predicts levels of such cytokines in adulthood that are previously found to be elevated in depression (interleukin [IL]-2, IL-6, IL-1b, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-gamma [IFN-gamma], and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha]) and (b) whether these associations are modified by compassion in adulthood. Methods: The participants (N = 1,198-1,523) came from the prospective population-based Young Finns data. Emotional family environment and parental socioeconomic factors were evaluated in 1980; participants' compassion in 2001; and participants' cytokine levels and adulthood covariates in 2007. Results: Risky emotional family environment in childhood predicted higher levels of IL-2, IL-6, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha in adulthood. Additionally, there were significant interaction effects between compassion and emotional risk in childhood, when predicting IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-alpha. Specifically, individuals who grew up in a risky emotional family environment had on average higher levels of IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-alpha in adulthood when combined with low compassion. Conclusions: In individuals coming from risky emotional family environments, high compassion for others may protect against elevated levels of cytokines previously linked with depression.
  • Abu-Ghanem, Y; Powles, T; Capitanio, U; Beisland, C; Jarvinen, P; Stewart, GD; Gudmundsson, EO; Lam, TB; Marconi, L; Fernandez-Pello, S; Nisen, H; Meijer, RP; Volpe, A; Ljungberg, B; Klatte, T; Dabestani, S; Bex, A (2021)
    Background: Current follow-up strategies for patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after curative surgery rely mainly on risk models and the treatment delivered, regardless of the histological subtype. Objective: To determine the impact of RCC histological subtype on recurrence and to examine the incidence, pattern, and timing of recurrences to improve follow-up recommendations. Design, setting, and participants: This study included consecutive patients treated surgically with curative intention (ie, radical and partial nephrectomy) for non-metastatic RCC (cT1-4, M0) between January 2006 and December 2011 across 15 centres from 10 countries, as part of the euRopEan association of urology renal cell carcinoma guidelines panel Collaborative multicenter consortium for the studies of follow-Up and recurrence patterns in Radically treated renal cell carcinoma patients (RECUR) database project. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The impact of histological subtype (ie, clear cell RCC [ccRCC], papillary RCC [pRCC], and chromophobe RCC [chRCC]) on recurrence-free survival (RFS) was assessed via univariate and multivariate analyses, adjusting for potential interactions with important variables (stage, grade, risk score, etc.) Patterns of recurrence for all histological subtypes were compared according to recurrence site and risk criteria. Results and limitations: Of the 3331 patients, 62.2% underwent radical nephrectomy and 37.8% partial nephrectomy. A total of 2565 patients (77.0%) had ccRCC, 535 (16.1%) had pRCC, and 231 (6.9%) had chRCC. The median postoperative follow-up period was 61.7 (interquartile range: 47-83) mo. Patients with ccRCC had significantly poorer 5-yr RFS than patients with pRCC and chRCC (78% vs 86% vs 91%, p = 0.001). The most common sites of recurrence for ccRCC were the lung and bone. Intermediate-/high-risk pRCC patients had an increased rate of lymphatic recurrence, both mediastinal and retroperitoneal, while recurrence in chRCC was rare (8.2%), associated with higher stage and positive margins, and predominantly in the liver and bone. Limitations include the retrospective nature of the study. Conclusions: The main histological subtypes of RCC exhibit a distinct pattern and dynamics of recurrence. Results suggest that intermediate- to high-risk pRCC may benefit from cross-sectional abdominal imaging every 6 mo until 2 yr after surgery, while routine imaging might be abandoned for chRCC except for abdominal computed tomography in patients with advanced tumour stage or positive margins. Patient summary: In this analysis of a large database from 15 countries around Europe, we found that the main histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma have a distinct pattern and dynamics of recurrence. Patients should be followed differently according to subtype and risk score. (C) 2020 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Association of Urology.