Browsing by Subject "PREDICTS"

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  • Sundqvist, Benjamin; Kilpinen, Sami; Böhling, Tom; Koljonen, Virve; Sihto, Harri (2022)
    Background: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but highly aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin with a poor prognosis. Improving the prognosis of MCC by means of targeted therapies requires further understanding of the mechanisms that drive tumor progression. In this study, we aimed to identify the genes, processes, and pathways that play the most crucial roles in determining MCC outcomes. Methods: We investigated transcriptomes generated by RNA sequencing of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 102 MCC patients and identified the genes that were upregulated among survivors and in patients who died from MCC. We subsequently cross-referenced these genes with online databases to investigate the functions and pathways they represent. We further investigated differential gene expression based on viral status in patients who died from MCC. Results: We found several novel genes associated with MCC-specific survival. Genes upregulated in patients who died from MCC were most notably associated with angiogenesis and the PI3K-Akt and MAPK pathways; their expression predominantly had no association with viral status in patients who died from MCC. Genes upregulated among survivors were largely associated with antigen presentation and immune response. Conclusion: This outcome-based discrepancy in gene expression suggests that these pathways and processes likely play crucial roles in determining MCC outcomes.
  • Lundberg, Marie; Renkonen, Suvi; Haglund, Caj; Mattila, Petri S.; Leivo, Ilmo; Hagstrom, Jaana; Makitie, Antti A. (2016)
    Conclusions BMI-1 is an upstream repressor of tumor suppressor p16 and their inverse expression patterns have been linked with patient survival in OPSCC. In this material only p16 remained a relevant prognostic marker in OPSCC. Objectives HNSCC tumors carry variable phenotypes and clinical outcomes depending on their anatomical location. In OPSCC, expression of tumor suppressor p16 is used as a surrogate marker of HPV infection and has prognostic value. There are no good prognostic biomarkers for HNSCC tumors of other anatomical locations. Aim To study the expression patterns of p16 and BMI-1 in not only oropharyngeal but also oral, hypopharyngeal, and laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas and to clarify their putative connections with clinical parameters, survival, and each other. Method Hospital records on 130 patients (59 OPSCC, 18 OSCC, 20 HPSCC, and 33 LSCC) diagnosed between 1997-2008 at the Helsinki University Hospital, Finland, were reviewed. BMI-1 and p16 expressions were studied by immunohistochemistry. Results Sixty-eight per cent of OPSCC expressed p16 and expression correlated with lower age, lower T- and higher N-category, and with improved OS and DFS. BMI-1 expression was most prevalent in OPSCC and LSCC, but had no clinical correlations. No correlation between p16 and BMI-1 expression was found.
  • Relander, Kristiina; Hietanen, Marja; Nuotio, Krista; Ijäs, Petra; Tikkala, Irene; Saimanen, Eija; Lindsberg, Perttu J.; Soinne, Lauri (2021)
    Background: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been associated with both postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and improvement (POCI). However, the prognostic significance of postoperative cognitive changes related to CEA is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between postoperative cognitive changes after CEA and long-term survival. Methods: We studied 43 patients 1 day before CEA as well as 4 days and 3 months after surgery with an extensive neuropsychological test array, and followed them for up to 14 years. POCD and POCI relative to baseline were determined with the reliable change index derived from 17 healthy controls. Associations between POCD/POCI and mortality within the patient group were studied with Cox regression analyses adjusted for confounders. Results: POCD in any functional domain was evident in 28% of patients 4 days after surgery and in 33% of patients 3 months after surgery. POCI was shown in 23% of patients at 4 days and in 44% of patients at 3 months. POCD at 3 months was associated with higher long-term mortality (hazard ratio 5.0, 95% CI 1.8-13.9, p = 0.002) compared with patients with no cognitive decline. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that POCD in a stable phase, 3 months after CEA predicts premature death. Evaluation of postoperative cognitive changes is essential, and POCD in a stable phase after CEA should prompt scrutiny of underlying factors and better adherence to therapies to prevent recurrences and to promote early intervention in imminent deterioration.
  • Almangush, Alhadi; Youssef, Omar; Pirinen, Matti; Sundström, Jari; Leivo, Ilmo; Mäkitie, Antti A. (2019)
    Tumour budding has emerged as a promising prognostic marker in many cancers. We systematically reviewed all studies that evaluated tumour budding in diagnostic biopsies. We conducted a systematic review of PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane library for all articles that have assessed tumour budding in diagnostic (i.e. pretreatment or pre-operative) biopsies of any tumour type. Two independent researchers screened the retrieved studies, removed duplicates, excluded irrelevant studies and extracted data from the eligible studies. A total of 13 reports comprising 11 cohorts were found to have studied tumour budding in diagnostic biopsies. All these reports showed that evaluation of tumour budding in diagnostic biopsies was easily applicable. A strong association was observed between tumour budding score in diagnostic biopsies and corresponding surgical samples. Evaluation of tumour budding in diagnostic biopsies had a significant prognostic value for lymph node metastasis and patient survival. In all studies, tumour budding was a valuable marker of tumour aggressiveness and can be evaluated in technically satisfactory diagnostic biopsies. Thus, the assessment of tumour budding seems to identify the behaviour of cancer, and therefore to facilitate treatment planning.
  • Mantula, Paula; Tietavainen, Johanna; Clement, Jan; Niemelä, Onni; Pörsti, Ilkka; Vaheri, Antti; Mustonen, Jukka; Mäkelä, Satu; Outinen, Tuula (2020)
    Transient proteinuria and acute kidney injury (AKI) are characteristics of Puumala virus (PUUV) infection. Albuminuria peaks around the fifth day and associates with AKI severity. To evaluate albuminuria disappearance rate, we quantified albumin excretion at different time points after the fever onset. The study included 141 consecutive patients hospitalized due to acute PUUV infection in Tampere University Hospital, Finland. Timed overnight albumin excretion (cU-Alb) was measured during the acute phase in 133 patients, once or twice during the convalescent phase within three months in 94 patients, and at six months in 36 patients. During hospitalization, 30% of the patients had moderately increased albuminuria (cU-Alb 20-200 mu g/min), while 57% presented with severely increased albuminuria (cU-Alb >200 mu g/min). Median cU-Alb was 311 mu g/min (range 2.2-6460)
  • Paajanen, Juuso; Laaksonen, Sanna; Kettunen, Eeva; Ilonen, Ilkka; Vehmas, Tapio; Salo, Jarmo; Räsänen, Jari; Sutinen, Eva; Ollila, Hely; Mäyränpää, Mikko I.; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Wolff, Henrik (2020)
    Diffuse malignant mesothelioma (DMM) of the pleura is a rare and aggressive disease, where the long-term survival (LTS) rate is low. The epithelioid subtype is the most prevalent form of DMM with the best prognosis. In order to study prognostic histopathologic factors associated with extended survival in epithelioid DMM, we examined 43 tumors from patients with survival over five years (long-term survivals [LTS]) and compared the findings with 84 tumors from a reference group with average survival (RG). We analyzed the tumors considering previously published histopathological prognostic features and attempted to identify additional morphological features predictive of extended survival. Most of the LTS tumors presented with nuclear grade I (n = 34,90%) and a tubulopapillary growth pattern (n = 30,70%). One LTS tumor had necrosis. In contrast, nuclear grade II (n = 49,61%) and solid growth pattern (n = 59,70%) were more frequent in RG, and necrosis was present in 16 (19%) tumors. We also evaluated the association of asbestos lung tissue fiber burden quantified from autopsy samples with histopathological features and found that elevated asbestos fiber was associated with higher nuclear grade (p <0.001) and the presence of necrosis (p = 0.021). In univariate survival analysis, we identified the following three novel morphological features associated with survival: exophytic polypoid growth pattern, tumor density, and single mesothelium layered tubular structures. After adjustments, low nuclear grade (p <0.001) and presence of exophytic polypoid growth (p = 0.024) were associated with prolonged survival. These results may aid in estimating DMM prognosis.
  • Stevenson, Nathan J.; Tataranno, Maria-Luisa; Kaminska, Anna; Pavlidis, Elena; Clancy, Robert R.; Griesmaier, Elke; Roberts, James A.; Klebermass-Schrehof, Katrin; Vanhatalo, Sampsa (2020)
    Objectives: To determine the accuracy of, and agreement among, EEG and aEEG readers' estimation of maturity and a novel computational measure of functional brain age (FBA) in preterm infants. Methods: Seven experts estimated the postmenstrual ages (PMA) in a cohort of recordings from preterm infants using cloud-based review software. The FBA was calculated using a machine learning-based algorithm. Error analysis was used to determine the accuracy of PMA assessments and intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to assess agreement between experts. Results: EEG recordings from a PMA range 25 to 38 weeks were successfully interpreted. In 179 recordings from 62 infants interpreted by all human readers, there was moderate agreement between experts (aEEG ICC = 0.724; 95%CI:0.658-0.781 and EEG ICC = 0.517; 95%CI:0.311-0.664). In 149 recordings from 61 infants interpreted by all human readers and the FBA algorithm, random and systematic errors in visual interpretation of PMA were significantly higher than the computational FBA estimate. Tracking of maturation in individual infants showed stable FBA trajectories, but the trajectories of the experts' PMA estimate were more likely to be obscured by random errors. The accuracy of visual interpretation of PMA estimation was compromised by neurodevelopmental outcome for both aEEG and EEG review. Interpretation: Visual assessment of infant maturity is possible from the EEG or aEEG, with an average of human experts providing the highest accuracy. Tracking PMA of individual infants was hampered by errors in experts' estimates. FBA provided the most accurate maturity assessment and has potential as a biomarker of early outcome.
  • Backström, Maria; Tynjälä, Pirjo; Aalto, Kristiina; Grönlund, Minna-Maija; Ylijoki, Heikki; Putto-Laurila, Anne; Kärki, Johanna; Keskitalo, Paula; Sard, Sirja; Pohjankoski, Heini; Hietanen, Maiju; Witter, Silke; Lehto, Helena; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Vähäsalo, Paula (2019)
    Objectives To validate cut-offs of the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score 10 (JADAS10) and clinical JADAS10 (cJADAS10) and to compare them with other patient cohorts. Methods In a national multicentre study, cross-sectional data on recent visits of 337 non-systemic patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) were collected from nine paediatric outpatient units. The cut-offs were tested with receiver operating characteristic curve-based methods, and too high, too low and correct classification rates (CCRs) were calculated. Results Our earlier presented JADAS10 cut-offs seemed feasible based on the CCRs, but the cut-off values between low disease activity (LDA) and moderate disease activity (MDA) were adjusted. When JADAS10 cut-offs for clinically inactive disease (CID) were increased to 1.5 for patients with oligoarticular disease and 2.7 for patients with polyarticular disease, as recently suggested in a large multinational register study, altogether 11 patients classified as CID by the cut-off had one active joint. We suggest JADAS10 cut-off values for oligoarticular/polyarticular disease to be in CID: 0.0-0.5/0.0-0.7, LDA: 0.6-3.8/0.8-5.1 and MDA: >3.8/5.1. Suitable cJADAS10 cut-offs are the same as JADAS10 cut-offs in oligoarticular disease. In polyarticular disease, cJADAS10 cut-offs are 0-0.7 for CID, 0.8-5.0 for LDA and > 5.0 for MDA. Conclusion I nternational consensus on JADAS cutoff values is needed, and such a cut-off for CID should preferably exclude patients with active joints in the CID group.
  • Skupien, Jan; Smiles, Adam M.; Valo, Erkka; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Gyorgy, Beata; Sandholm, Niina; Croall, Stephanie; Lajer, Maria; McDonnell, Kevin; Forsblom, Carol; Harjutsalo, Valma; Marre, Michel; Galecki, Andrzej T.; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Wu, Chun Yi; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Nickerson, Helen; Pragnell, Marlon; Rich, Stephen S.; Pezzolesi, Marcus G.; Hadjadj, Samy; Rossing, Peter; Groop, Per-Henrik; Krolewski, Andrzej S. (2019)
    OBJECTIVE Patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy are targets for intervention to reduce high risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and deaths. This study compares risks of these outcomes in four international cohorts. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In the 1990s and early 2000s, Caucasian patients with type 1 diabetes with persistent macroalbuminuria in chronic kidney disease stages 1-3 were identified in the Joslin Clinic (U. S., 432), Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study (FinnDiane) (Finland, 486), Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen (Denmark, 368), and INSERM (France, 232) and were followed for 3-18 years with annual creatinine measurements to ascertain ESRD and deaths unrelated to ESRD. RESULTS During 15,685 patient-years, 505 ESRD cases (rate 32/1,000 patient-years) and 228 deaths unrelated to ESRD (rate 14/1,000 patient-years) occurred. Risk of ESRD was associated with male sex; younger age; lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); higher albumin/creatinine ratio, HbA1c, and systolic blood pressure; and smoking. Risk of death unrelated to ESRD was associated with older age, smoking, and higher baseline eGFR. In adjusted analysis, ESRD risk was highest in Joslin versus reference FinnDiane (hazard ratio [HR] 1.44, P = 0.003) and lowest in Steno (HR 0.54, P <0.001). Differences in eGFR slopes paralleled risk of ESRD. Mortality unrelated to ESRD was lowest in Joslin (HR 0.68, P = 0.003 vs. the other cohorts). Competing risk did not explain international differences in the outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Despite almost universal renoprotective treatment, progression to ESRD and mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes with advanced nephropathy are still very high and differ among countries. Finding causes of these differences may help reduce risk of these outcomes.