Browsing by Subject "PREFERENCES"

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  • Nemcok, Miroslav; Wass, Hanna (2021)
    Popular consent is an essential element for success and stability of democracies. Research has repeatedly demonstrated that “electoral winners” (i.e. voters casting a ballot for government parties) are more satisfied with democracy than supporters of the opposition parties. However, little is known about the dynamics of satisfaction during the electoral cycle: Do winners become happier and losers even more discontent over time? We approach this question by utilizing an interview date in the European Social Survey (rounds 1–8) to position individuals within the different stages of electoral cycle. The results based on 199,207 responses from 199 surveys in 31 countries suggest that satisfaction with democracy stays relatively stable during the electoral cycle across various electoral systems if the political development is predictable. However, if actions of the parties are uncertain, namely the alternations of governments tend to be frequent, partial, and opened to all parties, and hence neither winners nor losers know how steady their status is with respect to the political development in the country, their satisfaction tend to fluctuate over time. Therefore, the conclusion reached is the more stable West European democracies have limited generalizability to the low-predictable systems in Central and Eastern Europe.
  • Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Kivikangas, Matias J (2019)
    We investigated the relation between economic and social attitudes and the psychological underpinnings of these attitudes in candidates (N = 9515) in the Finnish 2017 municipal elections. In this politically elite sample, right-wing economic attitudes and social conservatism were positively correlated (r = 0.41), and this correlation was predominantly driven by those on the economic left being socially liberal, and vice versa. In terms of underlying psychological processes, consistent with dual process models of political ideology, the anti-egalitarian aspect of social dominance orientation was more strongly associated with right-wing economic attitudes, and the conventionalism and aggression aspects of right-wing authoritarianism with social conservatism. Our results show that even in a non-United States context in which the masses organize their political attitudes on two independent dimensions, these dimensions are moderately aligned among certain parts of the political elite, and that the political attitudes of the political elite can be traced to underlying psychological motivations. We argue that equality concerns could play a role in explaining why the left-right and liberal-conservative dimensions are more strongly aligned among those on the left and those more liberal.
  • Priklopil, Tadeas; Kisdi, Eva; Gyllenberg, Mats (2015)
    We consider mating strategies for females who search for males sequentially during a season of limited length. We show that the best strategy rejects a given male type if encountered before a time-threshold but accepts him after. For frequency-independent benefits, we obtain the optimal time-thresholds explicitly for both discrete and continuous distributions of males, and allow for mistakes being made in assessing the correct male type. When the benefits are indirect (genes for the offspring) and the population is under frequency-dependent ecological selection, the benefits depend on the mating strategy of other females as well. This case is particularly relevant to speciation models that seek to explore the stability of reproductive isolation by assortative mating under frequency-dependent ecological selection. We show that the indirect benefits are to be quantified by the reproductive values of couples, and describe how the evolutionarily stable time-thresholds can be found. We conclude with an example based on the Levene model, in which we analyze the evolutionarily stable assortative mating strategies and the strength of reproductive isolation provided by them.
  • Tuominen, Leena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Meretoja, Riitta (2020)
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore comprehensively expectations of patients with colorectal cancer towards nursing care in the chemotherapy context. Methods: A purposive sample of patients with colorectal cancer (n = 15) was interviewed individually at the outpatient clinic in one university hospital chemotherapy unit. The data were analysed with thematic analysis. Results: Three main themes were identified in the data. Firstly, patients expected to be empowered with knowledge of disease process, side effects and their self-management and peer support. Secondly, patients expected to be humanely encountered, which included being encountered with support, compassion and hope. Thirdly, patients expected to be skillfully cared for with systematic assessment, expertise, continuity and advocacy. Conclusions: Besides reliable knowledge of cancer treatment and care, patients expected the sympathetic presence of a nurse whose professional skills they can trust. The results may be utilised in intervention development by focusing on themes significant to these patients. The results may help nurses to enhance person-centred care as well as to encounter patients according to their expectations.
  • Bogl, Leonie H.; Silventoinen, Karri; Hebestreit, Antje; Intemann, Timm; Williams, Garrath; Michels, Nathalie; Molnar, Denes; Page, Angie S.; Pala, Valeria; Papoutsou, Stalo; Pigeot, Iris; Reisch, Lucia A.; Russo, Paola; Veidebaum, Toomas; Moreno, Luis A.; Lissner, Lauren; Kaprio, Jaakko (2017)
    Information on familial resemblance is important for the design of effective family-based interventions. We aimed to quantify familial correlations and estimate the proportion of variation attributable to genetic and shared environmental effects (i.e., familiality) for dietary intake variables and determine whether they vary by generation, sex, dietary quality, or by the age of the children. The study sample consisted of 1435 families (1007 mothers, 438 fathers, 1035 daughters, and 1080 sons) from the multi-center I. Family study. Dietary intake was assessed in parents and their 2-19 years old children using repeated 24-h dietary recalls, from which the usual energy and food intakes were estimated with the U.S. National Cancer Institute Method. Food items were categorized as healthy or unhealthy based on their sugar, fat, and fiber content. Interclass and intraclass correlations were calculated for relative pairs. Familiality was estimated using variance component methods. Parent-offspring (r = 0.11-0.33), sibling (r = 0.21-0.43), and spouse (r = 0.15-0.33) correlations were modest. Parent-offspring correlations were stronger for the intake of healthy (r = 0.33) than unhealthy r = 0.10) foods. Familiality estimates were 61% (95% CI: 54-68%) for the intake of fruit and vegetables and the sum of healthy foods and only 30% (95% CI: 23-38%) for the sum of unhealthy foods. Familial factors explained a larger proportion of the variance in healthy food intake (71%; 95% CI: 62-81%) in younger children below the age of 11 than in older children equal or above the age of 11 (48%; 95% CI: 38-58%). Factors shared by family members such as genetics and/or the shared home environment play a stronger role in shaping children's intake of healthy foods than unhealthy foods. This suggests that family-based interventions are likely to have greater effects when targeting healthy food choices and families with younger children, and that other sorts of intervention are needed to address the intake of unhealthy foods by children.
  • Koskela, Terhi; Karppinen, Heimo (2021)
    The effective implementation and development of conservation schemes to which participation of forest owners is voluntary, requires an understanding of forest owners’ views on measures to safeguard forest biodiversity. The Forest Biodiversity Program for Southern Finland is currently the most important instrument of voluntary forest conservation in Finland. The aim of this study is to explore what kind of methods the forest owners are willing to implement to safeguard biodiversity in their own forests and to identify forest owner groups based on these views. The aim is also to compare forest owners’ values, attitudes, endorsement of an ecological worldview and objectives for forest ownership as well as the background characteristics in these groups. The data were collected in 2015, by a nationwide mail survey sent to 3000 Finnish family forest owners (n = 1035). Five forest owner types were identified: Conservationists, Moderate conservationists, Compensation oriented, Promoters of biodiversity through forest management and Uninterested. Previous experience of implementation of voluntary measures to safeguard biodiversity and positive attitudes towards conservation were important in explaining the willingness to adopt conservation measures. The results can be utilized in developing voluntary conservation programs and in targeting advisory services related to biodiversity protection to different forest owner groups more accurately. The results support the need for flexible voluntary conservation programs, including a large variety of mechanisms to protect nature values in family owned forests.
  • Ryynanen, Toni; Heinonen, Visa (2018)
    Studies of nostalgia are one of the research subfields of recalled consumption experiences. In addition to the nostalgic recall, the consumers' remembered experiences situate in other temporal frames, a theme rarely touched in the extant research. The aim of this research was to examine the differences between nostalgic and other recalled consumption experiences by identifying and analysing the characteristics of the temporal frames. The data set for this task comprised 480 descriptions of consumers' experiences involving an everyday consumer object. An interpretive approach was utilized to analyse the temporal frames. The results of the study indicate that the consumers described their memories in four temporal structures. These are the strong nostalgia from childhood, light nostalgia from youth, descriptions of recent past and memories linked to consumption practices and traditions that will be fostered in the future. The article proposes a conceptual framework describing the temporal frames of consumers' remembered consumption experiences that opens further avenues for research alongside of nostalgic recall.
  • Sandell, Mari; Hoppu, Ulla; Mikkila, Vera; Mononen, Nina; Kahonen, Mika; Mannisto, Satu; Ronnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma; Lehtimaki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T. (2014)
    Genetic variation in bitter taste receptors, such as hTAS2R38, may affect food preferences and intake. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between bitter taste receptor haplotypes and the consumption of vegetables, fruits, berries and sweet foods among an adult Finnish population. A cross-sectional design utilizing data from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns cohort from 2007, which consisted of 1,903 men and women who were 30-45 years of age from five different regions in Finland, was employed. DNA was extracted from blood samples, and hTAS2R38 polymorphisms were determined based on three SNPs (rs713598, rs1726866 and rs10246939). Food consumption was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. The prevalence of the bitter taste-sensitive (PAV/PAV) haplotype was 11.3 % and that of the insensitive (AVI/AVI) haplotype was 39.5 % among this Finnish population. PAV homozygotic women consumed fewer vegetables than did the AVI homozygotic women, 269 g/day (SD 131) versus 301 g/day (SD 187), respectively, p = 0.03 (multivariate ANOVA). Furthermore, the intake of sweet foods was higher among the PAV homozygotes of both genders. Fruit and berry consumption did not differ significantly between the haplotypes in either gender. Individuals perceive foods differently, and this may influence their patterns of food consumption. This study showed that the hTAS2R38 taste receptor gene variation was associated with vegetable and sweet food consumption among adults in a Finnish population.
  • Henriksson, Eva; Candolin, Ulrika (2020)
    The operation of sexual selection depends on ecological conditions. Thus, changes in environmental conditions because of human activities can alter the strength and direction of sexual selection, with implications for evolutionary trajectories and the viability of populations. We show that aquatic algal blooms can relax the operation of sexual selection by influencing which males are available to attract females. This is by influencing the ability of males to maintain a resource needed in mate attraction. When we exposed two competing threespine stickleback malesGasterosteus aculeatus, whose attractiveness to females was known, to either clear or algal-turbid water, nest abandonment was more common in clear water, and it was usually the unattractive male that abandoned his nest. In turbid water, on the other hand, nest abandonments were less common and when they occurred, the probability increased that the attractive male abandoned his nest, and that the unattractive male subsequently occupied it. This change in the composition of nesting males increased the mating success of unattractive males. Thus, our results reveal a new mechanism through which habitat deterioration can influence sexual selection, by altering success in the competition for a resource critical in mate attraction, a territory with a nest in this case. This could be a common mechanism, considering the prevalence of resource competition in mate choice systems. On a broader level, our results emphasise the importance of considering the impact of environmental changes on the outcome of resource competition when investigating the influence that environmental disturbances have on the operation of sexual selection and thereby on evolutionary processes and population dynamics.
  • Holopainen, Jani; Toppinen, Anne; Perttula, Sini (2015)
    The aim of this explorative study is to find out how the EU Timber Regulation (EUTR) has affected the forest and chain of custody (CoC) certification strategies and practices among the Finnish wood industry companies. We are especially interested to find out whether more integrated strategies and collaborative networks have emerged for enhanced communications throughout the industry value chains. This qualitative interview study included both EUTR ex ante and ex post analysis, based on three rounds of managerial and expert interviews during 2011-2015. The results indicate that the EUTR appears to have enforced the supplier-client relations in the Finnish wood industry value chain. The sector still lacks integrated communication strategies with better understanding of customer and stakeholder values, which could contribute to more cohesive communication and marketing efforts reflecting the values of the whole industry. The certification practices are fairly spontaneously implemented following the traditional industry culture, which is not supportive of innovations and gaining competitive advantages in the broader material markets. Furthermore, the existence of two parallel forest certificates (Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC)) seems to hamper the effective communication and building of an image of sustainable wood products among customers and end consumers, groups that are also exposed to more general environmental communication, e.g., in the building material markets.
  • Marcinkowska, Urszula M.; Terraube, Julien; Kaminski, Gwenael (2016)
    Faces are an important cue to multiple physiological and psychological traits. Human preferences for exaggerated sex typicality (masculinity or femininity) in faces depend on multiple factors and show high inter-subject variability. To gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying facial femininity preferences in men, we tested the interactive effect of family structure (birth order, sibling sex-ratio and number of siblings) and parenthood status on these preferences. Based on a group of 1304 heterosexual men, we have found that preference for feminine faces was not only influenced by sibling age and sex, but also that fatherhood modulated this preference. Men with sisters had a weaker preference for femininity than men with brothers, highlighting a possible effect of a negative imprinting-like mechanism. What is more, fatherhood increased strongly the preference for facial femininity. Finally, for fathers with younger sisters only, the more the age difference increased between them, the more femininity preference increased. Overall our findings bring new insight into how early-acquired experience at the individual level may determine face preference in adulthood, and what is more, how these preferences are flexible and potentially dependent on parenthood status in adult men.
  • van Riper, Carena; Winkler-Schor, Sophia; Foelske, Lorraine; Keller, Rose; Braito, Michael; Raymond, Christopher; Eriksson, Max; Golebie, Elizabeth; Johnson, Dana (2019)
    Human behavior is influenced by an array of psychological processes such as environmental values. Despite the importance of understanding the reasons why people engage in activities that minimize environmental degradation, empirical research rarely integrates different types of values simultaneously to provide more complete and multi-faceted insights on how values contribute to environmental sustainability. Drawing from on-site survey data collected in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska (n = 641), we used two-step structural equation modeling to test how variation in behavioral patterns was explained by the cultural, individual, and social values of visitors to a national park. We fused various disciplinary perspectives on the value concept to demonstrate how individual- and group-level dynamics were integral for predicting behavior and better understanding aggregated preferences for environmental conditions in the context of a U.S. protected area.
  • Ali, Abir Salwa; Grönberg, Malin; Langer, Seppo W.; Ladekarl, Morten; Hjortland, Geir Olav; Vestermark, Lene Weber; Österlund, Pia; Welin, Staffan; Gronbaek, Henning; Knigge, Ulrich; Sorbye, Halfdan; Janson, Eva Tiensuu (2018)
    High-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs, G3) are aggressive cancers of the digestive system with poor prognosis and survival. Platinum-based chemotherapy (cisplatin/carboplatin + etoposide) is considered the first-line palliative treatment. Etoposide is frequently administered intravenously; however, oral etoposide may be used as an alternative. Concerns for oral etoposide include decreased bioavailability, inter-and intra-patient variability and patient compliance. We aimed to evaluate possible differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients treated with oral etoposide compared to etoposide given as infusion. Patients (n = 236) from the Nordic NEC study were divided into three groups receiving etoposide as a long infusion (24 h, n = 170), short infusion (= 5 h, n = 33) or oral etoposide (n = 33) according to hospital tradition. PFS and OS were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier (log-rank), cox proportional hazard ratios and confidence intervals. No statistical differences were observed in PFS or OS when comparing patients receiving long infusion (median PFS 3.8 months, median OS 14.5 months), short infusion (PFS 5.6 months, OS 11.0 months) or oral etoposide (PFS 5.4 months, OS 11.3 months). We observed equal efficacy for the three administration routes suggesting oral etoposide may be safe and efficient in treating high-grade GEP-NEN, G3 patients scheduled for cisplatin/carboplatin + etoposide therapy.
  • Aarnio, Emma; Huupponen, Risto; Hämeen-Anttila, Katri; Merikoski, Merja; Puhakka, Jaana; Korhonen, Maarit J. (2019)
    Direct oral anticoagulants provide an alternative to vitamin K antagonists for the anticoagulation therapy in atrial fibrillation (AF). The availability of several treatment options with different attributes makes shared decision-making appropriate for the choice of anticoagulation therapy. The aim of this study was to understand how physicians choose an oral anticoagulant (OAC) for patients with AF and how physicians view patients' participation in this decision. Semi-structured interviews with 17 Finnish physicians (eight general practitioners and nine specialists) working in the public sector were conducted. An interview guide on experience, prescribing and opinions about oral anticoagulants was developed based on previous literature. The data were thematically analysed using deductive and inductive approaches. Based on the interviews, patient's opinion was the most influential factor in decision-making when there were no clinical factors limiting the choice between OACs. Of patient's preferences, the most important was the attitude towards co-payments of OACs. Patients' opinions on monitoring of treatment, dosing and antidote availability were also mentioned by the interviewees. The choice of an OAC in AF was patient-centred as all interviewees expressed that patient's opinion affects the choice.
  • Pihlaja, Satu; Lahti, Jari; Lipsanen, Jari Olavi; Ritola, Ville; Gummerus, Eero-Matti; Stenberg, Jan-Henry; Joffe, Grigori (2020)
    Background: Therapist-supported, internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) is efficient in the treatment of depression. However, the optimal mode and intensity of therapist support remain to be identified. Scheduled telephone support (STS) may improve adherence and outcomes but, as it is time- and resource-consuming, should be reserved for patients for whom the usual support may be insufficient. Objective: This paper aims to reveal whether add-on STS for patients at risk of dropping out improves treatment adherence and symptoms in iCBT for depression. Methods: Among patients participating in an ongoing large observational routine clinical practice study of iCBT for depression delivered nationwide by Helsinki University Hospital (HUS-iCBT), those demonstrating a >= 14-day delay in initiation of treatment received invitations to this subsidiary STS study. A total of 100 consenting patients were randomly allocated to either HUS-iCBT as usual (control group, n=50) or HUS-iCBT plus add-on STS (intervention group, n=50). Proportions of those reaching midtreatment and treatment end point served as the primary outcome; secondary outcomes were change in Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-measured depressive symptoms and time spent in treatment. Results: Add-on STS raised the proportion of patients reaching midtreatment compared with HUS-iCBT as usual (29/50, 58% vs 18/50, 36%; P=.045) and treatment end point (12/50, 24% vs 3/50, 6%; P=.02). Change in BDI score also favored add-on STS (3.63 points vs 1.1 points; P=.049), whereas duration of treatment did not differ. Conclusions: Add-on STS enhances adherence and symptom improvement of patients at risk of dropping out of iCBT for depression in routine clinical practice.
  • Teichmann, Marianne; Thorogood, Rose; Hämäläinen, Liisa (2020)
    Colours are commonly used as visual cues when measuring animals' cognitive abilities. However, animals can have innate biases towards certain colours that depend on ecological and evolutionary contexts, therefore potentially influencing their performance in experiments. For example, when foraging, the colour red can advertise profitable fruits or act as a warning signal about chemically defended prey, and an individual's propensity to take food of that colour may depend on experience, age or physical condition. Here, we investigate how these contexts influence blue tits' (Cyanistes caeruleus) and great tits' (Parus major) responses to red-coloured almond flakes. We found that juvenile birds preferred red both when it was presented simultaneously with green, and when it was presented with three alternative colours (orange, purple, green). Adult birds, however, only preferred red after a positive experience with the colour, or when it was presented with the three alternative colours. We then tested whether colour influenced avoidance learning about food unpalatability. Despite the prediction that red is a more salient warning signal than green, we found only weak evidence that birds discriminated red unpalatable almonds from a green palatable alternative more quickly than when the colours were reversed. Our results suggest that biases towards red food may depend on birds' age and previous experience, and this might influence their performance in experiments that use red stimuli. Considering the ecological relevance of colours is, therefore, important when designing experiments that involve colour cues.
  • Hämäläinen, Liisa; Hoppitt, William; Rowland, Hannah M.; Mappes, Johanna; Fulford, Anthony J.; Sosa, Sebastian; Thorogood, Rose (2021)
    Social transmission of information is taxonomically widespread and could have profound effects on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of animal communities. Demonstrating this in the wild, however, has been challenging. Here we show by field experiment that social transmission among predators can shape how selection acts on prey defences. Using artificial prey and a novel approach in statistical analyses of social networks, we find that blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) and great tit (Parus major) predators learn about prey defences by watching others. This shifts population preferences rapidly to match changes in prey profitability, and reduces predation pressure from naive predators. Our results may help resolve how costly prey defences are maintained despite influxes of naive juvenile predators, and suggest that accounting for social transmission is essential if we are to understand coevolutionary processes. Many species learn through social transmission, which can alter co-evolutionary selection pressures. Experiments involving artificial prey and social networks show that wild birds can learn about unpalatable food by watching others, which helps explain the persistence of costly prey defences despite influxes of naive juvenile predators.
  • Kosenius, Anna-Kaisa; Juutinen, Artti; Tyrvainen, Liisa (2020)
    Nature-based tourism (NBT) is a growing industry within regions rich in natural amenities worldwide. An important feature of NBT business is the dependence on the quality of surrounding environment. This paper addresses the role of the management of commercial forests owned by the state in Finnish Lapland. The paper explores the NBT entrepreneurs' willingness to participate in a proposed new landscape and recreational value trading (LRVT) and elaborates the effect of entrepreneur and enterprise characteristics, such as entrepreneurial attitude, venture size, and a variety of services offered to customers, on the experienced and expected growth of NBT enterprise. The survey data on NBT enterprises were analyzed with ordered and binary logit models. The willingness of enterprises to participate in LRVT depended on the venture size, entrepreneurial attitude, and type of activities offered to customers. The results show that relatively young and small-sized enterprises have faced difficulties in developing their business. Entrepreneurial experience, risk-taking and intention to develop new business associate positively with expected increase in turnover.
  • Sell, Mila; Backman, Stefan; TettehAnang, Benjamin; Niemi, Jarkko K. (2018)
    There is an assumed gap in efficiency between male and female farmers. Identifying the constraints of women farmers causing the gap is essential for improving local food security and well-being. Using stochastic frontier analysis, we compare the efficiency of men, women and jointly managed maize plots in Uganda and look at factors associated with inefficiency of women. Our results show that the average technical efficiency of women is lower than that of men or jointly managed plots. However, in relation to a group-specific frontier, the women are highly efficient. Women's inefficiency is associated with several household features. The overall number of household members has a negative effect on efficiency, suggesting that women are time constrained by the efforts they put into household productive work. There also seems to be an association between efficiency and cash-crop farming, disadvantaging women who more commonly grow crops for household consumption.
  • Vornanen, Marleena Emilia; Aktan-Collan, Katja Irmeli; Hallowell, Nina; Konttinen, Hanna Marja; Kääriäinen, Helena; Haukkala, Ari Heikki (2018)
    Lowered costs of genomic sequencing facilitate analyzing large segments of genetic data. Ethical debate has focused on whether and what kind of incidental or secondary findings (SFs) to report, and how to obtain valid informed consent. However, people’s support needs after receiving SFs have received less attention. We explored Finnish adults’ perspectives on reporting genetic SFs. In this qualitative study which included four focus group discussions (N = 23) we used four vignette letters, each reporting a genetic SF predisposing to a different disease: familial hypercholesterolemia, long QT syndrome, Lynch syndrome, and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Transcribed focus group discussions were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Major themes were immediate shock, dealing with worry and heightened risk, fear of being left alone to deal with SFs, disclosing to family, and identified support needs. Despite their willingness to receive SFs, participants were concerned about being left alone to deal with them. Empathetic expert support and timely access to preventive care were seen as essential to coping with shock and worry, and disclosing SFs to family. Discussion around SFs needs to concern not only which findings to report, but also how healthcare systems need to prepare for providing timely access to preventive care and support for individuals and families.