Browsing by Subject "PREGNANCY"

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  • Tammiste, Triin; Kask, Keiu; Padrik, Peeter; Idla, Kulli; Rosenstein, Karin; Jatsenko, Tatjana; Veerus, Piret; Salumets, Andres (2019)
    BackgroundOvarian insufficiency is a major concern for long-term cancer survivors. Although semen freezing is well established to preserve male fertility, the possibilities to secure post-cancer female fertility are mostly limited to oocyte or embryo freezing. These methods require time-consuming ovarian stimulation with or without in vitro fertilization (IVF) that evidently delays cancer therapy. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation and subsequent thawed tissue autotransplantation are considered the most promising alternative strategy for restoring the fertility of oncology patients, which has not yet received the full clinical acceptance. Therefore, all successful cases are needed to prove its reliability and safety.Case presentationHere we report a single case in Estonia, where a 28-year-old woman with malignant breast neoplasm had ovarian cortex cryopreserved before commencing gonadotoxic chemo- and radiotherapy. Two years after cancer therapy, the patient underwent heterotopic ovarian tissue transplantation into the lateral pelvic wall. The folliculogenesis was stimulated in the transplanted tissue by exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone and oocytes were collected under ultrasound guidance for IVF and embryo transfer. The healthy boy was born after full-term gestation in 2014, first in Eastern Europe.ConclusionDespite many countries have reported the first implementation of the ovarian tissue freezing and transplantation protocols, the data is still limited on the effectiveness of heterotopic ovarian transplant techniques. Thus, all case reports of heterotopic ovarian tissue transplantation and long-term follow-ups to describe the children's health are valuable source of clinical experience.
  • Toijonen, Anna E.; Heinonen, Seppo T.; Gissler, Mika V. M.; Macharey, Georg (2020)
    Purpose To determine if the common risks for breech presentation at term labor are also eligible in preterm labor. Methods A Finnish cross-sectional study included 737,788 singleton births (24-42 gestational weeks) during 2004-2014. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the risks of breech presentation. Results The incidence of breech presentation at delivery decreased from 23.5% in pregnancy weeks 24-27 to 2.5% in term pregnancies. In gestational weeks 24-27, preterm premature rupture of membranes was associated with breech presentation. In 28-31 gestational weeks, breech presentation was associated with maternal pre-eclampsia/hypertension, preterm premature rupture of membranes, and fetal birth weight below the tenth percentile. In gestational weeks 32-36, the risks were advanced maternal age, nulliparity, previous cesarean section, preterm premature rupture of membranes, oligohydramnios, birth weight below the tenth percentile, female sex, and congenital anomaly. In term pregnancies, breech presentation was associated with advanced maternal age, nulliparity, maternal hypothyroidism, pre-gestational diabetes, placenta praevia, premature rupture of membranes, oligohydramnios, congenital anomaly, female sex, and birth weight below the tenth percentile. Conclusion Breech presentation in preterm labor is associated with obstetric risk factors compared to cephalic presentation. These risks decrease linearly with the gestational age. In moderate to late preterm delivery, breech presentation is a high-risk state and some obstetric risk factors are yet visible in early preterm delivery. Breech presentation in extremely preterm deliveries has, with the exception of preterm premature rupture of membranes, similar clinical risk profiles as in cephalic presentation.
  • Pajunen, Lotta; Korkalo, Liisa; Koivuniemi, Ella; Houttu, Noora; Pellonpera, Outi; Mokkala, Kati; Shivappa, Nitin; Hebert, James R.; Vahlberg, Tero; Tertti, Kristiina; Laitinen, Kirsi (2022)
    Purpose An optimal diet for lowering the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is still to be defined, but may comprise of nutrient intakes, dietary patterns, diet quality, and eating frequency. This study was designed to investigate the contribution of diet in developing GDM in a comprehensive way. Methods The dietary intake of overweight or obese women, a risk group for GDM (n = 351), was assessed using 3-day food diaries and diet quality questionnaires in early pregnancy. Eating frequency and nutrient intakes were calculated, and dietary patterns identified using principal component analysis. The inflammatory potential of the diet was determined by calculating the dietary inflammatory index (DII(R)) and energy-adjusted DII (E-DII (TM)). GDM was diagnosed with an oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 gestational weeks. Results Higher adherence to 'healthier dietary pattern' characterized by consumptions of vegetables and rye bread associated with a reduced risk of GDM (adjusted OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.11-0.70). Higher E-DII score, indicating pro-inflammatory diet, was associated with a 27% higher risk of GDM (adjusted OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.08-1.49) for each E-DII point. In the evaluation of nutrient intakes, total fat, saturated fatty acids (SFAs), and trans fatty acids were higher and fiber lower in women developing GDM compared to women not developing GDM (all p < 0.05). Intakes of total fat, SFAs, and trans fatty acids were also significant predictors for GDM (all p < 0.05). Conclusions The results emphasize the importance of an overall healthy diet and limitation of foods with SFAs, and other nutrients with a high inflammatory potential in reducing the risk of GDM.
  • Lindh, Lena; Lindeberg, H.; Banting, A; Banting, S.; Sainmaa, S.; Beasley, S.; Korhonen, H.; Peltoniemi, Olli (2020)
    The interest in non-surgical approaches to contraception and fertility control in female dogs has increased in recent years. In this study the effect of an aromatase inhibitor (finrozole) was evaluated in fur production animals, farmed blue fox vixens, as a model for contraception in bitches. A total of 80 vixens were divided into 4 groups, receiving orally placebo (A) or finrozole 0.5 mg/kg (B), 3.5 mg/kg (C) or 24.5 mg/kg (D) for 21 consecutive days beginning in the pre-ovulatory period of heat. Monitoring of the vixens included clinical signs of heat, measurement of vaginal electrical resistance (VER) as well as oestradiol and progesterone concentrations in plasma. The approximate relation of the start of treatment to ovulation varied from 11 days before to one day after ovulation provided that the LH peak occurred 0.5 -2 days before the VER peak and ovulation was then estimated to occur 2 days after the LH peak. Seventy vixens were artificially inseminated within 8 h after a 50 Omega decline in vaginal electrical resistance was detected. Ten vixens were not inseminated. Pregnancy was confirmed by transabdominal ultrasound examination and birth of cubs was recorded. The pregnancy rates in the groups were 89.5% (A), 81.3% (B), 55.6% (C) and 52.9% (D). The average number of live born pups in the four groups was 9.4 (A), 7.0 (B), 5.8 (C), and 3.8 (D), respectively. No deleterious effects (for instance malformations) of finrozole on pups could be verified. The administration of finrozole did not have a significant effect on oestradiol parameters and VER values in vixens. Progesterone values were significantly higher in treatment groups compared with the placebo group. The results indicate that pregnancy could be avoided by finrozole provided that doses of >= 3.5 mg/kg were used and the treatment was initiated at least four days before the day of artificial insemination. This corresponds with two to six days before ovulation provided that the LH peak occurred 0.5-2 days before the VER peak and that ovulation then occurred in average 2 days after the LH peak. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Flykt, M. S.; Prince, M.; Vänskä, M.; Lindblom, J.; Minkkinen, J.; Tiitinen, A.; Poikkeus, P.; Biringen, Z.; Punamäki, R. L. (2022)
    STUDY QUESTION Does adolescent attachment to parents and peers differ between singletons and twins born with ART or natural conception (NC)? SUMMARY ANSWER Adolescent attachment anxiety with the father was higher among NC singletons than among ART and NC twins, whereas attachment avoidance with the father was higher in ART singletons than in NC singletons and NC twins. No differences were found in attachment to the mother, best friend or romantic partner. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Most studies have not found differences between ART and NC singletons in parent-adolescent relationships, but twin relationships may be more at risk. No previous study has examined all four groups in the same study, or specifically looked at attachment relationships. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This was an 18-year, prospective and controlled longitudinal study with families of 496 ART singletons, 101 ART twin pairs, 476 NC singletons and 22 NC twin pairs. Families were recruited during the second trimester of pregnancy; the ART group was recruited from five infertility clinics in Finland and the control group was recruited from a hospital outpatient clinic during a routine visit. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Mothers and fathers gave background information for this study during pregnancy, and during the child's first year and early school age (7-8 years). For the ART group, infertility characteristics and prenatal medical information was also obtained from the patient registry of the infertility clinics. Children (originally 50% girls) filled in electronic questionnaires related to their attachment to mother, father, best friend and romantic partner (Experiences in Close Relationships-Relationship Structures) at 17-19 years of age. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Adolescent attachment anxiety to father was higher in NC singletons than in ART twins, P = 0.004 and marginally higher than in NC twins, P = 0.06. Adolescent attachment avoidance to father was higher in ART singletons than in NC singletons, P = 0.006 and marginally higher than in NC twins, P = 0.055. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION The sample size was small especially in the NC twin group and there was drop-out over the 18-year time period, especially among boys and families with lower parental education level. The study only included native Finnish-speaking families. The results could differ in a more diverse population. ART singletons were younger and had fewer siblings than ART twins and NC children, and ART and NC twins had more newborn health risks than ART and NC singletons. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS The study adds to a growing body of evidence that neither ART treatments nor being a twin places mother-child relationships or peer relationships at long-term risk. However, in our study, which was the first to examine both ART and twinhood simultaneously, we found that there may be more problems in father-adolescent relationships, but only in ART singletons and only related to attachment avoidance. Our findings suggest that men, as well as women, should receive enough support in pre- and peri-natal health care during and after infertility treatments. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This study was funded by Academy of Finland (grant number 2501308988), the Juho Vainio Foundation and the Finnish Cultural Foundation. The authors report no conflict of interest.
  • Karppanen, Tiina; Kaartokallio, Tea; Klemetti, Miira M.; Heinonen, Seppo; Kajantie, Eero; Kere, Juha; Kivinen, Katja; Pouta, Anneli; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Laivuori, Hannele (2016)
    Background: Preeclampsia is a common and heterogeneous vascular syndrome of pregnancy. Its genetic risk profile is yet unknown and may vary between individuals and populations. The rs4606 3'UTR polymorphism of the Regulator of G-protein signaling 2 gene (RGS2) in the mother has been implicated in preeclampsia as well as in the development of chronic hypertension after preeclampsia. The RGS2 protein acts as an inhibitor of physiological vasoconstrictive pathways, and a low RGS2 level is associated with hypertension and obesity, two conditions that predispose to preeclampsia. We genotyped the rs4606 polymorphism in 1339 preeclamptic patients and in 697 controls from the Finnish Genetics of Preeclampsia Consortium (FINNPEC) cohort to study the association of the variant with preeclampsia. Results: No association between rs4606 and preeclampsia was detected in the analysis including all women. However, the polymorphism was associated with preeclampsia in a subgroup of overweight women (body mass index >= 25 kg/m(2), and <30 kg/m(2)) (dominant model; odds ratio, 1.64; 95 % confidence interval, 1.10-2.42). Conclusions: Our results suggest that RGS2 might be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia particularly in overweight women and contribute to their increased risk for hypertension and other types of cardiovascular disease later in life.
  • Lokki, A. Inkeri; Kaartokallio, Tea; Holmberg, Ville; Onkamo, Paivi; Koskinen, Lotta L. E.; Saavalainen, Paivi; Heinonen, Seppo; Kajantie, Eero; Kere, Juha; Kivinen, Katja; Pouta, Anneli; Villa, Pia M.; Hiltunen, Leena; Laivuori, Hannele; Meri, Seppo (2017)
    Preeclampsia (PE) is a common vascular disease of pregnancy with genetic predisposition. Dysregulation of the complement system has been implicated, but molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. In this study, we determined the potential linkage of severe PE to the most central complement gene, C3. Three cohorts of Finnish patients and controls were recruited for a genetic case-control study. Participants were genotyped using Sequenom genotyping and Sanger sequencing. Initially, we studied 259 Finnish patients with severe PE and 426 controls from the Southern Finland PE and the Finnish population-based PE cohorts. We used a custom-made single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assay consisting of 98 SNPs in 18 genes that encode components of the complement system. Following the primary screening, C3 was selected as the candidate gene and consequently Sanger sequenced. Fourteen SNPs from C3 were also genotyped by a Sequenom panel in 960 patients with severe PE and 705 controls, including already sequenced individuals. Three of the 43 SNPs observed within C3 were associated with severe PE: rs2287845 (p = 0.038, OR = 1.158), rs366510 (p = 0.039, OR = 1.158), and rs2287848 (p = 0.041, OR = 1.155). We also discovered 16 SNP haplotypes with extreme linkage disequilibrium in the middle of the gene with a protective (p = 0.044, OR = 0.628) or a predisposing (p = 0.011, OR = 2.110) effect to severe PE depending on the allele combination. Genetic variants associated with PE are located in key domains of C3 and could thereby influence the function of C3. This is, as far as we are aware, the first candidate gene in the complement system with an association to a clinically relevant PE subphenotype, severe PE. The result highlights a potential role for the complement system in the pathogenesis of PE and may help in defining prognostic and therapeutic subgroups of preeclamptic women.
  • Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Heinonen, Seppo; Hämäläinen, Esa; Pulkki, Kari; Romppanen, Jarkko; Laivuori, Hannele (2018)
    Objectives: To study first and second/third trimester levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1), placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble endoglin (sEng) in FINNPEC case-control cohort. The participants were further divided into subgroups based on parity and onset of the disease. Recommended cut-off values in aid of pre-eclampsia (PE) prediction and diagnosis were also tested. Methods: First trimester serum samples were available from 221 women who later developed PE and 239 women who did not develop PE. Second/third trimester serum samples were available from 175 PE and 55 non-PE women. sFl1-1 and PlGF were measured electro-chemiluminescence immunoassays and sEng by ELISA. Results: In all timepoints PlGF, endoglin and the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio were increased in the PE group compared to the non-PE group. The serum concentrations of sFlt-1 were increased only a second/third trimester in PE women. Higher concentrations of s-Flt1, endoglin and higher sFlt/PlGF ratio were found a the third trimester in primiparous women compared to multiparous women. Primiparous PE women also had lower concentrations of PlGF a the third trimester. The proportion of women exceeding all cut-offs of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio (>= 33, >= 38, >= 85 and >= 110) was greater in the PE group, but there were also pre-eclamptic women who met rule-out cut-off or did no meet rule-in cut-off. Conclusions: Primiparous pregnancies have more anti-angiogenic profile during second/third trimester compared with multiparous pregnancies. Our findings also suggest that certain maternal characteristics, e.g. BMI, smoking and pre-existing diseases, should be taken into account when different sFlt-1/PlGF ratio cut-offs are utilized.
  • Neumann, Alexander; Walton, Esther; Alemany, Silvia; Cecil, Charlotte; Gonzalez, Juan Ramon; Jima, Dereje D.; Lahti, Jari; Tuominen, Samuli T.; Barker, Edward D.; Binder, Elisabeth; Caramaschi, Doretta; Carracedo, Angel; Czamara, Darina; Evandt, Jorunn; Felix, Janine F.; Fuemmeler, Bernard F.; Gutzkow, Kristine B.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Julvez, Jordi; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele; Maguire, Rachel; Maitre, Lea; Murphy, Susan K.; Murcia, Mario; Villa, Pia M.; Sharp, Gemma; Sunyer, Jordi; Räikkönen, Katri; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus; Guxens, Monica; Relton, Caroline L.; Tiemeier, Henning (2020)
    Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder with a substantial genetic component. However, the extent to which epigenetic mechanisms play a role in the etiology of the disorder is unknown. We performed epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) Consortium to identify DNA methylation sites associated with ADHD symptoms at two methylation assessment periods: birth and school age. We examined associations of both DNA methylation in cord blood with repeatedly assessed ADHD symptoms (age 4-15 years) in 2477 children from 5 cohorts and of DNA methylation at school age with concurrent ADHD symptoms (age 7-11 years) in 2374 children from 9 cohorts, with 3 cohorts participating at both timepoints. CpGs identified with nominal significance (p <0.05) in either of the EWAS were correlated between timepoints (rho = 0.30), suggesting overlap in associations; however, top signals were very different. At birth, we identified nine CpGs that predicted later ADHD symptoms (p <1 x 10(-7)), including ERC2 and CREB5. Peripheral blood DNA methylation at one of these CpGs (cg01271805 in the promoter region of ERC2, which regulates neurotransmitter release) was previously associated with brain methylation. Another (cg25520701) lies within the gene body of CREB5, which previously was associated with neurite outgrowth and an ADHD diagnosis. In contrast, at school age, no CpGs were associated with ADHD with p <1 x 10(-7). In conclusion, we found evidence in this study that DNA methylation at birth is associated with ADHD. Future studies are needed to confirm the utility of methylation variation as biomarker and its involvement in causal pathways.
  • Kumar, Mukkesh; Ang, Li Ting; Png, Hang; Ng, Maisie; Tan, Karen; Loy, See Ling; Tan, Kok Hian; Chan, Jerry Kok Yen; Godfrey, Keith M.; Chan, Shiao-yng; Chong, Yap Seng; Eriksson, Johan G.; Feng, Mengling; Karnani, Neerja (2022)
    The increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is contributing to the rising global burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and intergenerational cycle of chronic metabolic disorders. Primary lifestyle interventions to manage GDM, including second trimester dietary and exercise guidance, have met with limited success due to late implementation, poor adherence and generic guidelines. In this study, we aimed to build a preconception-based GDM predictor to enable early intervention. We also assessed the associations of top predictors with GDM and adverse birth outcomes. Our evolutionary algorithm-based automated machine learning (AutoML) model was implemented with data from 222 Asian multi-ethnic women in a preconception cohort study, Singapore Preconception Study of Long-Term Maternal and Child Outcomes (S-PRESTO). A stacked ensemble model with a gradient boosting classifier and linear support vector machine classifier (stochastic gradient descent training) was derived using genetic programming, achieving an excellent AUC of 0.93 based on four features (glycated hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)), mean arterial blood pressure, fasting insulin, triglycerides/HDL ratio). The results of multivariate logistic regression model showed that each 1 mmol/mol increase in preconception HbA(1c) was positively associated with increased risks of GDM (p = 0.001, odds ratio (95% CI) 1.34 (1.13-1.60)) and preterm birth (p = 0.011, odds ratio 1.63 (1.12-2.38)). Optimal control of preconception HbA(1c) may aid in preventing GDM and reducing the incidence of preterm birth. Our trained predictor has been deployed as a web application that can be easily employed in GDM intervention programs, prior to conception.
  • Fan, Yuxin; Wang, Leishen; Liu, Huikun; Zhang, Shuang; Tian, Huiguang; Shen, Yun; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Yu, Zhijie; Yang, Xilin; Hu, Gang; Liu, Ming (2020)
    Introduction To evaluate the single association of postpartum beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance (IR), as well as different combinations of postpartum beta-cell dysfunction, IR, obesity, and a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with postpartum type 2 diabetes risk. Research design and methods The study included 1263 women with prior GDM and 705 women without GDM. Homeostatic model assessment was used to estimate homeostatic model assessment of beta-cell secretory function (HOMA-%beta) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results Multivariable-adjusted ORs of diabetes across quartiles of HOMA-%beta and HOMA-IR were 1.00, 1.46, 2.15, and 6.25 (p(trend) Conclusions beta-cell dysfunction or IR was significantly associated with postpartum diabetes. IR and beta-cell dysfunction, together with obesity and a history of GDM, had the highest ORs of postpartum diabetes risk.
  • Kruit, Heidi; Gissler, Mika; Heinonen, Seppo; Rahkonen, Leena (2022)
    Objectives To determine the association between the rate of labour induction and caesarean delivery. Design Medical Birth Register-based study. We used data from the nationwide Medical Birth Register collecting data on delivery outcomes on all births from 22+0 weeks and/or birth weight of at least 500 g. Setting Finland. Participants 663 024 live births in Finland from 2008 to 2019. Main outcome measures The rates of labour induction and caesarean delivery. Results The rate of labour induction increased from 17.8% to 30.3%; p Conclusions The 70% increase in the rate of labour induction in Finland has not led to a significant increase in the rate of caesarean delivery, which has remained one of the lowest in the world. Pregnant women in Finland are more frequently obese, older and diagnosed with gestational diabetes, which may partly explain the increase in the rate of labour induction.
  • Macharey, Georg; Gissler, Mika; Rahkonen, Leena; Ulander, Veli-Matti; Vaisanen-Tommiska, Mervi; Nuutila, Mika; Heinonen, Seppo (2017)
    Purpose The aim of this study was to estimate whether breech presentation at term was associated with known individual obstetric risk factors for adverse fetal outcome. Methods This was a retrospective, nationwide Finnish population-based cohort study. Obstetric risks in all breech and vertex singleton deliveries at term were compared between the years 2005 and 2014. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine significant risk factors. Results The breech presentation rate at term for singleton pregnancies was 2.4%. The stillbirth rate in term breech presentation was significantly higher compared to cephalic presentation (0.2 vs 0.1%). The odds ratios (95% CIs) for fetal growth restriction, oligohydramnios, gestational diabetes, a history of cesarean section and congenital fetal abnormalities were 1.19 CI (1.07-1.32), 1.42 CI (1.27-1.57), 1.06 CI (1.00-1.13), 2.13 (1.98-2.29) and 2.01 CI (1.92-2.11). Conclusions The study showed that breech presentation at term on its own was significantly associated with antenatal stillbirth and a number of individual obstetric risk factors for adverse perinatal outcomes. The risk factors included oligohydramnios, fetal growth restriction, gestational diabetes, history of caesarean section and congenital anomalies.
  • Lehtonen, Anni; Uusitalo, Lauri; Auriola, Seppo; Backman, Katri; Heinonen, Seppo; Keski-Nisula, Leea; Pasanen, Markku; Pekkanen, Juha; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Voutilainen, Raimo; Hantunen, Sari; Lehtonen, Marko (2021)
    Purpose High-maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy may be harmful for perinatal outcomes and future child health, but the level of fetal cumulative exposure has been difficult to measure thus far. Here, we present maternal dietary caffeine intake during the last trimester and its correlation to caffeine content in newborn hair after birth. Methods Maternal third trimester diets and dietary caffeine intake were prospectively collected in Kuopio Birth Cohort (KuBiCo) using a 160-item food frequency questionnaire (n = 2840). Newborn hair was collected within 48 h after birth and analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) for caffeine (n = 316). Correlation between dietary caffeine intake and neonatal hair caffeine content was evaluated from 203 mother-child pairs. Results Mean dietary caffeine intake was 167 mg/days (95% CI 162-172 mg/days), of which coffee comprised 81%. Caffeine in the maternal diet and caffeine content in newborn hair correlated significantly (r = 0.50; p <0.001). Older, multiparous, overweight women, and smokers had the highest caffeine levels in the maternal diet, as well as in their newborn babies' hair. Conclusion Caffeine exposure, estimated from newborn hair samples, reflects maternal third trimester dietary caffeine intake and introduces a new method to assess fetal cumulative caffeine exposure. Further studies to evaluate the effects of caffeine exposure on both perinatal and postnatal outcomes are warranted, since over 40% of pregnant women consume caffeine more than the current suggested recommendations (European Food Safety Association, EFSA recommendations).
  • Jensen, Annette Schophuus; Jorgensen, Troels Hojsgaard; Christersson, Christina; Nagy, Edit; Sinisalo, Juha; Furenas, Eva; Gjesdal, Ola; Eriksson, Peter; Vejlstrup, Niels; Johansson, Bengt; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Greve, Gottfried; Dellborg, Mikael; Skulstad, Helge; Kvidal, Per; Jokinen, Eero; Sairanen, Heikki; Thilen, Ulf; Sondergaard, Lars (2022)
    Background Little is known about the cause of death (CoD) in patients with transposition of the great arteries palliated with a Mustard or Senning procedure. The aim was to describe the CoD for patients with the Mustard and Senning procedure during short- (20 years) follow-up after the operation. Methods and Results This is a retrospective, descriptive multicenter cohort study including all Nordic patients (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden) who underwent a Mustard or Senning procedure between 1967 and 2003. Patients who died within 30 days after the index operation were excluded. Among 968 patients with Mustard/Senning palliated transposition of the great arteries, 814 patients were eligible for the study, with a mean follow-up of 33.6 years. The estimated risk of all-cause mortality reached 36.0% after 43 years of follow-up, and the risk of death was highest among male patients as compared with female patients (P=0.004). The most common CoD was sudden cardiac death (SCD), followed by heart failure/heart transplantation accounting for 29% and 27%, respectively. During short-, mid-, and long-term follow-up, there was a change in CoD with SCD accounting for 23.7%, 46.6%, and 19.0% (P=0.002) and heart failure/heart transplantation 18.6%, 22.4%, and 46.6% (P=0.0005), respectively. Conclusions Among patients corrected with Mustard or Senning transposition of the great arteries, the most common CoD is SCD followed by heart failure/heart transplantation. The CoD changes as the patients age, with SCD as the most common cause in adolescence and heart failure as the dominant cause in adulthood. Furthermore, the risk of all-cause mortality, SCD, and death attributable to heart failure or heart transplantation was increased in men >10 years after the Mustard/Senning operation.
  • Lynch, Robert; Lummaa, Virpi; Briga, Michael; Chapman, Simon; Loehr, John (2020)
    Understanding how conditions experienced during development affect reproductive timing is of considerable cross-disciplinary interest. Life-history theory predicts that organisms will accelerate reproduction when future survival is unsure. In humans, this can be triggered by early exposure to mortality. Previous studies, however, have been inconclusive due to several confounds that are also likely to affect reproduction. Here we take advantage of a natural experiment in which a population is temporarily divided by war to analyze how exposure to mortality affects reproduction. Using records of Finnish women in World War II, we find that young girls serving in a paramilitary organization wait less time to reproduce, have shorter inter-birth intervals, and have more children than their non-serving peers or sisters. These results support the hypothesis that exposure to elevated mortality rates during development can result in accelerated reproductive schedules and adds to our understanding of how participation in warfare affects women.
  • Terho, Anna Maria; Pelkonen, Sari; Toikkanen, Ronja; Koivurova, Sari; Salo, Jarmo; Nuojua-Huttunen, Sinikka; Pokka, Tytti; Gissler, Mika; Tiitinen, Aila; Martikainen, Hannu (2021)
    Research question: Is the growth of term singletons born after frozen embryo transfer (FET) comparable to those born after fresh embryo transfer and natural conception up to 5 years of age? Design: Observational cohort study in an academic medical centre and municipal child health clinics with repeated measurements carried out by medical professionals. Term singletons born after FET (n = 110) and fresh embryo transfer (n = 181) and their matched natural conception controls (n = 543) born in Oulu, Northern Finland, were included. Mean weights, lengths, heights and head circumferences at the ages of 4, 8 and 18 months and 3 and 5 years were compared. At 3 and 5 years, body mass indices were compared. Results: Childhood growth did not differ between term singletons born after FET, fresh embryo transfer and natural conception, correcting for exact age at measurement and adjusting for maternal body mass index and paternal height. Conclusions: Similar growth between children born after FET, fresh embryo transfer and natural conception offers reassurance of the safety and feasibility of the steadily increasing use of embryo cryopreservation in assisted reproduction.
  • Keikkala, Elina; Mustaniemi, Sanna; Koivunen, Sanna; Kinnunen, Jenni; Viljakainen, Matti; Männistö, Tuija; Ijäs, Hilkka; Pouta, Anneli; Kaaja, Risto; Eriksson, Johan G.; Laivuori, Hannele; Gissler, Mika; Erkinheimo, Tiina-Liisa; Keravuo, Ritva; Huttunen, Merja; Metsälä, Jenni; Stach‑Lempinen, Beata; Klemetti, Miira M.; Tikkanen, Minna; Kajantie, Eero; Vääräsmäki, Marja (2020)
  • Koponen, Anne M.; Nissinen, Niina-Maria; Gissler, Mika; Sarkola, Taisto; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Kahila, Hanna (2020)
    Purpose:The need for longitudinal studies on prenatal substance exposure (PSE) extending into adulthood is widely recognised. In particular, studies on the dual effect of exposure to substances and adverse childhood experiences are needed. This register-based matched cohort study investigates the effect of this dual exposure on the health and development of youth with PSE. The follow-up is from birth to young adulthood.Participants:The exposed youth were born in 1992?2001 to mothers with a significant substance misuse problem during pregnancy. The mothers were identified in primary care maternity clinics in the Helsinki metropolitan area and referred for intensified pregnancy follow-up in a tertiary care setting (HAL-clinics). Data from hospital medical records were collected for the mothers during the pregnancy follow-up and linked with register data from multiple national health and social welfare registers obtained for each mother?child dyad from birth until the end of 2015?2018. Similar register data were gathered for three matched mother?child dyads without any evidence of the mother?s substance misuse in national health and social welfare registers. The study consists of 615 exposed and 1787 unexposed youth aged 15?24 years.Findings to date:A majority of the exposed youth (64%) had been in out-of-home care at least once compared with 8% among the unexposed. Outpatient and inpatient hospital care due to mental or behavioural disorders were two to three times more common among the exposed than among the unexposed. The exposed had less often completed secondary school education and had more often needed social assistance.Future plans:The data comprise a wide range of information on infant health, youth?s mental and somatic health and development, out-of-home care history, and mother?s life situation at the delivery and later health. Risk and protective factors for different long-term developmental outcomes in adolescence or in young adulthood will be studied.
  • Loo, Evelyn Xiu Ling; Zhang, Yuqing; Yap, Qai Ven; Yu, Guoqi; Soh, Shu E.; Loy, See Ling; Lau, Hui Xing; Chan, Shiao-Yng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Yap, Fabian Kok Peng; Tan, Kok Hian; Chong, Yap Seng; Zhang, Jun; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar (2021)
    Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with adverse health outcomes for mothers and offspring. Prevalence of GDM differs by country/region due to ethnicity, lifestyle and diagnostic criteria. We compared GDM rates and risk factors in two Asian cohorts using the 1999 WHO and the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria. Methods The Shanghai Birth Cohort (SBC) and the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort are prospective birth cohorts. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and medical history were collected from interviewer-administered questionnaires. Participants underwent a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks gestation. Logistic regressions were performed. Results Using the 1999 WHO criteria, the prevalence of GDM was higher in GUSTO (20.8%) compared to SBC (16.6%) (p = 0.046). Family history of hypertension and alcohol consumption were associated with higher odds of GDM in SBC than in GUSTO cohort while obesity was associated with higher odds of GDM in GUSTO. Using the IADPSG criteria, the prevalence of GDM was 14.3% in SBC versus 12.0% in GUSTO. A history of GDM was associated with higher odds of GDM in GUSTO than in SBC, while being overweight, alcohol consumption and family history of diabetes were associated with higher odds of GDM in SBC. Conclusions We observed several differential risk factors of GDM among ethnic Chinese women living in Shanghai and Singapore. These findings might be due to heterogeneity of GDM reflected in diagnostic criteria as well as in unmeasured genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors.