Browsing by Subject "PRENATAL EXPOSURE"

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  • Perala, Mia-Maria; Mannisto, Satu; Kaartinen, Niina E.; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J. P.; Valsta, Liisa M.; Eriksson, Johan G. (2012)
  • Felix, Janine F.; Joubert, Bonnie R.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Sharp, Gemma C.; Almqvist, Catarina; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Arshad, Hasan; Baiz, Nour; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Bakulski, Kelly M.; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Bouchard, Luigi; Breton, Carrie V.; Brunekreef, Bert; Brunst, Kelly J.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Bustamante, Mariona; Chatzi, Leda; Munthe-Kaas, Monica Cheng; Corpeleijn, Eva; Czamara, Darina; Dabelea, Dana; Smith, George Davey; De Boever, Patrick; Duijts, Liesbeth; Dwyer, Terence; Eng, Celeste; Eskenazi, Brenda; Everson, Todd M.; Falahi, Fahimeh; Fallin, M. Daniele; Farchi, Sara; Fernandez, Mariana F.; Gao, Lu; Gaunt, Tom R.; Ghantous, Akram; Gillman, Matthew W.; Gonseth, Semira; Grote, Veit; Gruzieva, Olena; Haberg, Siri E.; Herceg, Zdenko; Hivert, Marie-France; Holland, Nina; Holloway, John W.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Hu, Donglei; Huang, Rae-Chi; Huen, Karen; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jima, Dereje D.; Just, Allan C.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Karlsson, Robert; Karmaus, Wilfried; Kechris, Katerina J.; Kere, Juha; Kogevinas, Manolis; Koletzko, Berthold; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Kupers, Leanne K.; Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Lahti, Jari; Lambrechts, Nathalie; Langie, Sabine A. S.; Lie, Rolv T.; Liu, Andrew H.; Magnus, Maria C.; Magnus, Per; Maguire, Rachel L.; Marsit, Carmen J.; McArdle, Wendy; Melen, Erik; Melton, Phillip; Murphy, Susan K.; Nawrot, Tim S.; Nistico, Lorenza; Nohr, Ellen A.; Nordlund, Bjorn; Nystad, Wenche; Oh, Sam S.; Oken, Emily; Page, Christian M.; Perron, Patrice; Pershagen, Goran; Pizzi, Costanza; Plusquin, Michelle; Räikkönen, Katri; Reese, Sarah E.; Reischl, Eva; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Ring, Susan; Roy, Ritu P.; Rzehak, Peter; Schoeters, Greet; Schwartz, David A.; Sebert, Sylvain; Snieder, Harold; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Starling, Anne P.; Sunyer, Jordi; ATaylor, Jack; Tiemeier, Henning; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Vafeiadi, Marina; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Vonk, Judith M.; Vriens, Annette; Vrijheid, Martine; Wang, Pei; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Wilcox, Allen J.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Xu, Cheng-Jian; Xu, Zongli; Yang, Ivana V.; Yousefi, Paul; Zhang, Hongmei; Zhang, Weiming; Zhao, Shanshan; Agha, Golareh; Relton, Caroline L.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; London, Stephanie J. (2018)
  • Koskinen, Jyri-Pekka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Vartiainen, Erkki; Jousilahti, Pekka; Vlasoff, Tiina; von Hertzen, Leena; Mäkelä, Mika; Laatikainen, Tiina; Haahtela, Tari (2016)
    Background: Atopic allergy is much more common in Finnish compared with Russian Karelia, although these areas are geographically and genetically close. To explore the role of environmental chemicals on the atopy difference a random sample of 200 individuals, 25 atopic and 25 non-atopic school-aged children and their mothers, were studied. Atopy was defined as having at least one positive skin prick test response to 14 common inhalant and food allergens tested. Concentrations of 11 common environmental pollutants were measured in blood samples. Results: Overall, the chemical levels were much higher in Russia than in Finland, except for 2,2', 4,4'-tetra-bromodiphenyl ether (BDE47). In Finland but not in Russia, the atopic children had higher concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (DDE) than the non-atopic children. In Russia but not in Finland, the atopic mothers had higher DDE concentrations than the non-atopic mothers. Conclusions: Higher concentrations of common environmental chemicals were measured in Russian compared with Finnish Karelian children and mothers. The chemicals did not explain the higher prevalence of atopy on the Finnish side.
  • Eriksson, Johan G. (2019)
    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major, rapidly increasing global public health challenge. The major risk factors for T2D include overweight and obesity, lifestyle-related factors and genetic factors. Early life exposures shape the developmental trajectories and alter susceptibility to T2D. Based on epidemiological studies it has been suggested that fetal undernutrition plays a role in the etiology of T2D. A low birth weight has been considered a proxy for fetal undernutrition. A meta-analysis reported that a 1 kg increase in birth weight is associated with a roughly 20% lower risk of T2D. Although fetal life is of major importance for future health, the period spanning the first 1000 days of life, is characterized by great plasticity and largely influencing later health. Different growth trajectories during this time period have also been associated with an increased risk of T2D. Studies assessing the association between age at BMI rebound in childhood and later risk for T2D have reported a fivefold difference in T2D according to age at BMI rebound. Developmental and epidemiological cohort studies focusing on T2D have major public health implications supporting a paradigm shift; a shift from focusing upon risk factor modification in adult life to adopting a life course perspective when studying T2D. This paradigm shift will not only help us in getting a better understanding of the pathophysiology underlying T2D, but it will also open new possibilities and opportunities in the prevention of T2D and related disorders.
  • Kaminen-Ahola, Nina (2020)
    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a consequence of prenatal alcohol exposure. The etiology of the complex FASD phenotype with growth deficit, birth defects and neurodevelopmental impairments is under extensive research. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the wide phenotype: chromosomal rearrangements, risk and protective alleles, environmental‐induced epigenetic alterations as well as gene‐environment interactions are all involved. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of prenatal alcohol exposure can provide tools for prevention or intervention of the alcohol‐induced developmental disorders in the future. By revealing the alcohol‐induced genetic and epigenetic alterations which associate with the variable FASD phenotypes, it is possible to identify biomarkers for the disorder. This would enable early diagnoses and personalized support for development of the affected child.
  • Robinson, Rachel; Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Heinonen, Kati; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Räikkönen, Katri (2019)
    BACKGROUND: Maternal depression complicates a large proportion of pregnancies. Current evidence shows numerous harmful effects on the offspring. Reviews, which include depression, concluded that stress has harmful effects on the offspring's outcomes neuro-cognitive development, temperament traits, and mental disorders. OBJECTIVE: This mini review of recent studies, sought to narrow the scope of exposure and identify studies specifically assessing prenatal depression and offspring neuropsychiatric outcomes. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: The review included longitudinal, cohort, cross-sectional, clinical, quasi-experimental, epidemiological, or intervention study designs published in English from 2014 to 2018. PARTICIPANTS: Study populations included mother-child dyads, mother-father-child triads, mother-alternative caregiver-child triads, and family studies utilizing sibling comparisons. METHODS: We searched PubMED and Web of Science. Study inclusion and data extraction were based on standardized templates. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). RESULTS: Thirteen studies examining neuropsychiatric outcomes were included. We judged the evidence to be moderate to high quality. CONCLUSIONS: Our review supports that maternal prenatal depression is associated with neuropsychiatric adversities in children.
  • Malm, Heli; Brown, Alan S.; Gissler, Mika; Gyllenberg, David; Hinkka-Yli-Salomaki, Susanna; McKeague, Ian W.; Weissman, Myrna; Wickramaratne, Priya; Artama, Miia; Gingrich, Jay A.; Sourander, Andre (2016)
    Objective: To investigate the impact of gestational exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on offspring neurodevelopment. Method: This is a cohort study using national register data in Finland between the years 1996 and 2010. Pregnant women and their offspring were categorized into 4 groups: SSRI exposed (n = 15,729); exposed to psychiatric disorder, no antidepressants (n = 9,651); exposed to SSRIs only before pregnancy (n = 7,980); and unexposed to antidepressants and psychiatric disorders (n = 31,394). We investigated the cumulative incidence of offspring diagnoses of depression, anxiety, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for the 4 groups from birth to 14 years, adjusting for confounders. Results: The cumulative incidence of depression among offspring exposed prenatally to SSRIs was 8.2% (95% CI = 3.1-13.3%) by age 14.9 years, compared with 1.9% (95% CI = 0.9-2.9%) in the psychiatric disorder, no medication group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.12-2.82; p=.02) and to 2.8% (95% CI = 1.4-4.3%) in the SSRI discontinued group (HR = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.14-2.97; p=.01). Rates of anxiety, ASD, and ADHD diagnoses were comparable to rates in offspring of mothers with a psychiatric disorder but no medication during pregnancy. Comparing SSRI exposed to unexposed individuals, the HRs were significantly elevated for each outcome. Conclusion: Prenatal SSRI exposure was associated with increased rates of depression diagnoses in early adolescence but not with ASD or ADHD. Until confirmed, these findings must be balanced against the substantial adverse consequences of untreated maternal depression.
  • Gyllenberg, David; McKeague, Ian W.; Sourander, Andre; Brown, Alan S. (2020)
    Objectives Few interactions between risk factors for schizophrenia have been replicated, but fitting all such interactions is difficult due to high-dimensionality. Our aims are to examine significant main and interaction effects for schizophrenia and the performance of our approach using simulated data. Methods We apply the machine learning technique elastic net to a high-dimensional logistic regression model to produce a sparse set of predictors, and then assess the significance of odds ratios (OR) with Bonferroni-corrected p-values and confidence intervals (CI). We introduce a simulation model that resembles a Finnish nested case-control study of schizophrenia which uses national registers to identify cases (n = 1,468) and controls (n = 2,975). The predictors include nine sociodemographic factors and all interactions (31 predictors). Results In the simulation, interactions with OR = 3 and prevalence = 4% were identified with = 80% power. None of the studied interactions were significantly associated with schizophrenia, but main effects of parental psychosis (OR = 5.2, CI 2.9-9.7; p <.001), urbanicity (1.3, 1.1-1.7; p = .001), and paternal age >= 35 (1.3, 1.004-1.6; p = .04) were significant. Conclusions We have provided an analytic pipeline for data-driven identification of main and interaction effects in case-control data. We identified highly replicated main effects for schizophrenia, but no interactions.