Browsing by Subject "PRESSURE"

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  • Li, Dong; Chang, Xiao; Connolly, John J.; Tian, Lifeng; Liu, Yichuan; Bhoj, Elizabeth J.; Robinson, Nora; Abrams, Debra; Li, Yun R.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Kim, Cecilia E.; Li, Jin; Wang, Fengxiang; Snyder, James; Lemma, Maria; Hou, Cuiping; Wei, Zhi; Guo, Yiran; Qiu, Haijun; Mentch, Frank D.; Thomas, Kelly A.; Chiavacci, Rosetta M.; Cone, Roger; Li, Bingshan; Sleiman, Patrick A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Eating Disorders Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; Kaprio, Jaakko; Palotie, Aarno; Raevuori-Helkamaa, Anu; Ripatti, Samuli; Price Fdn Collaborative Grp (2017)
    We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of anorexia nervosa (AN) using a stringently defined phenotype. Analysis of phenotypic variability led to the identification of a specific genetic risk factor that approached genome-wide significance (rs929626 in EBF1 (Early B-Cell Factor 1); P = 2.04 x 10(-7); OR = 0.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.61-0.8) with independent replication (P = 0.04), suggesting a variant-mediated dysregulation of leptin signaling may play a role in AN. Multiple SNPs in LD with the variant support the nominal association. This demonstrates that although the clinical and etiologic heterogeneity of AN is universally recognized, further careful sub-typing of cases may provide more precise genomic signals. In this study, through a refinement of the phenotype spectrum of AN, we present a replicable GWAS signal that is nominally associated with AN, highlighting a potentially important candidate locus for further investigation.
  • Murtola, Tiina; Malinen, Jarmo; Geneid, Ahmed; Alku, Paavo (2019)
    A multichannel dataset comprising high-speed videoendoscopy images, and electroglottography and free-field microphone signals, was used to investigate phonation onsets in vowel production. Use of the multichannel data enabled simultaneous analysis of the two main aspects of phonation, glottal area, extracted from the high-speed videoendoscopy images, and glottal flow, estimated from the microphone signal using glottal inverse filtering. Pulse-wise parameterization of the glottal area and glottal flow indicate that there is no single dominant way to initiate quasi-stable phonation. The trajectories of fundamental frequency and normalized amplitude quotient, extracted from glottal area and estimated flow, may differ markedly during onsets. The location and steepness of the amplitude envelopes of the two signals were observed to be closely related, and quantitative analysis supported the hypothesis that glottal area and flow do not carry essentially different amplitude information during vowel onsets. Linear models were used to predict the phonation onset times from the characteristics of the subsequent steady phonation. The phonation onset time of glottal area was found to have good predictability from a combination of the fundamental frequency and the normalized amplitude quotient of the glottal flow, as well as the gender of the speaker. For the phonation onset time of glottal flow, the best linear model was obtained using the fundamental frequency and the normalized amplitude quotient of the glottal flow as predictors.
  • Hernesniemi, Jussi A.; Sipilä, Kalle; Tikkakoski, Antti; Tynkkynen, Juho; Mishra, Pashupati; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Nikus, Kjell; Nieminen, Tuomo; Lehtimaki, Terho; Kähönen, Mika (2020)
    Objective To evaluate whether cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and heart rate recovery (HRR) associate with the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) independently of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Methods The Finnish Cardiovascular Study is a prospective clinical study of patients referred to clinical exercise testing in 2001-2008 and follow-up until December 2013. Patients without pacemakers undergoing first maximal or submaximal exercise testing with cycle ergometer were included (n=3776). CRF in metabolic equivalents (METs) was estimated by achieving maximal work level. HRR was defined as the reduction in heart rate 1 min after maximal exertion. Adjudication of SCD was based on death certificates. LVEF was measured for clinical indications in 71.4% of the patients (n=2697). Results Population mean age was 55.7 years (SD 13.1; 61% men). 98 SCDs were recorded during a median follow-up of 9.1 years (6.9-10.7). Mean CRF and HRR were 7.7 (SD 2.9) METs and 25 (SD 12) beats/min/min. Both CRF and HRR were associated with the risk of SCD in the entire study population (HR(CRF)0.47 (0.37-0.59), p Conclusions CRF and HRR are significantly associated with the risk of SCD regardless of LVEF.
  • Pöysa, Hannu; Vaananen, Veli-Matti (2018)
    The proportion of first-year birds in annual wing samples provided by hunters has been used as a measure of breeding success in waterfowl. The proportion of first-year birds in the wing samples of Eurasian wigeon (Mareca penelope) from Denmark and the UK shows a long-term decline, probably reflecting a decrease in breeding success. However, previous studies report conflicting results in the relationship between variation in the proportion of first-year birds and variation in climatic conditions. We used wing data of hunter-shot Eurasian wigeon from Finland to study whether the proportion of first-year birds shows a similar long-term decline and whether between-year variation in the proportion of young is associated with variation in climatic conditions. We found a long-term decline in the proportion of first-year birds. The proportion of young also varied considerably between years, but this variation was not associated with weather or the climatic variables considered for the breeding and wintering periods. More research is needed concerning factors that affect long-term changes and annual variation in the proportion of young in the hunting bag and on the suitability of this index to measure productivity in ducks.
  • Sen, Sayan; Ahmad, Yousif; Dehbi, Hakim-Moulay; Howard, James P.; Iglesias, Juan F.; Al-Lamee, Rasha; Petraco, Ricardo; Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Bhindi, Ravinay; Lehman, Sam; Walters, Darren; Sapontis, James; Janssens, Luc; Vrints, Christiaan J.; Khashaba, Ahmed; Laine, Mika; Van Belle, Eric; Krackhardt, Florian; Bojara, Waldemar; Going, Olaf; Haerle, Tobias; Indolfi, Ciro; Niccoli, Giampaolo; Ribichini, Flavio; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Takashima, Hiroaki; Kikuta, Yuetsu; Erglis, Andrejs; Vinhas, Hugo; Silva, Pedro Canas; Baptista, Sergio B.; Alghamdi, Ali; Hellig, Farrel; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Nam, Chang-Wook; Shin, Eun-Seok; Doh, Joon-Hyung; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Alegria-Barrero, Eduardo; Meuwissen, Martijin; Piek, Jan J.; van Royen, Niels; Sezer, Murat; Di Mario, Carlo; Gerber, Robert T.; Malik, Iqbal S.; Sharp, Andrew S. P.; Talwar, Suneel; Tang, Kare; Samady, Habib; Altman, John; Seto, Arnold H.; Singh, Jasvindar; Jeremias, Allen; Matsuo, Hitoshi; Kharbanda, Rajesh K.; Patel, Manesh R.; Serruys, Patrick; Escaned, Javier; Davies, Justin E. (2019)
    BACKGROUND Physicians are not always comfortable deferring treatment of a stenosis in the left anterior descending (LAD) artery because of the perception that there is a high risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The authors describe, using the DEFINE-FLAIR (Functional Lesion Assessment of Intermediate Stenosis to Guide Revascularisation) trial, MACE rates when LAD lesions are deferred, guided by physiological assessment using fractional flow reserve (FFR) or the instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR). OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to establish the safety of deferring treatment in the LAD using FFR or iFR within the DEFINE-FLAIR trial. METHODS MACE rates at 1 year were compared between groups (iFR and FFR) in patients whose physiological assessment led to LAD lesions being deferred. MACE was defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), and unplanned revascularization at 1 year. Patients, and staff performing follow-up, were blinded to whether the decision was made with FFR or iFR. Outcomes were adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS A total of 872 patients had lesions deferred in the LAD (421 guided by FFR, 451 guided by iFR). The event rate with iFR was significantly lower than with FFR (2.44% vs. 5.26%; adjusted HR: 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22 to 0.95; p = 0.04). This was driven by significantly lower unplanned revascularization with iFR and numerically lower MI (unplanned revascularization: 2.22% iFR vs. 4.99% FFR; adjusted HR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.93; p = 0.03; MI: 0.44% iFR vs. 2.14% FFR; adjusted HR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.05 to 1.07; p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS iFR-guided deferral appears to be safe for patients with LAD lesions. Patients in whom iFR-guided deferral was performed had statistically significantly lower event rates than those with FFR-guided deferral. (c) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier on behalf of the American College of Cardiology Foundation. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
  • Lillemae, Kadri; Laine, Antti T.; Schramko, Alexey; Niemi, Tomi T. (2018)
    Background:Albumin and mannitol may interfere with hemostasis, but their coinfluence is unclear. We aimed to determine the effects of albumin alone and in combination with mannitol or Ringer acetate (RAC) on hemostasis in crossover in vitro study.Materials and Methods:From citrated fresh whole blood withdrawn from 10 volunteers, we prepared 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 vol% dilutions of 4% albumin (Alb group). Each sample was thereafter diluted by 15% mannitol (Alb/Man group) or RAC (Alb/RAC group) at a ratio of 9:1. Using thromboelastometry, FibTEM (fibrinogen ROTEM) and ExTEM (extrinsic ROTEM) tests were performed.Results:A 20 vol%, but not 2.5 to 15 vol% dilution of albumin caused a prolonged clot formation time, -angle decrease, and maximum clot firmness (MCF) weakening compared with undiluted sample (P
  • Montonen, Risto; Kassamakov, Ivan; Lehmann, Peter; Österberg, Kenneth; Haeggström, Edward (2018)
    The group refractive index is important in length calibration of Fourier domain interferometers by transparent transfer standards. We demonstrate accurate group refractive index quantification using a Fourier domain short coherence Sagnac interferometer. Because of a justified linear length calibration function, the calibration constants cancel out in the evaluation of the group refractive index, which is then obtained accurately from two uncalibrated lengths. Measurements of two standard thickness coverslips revealed group indices of 1.5426 +/- 0.0042 and 1.5434 +/- 0.0046, with accuracies quoted at the 95% confidence level. This agreed with the dispersion data of the coverslip manufacturer and therefore validates our method. Our method provides a sample specific and accurate group refractive index quantification using the same Fourier domain interferometer that is to be calibrated for the length. This reduces significantly the requirements of the calibration transfer standard. (C) 2018 Optical Society of America
  • Sahle, Christoph J.; Schroer, Martin A.; Juurinen, Iina; Niskanen, Johannes (2016)
    We present a study on the influence of the naturally occurring organic osmolytes tri-methylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and urea on the bulk structure of water using X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy. Addition of TMAO is known to stabilize proteins in otherwise destabilizing aqueous urea solutions. The experimental X-ray Raman scattering spectra change systematically with increasing solute concentration revealing different effects on the structure of water due to the presence of the two osmolytes. Although these effects are distinct for both molecular species, they have mutually compensating influences on the spectra of the ternary water-TMAO-urea mixtures. This compensation effect seen in the spectra vanishes only at the highest studied ternary concentration of 4 M: 4 M (TMAO : urea). Our experiment shows that the hydrogen-bonding structure of water remains rather intact in the presence of the aforementioned osmolytes if both of them are present.
  • Moreau, Juulia-Gabrielle; Kohout, Tomas; Wünnemann, Kai (2018)
    We studied shock-darkening in ordinary chondrites by observing the propagation of shock waves and melting through mixtures of metals and iron sulfides. We used the shock physics code iSALE at the mesoscale to simulate shock compression of modeled ordinary chondrites (using olivine, iron and troilite). We introduced FeS-FeNi eutectic properties and partial melting in a series of chosen configurations of iron and troilite grains mixtures in a sample plate. We observed, at a nominal pressure of 45 GPa, partial melting of troilite in all models. Only few of the models showed partial melting of iron (a phase difficult to melt in shock heating) due to the eutectic properties of the mixtures. Iron melting only occurred in models presenting either strong shock wave concentration effects or effects of heating by pore crushing, for which we provided more details. Further effects are discussed such as the frictional heating between iron and troilite and the heat diffusion in scenarios with strongly heated troilite. We also characterized troilite melting in the 32-60 GPa nominal pressure range. We concluded that specific dispositions of the iron and troilite grains in mixtures exist that lead to melting of iron and explain why it is possible to find a mix of metals and iron sulfides in shock-darkened ordinary chondrites.
  • Murtola, Tiina; Aalto, Atte; Malinen, Jarmo; Aalto, Daniel; Vainio, Martti (2018)
    During voiced speech, vocal folds interact with the vocal tract acoustics. The resulting glottal source-resonator coupling has been observed using mathematical and physical models as well as in in vivo phonation. We propose a computational time-domain model of the full speech apparatus that contains a feedback mechanism from the vocal tract acoustics to the vocal fold oscillations. It is based on numerical solution of ordinary and partial differential equations defined on vocal tract geometries that have been obtained by magnetic resonance imaging. The model is used to simulate rising and falling pitch glides of [alpha, i] in the fundamental frequency (f(o)) interval [145 Hz, 315 Hz]. The interval contains the first vocal tract resonance f(R1) and the first formant F-1 of [i] as well as the fractions of the first resonance f(R1)/5, f(R1)/4, and f(R1)/3 of [alpha]. The glide simulations reveal a locking pattern in the f(o) trajectory approximately at f(R1) of [i]. The resonance fractions of [alpha] produce perturbations in the pressure signal at the lips but no locking.
  • Alloul, H.; Wzietek, P.; Mito, T.; Pontiroli, D.; Aramini, M.; Ricco, M.; Itie, J. P.; Elkaim, E. (2017)
    We present a detailed NMR study of the insulator-to-metal transition induced by an applied pressure p in the A15 phase of Cs3C60. We evidence that the insulating antiferromagnetic (AFM) and superconducting (SC) phases coexist only in a narrow p range. At fixed p, in the metallic state above the SC transition T-c, the Cs-133 and C-13 NMR spin-lattice relaxation data are seemingly governed by a pseudogaplike feature. We prove that this feature, also seen in the (CsNMR)-Cs-133 shift data, is rather a signature of the Mott transition which broadens and smears out progressively for increasing (p,T). The analysis of the variation of the quadrupole splitting nu(Q) of the Cs-133 NMR spectrum precludes any cell symmetry change at the Mott transition and only monitors a weak variation of the lattice parameter. These results open an opportunity to consider theoretically the Mott transition in a multiorbital three-dimensional system well beyond its critical point.
  • Laakkonen, Hanne; Happonen, Juha-Matti; Marttinen, Eino; Paganus, Aila; Holtta, Tuula; Holmberg, Christer; Rönnholm, Kai (2010)
  • Ghisoiu, Ioan; Gorda, Tyler; Kurkela, Aleksi; Romatschke, Paul; Säppi, Matias; Vuorinen, Aleksi (2017)
    We discuss the prospects of performing high-order perturbative calculations in systems characterized by a vanishing temperature but finite density. In particular, we show that the determination of generic Feynman integrals containing fermionic chemical potentials can be reduced to the evaluation of three-dimensional phase space integrals over vacuum on-shell amplitudes - a result reminiscent of a previously proposed "naive real-time formalism" for vacuum diagrams. Applications of these rules are discussed in the context of the thermodynamics of cold and dense QCD, where it is argued that they facilitate an extension of the Equation of State of cold quark matter to higher perturbative orders. (C) 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Skrifvars, M. B.; Olasveengen, T. M.; Ristagno, Giuseppe (2019)
  • Choque-Velasquez, Joham; Colasanti, Roberto; Resendiz-Nieves, Julio C.; Gonzales-Echevarria, Kleber E.; Raj, Rahul; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Goehre, Felix; Lindroos, Ann-Christine; Hernesniemi, Juha (2018)
    BACKGROUND: The sitting position has lost favor among neurosurgeons partly owing to assumptions of increased complications, such as venous air embolisms and hemodynamic disturbances. Moreover, the surgeon must assume a tiring posture. We describe our protocol for the "praying position" for pineal region surgery; this variant may reduce some of the risks of the sitting position, while providing a more ergonomic surgical position. METHODS: A retrospective review of 56 pineal lesions operated on using the praying position between January 2008 and October 2015 was performed. The praying position is a steeper sitting position with the upper torso and the head bent forward and downward. The patient's head is tilted about 30 degrees making the tentorium almost horizontal, thus providing a good viewing angle. G-suit trousers or elastic bandages around the lower extremities are always used. RESULTS: Complete lesion removal was achieved in 52 cases; subtotal removal was achieved in 4. Venous air embolism associated with persistent hemodynamic changes was nonexistent in this series. When venous air embolism was suspected, an immediate reaction based on good teamwork was imperative. No cervical spine cord injury or peripheral nerve damage was reported. The microsurgical time was CONCLUSIONS: A protocolized praying position that includes proper teamwork management may provide a simple, fast, and safe approach for proper placement of the patient for pineal region surgery.
  • Aramini, Matteo; Niskanen, Johannes; Cavallari, Chiara; Pontiroli, Daniele; Musazay, Abdurrahman; Krisch, Michael; Hakala, Mikko; Huotari, Simo (2016)
    We report the microscopic view of the thermal structural stability of the magnesium intercalated fullerene polymer Mg2C60. With the application of X-ray Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, we study in detail the decomposition pathways of the polymer system upon annealing at temperatures between 300 and 700 degrees C. We show that there are at least two energy scales involved in the decomposition reaction. Intermolecular carbon bonds, which are responsible for the formation of a 2D fullerene polymer, are broken with a relatively modest thermal energy, while the long-range order of the original polymer remains intact. With an increased thermal energy, the crystal structure in turn is found to undergo a transition to a novel intercalated cubic phase that is stable up to the highest temperature studied here. The local structure surrounding magnesium ions gets severely modified close to, possibly at, the phase transition. We used density functional theory based calculations to study the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the collapse of the fullerene network, and to explain the intermediate steps as well as the reaction pathways in the break-up of this peculiar C-60 intermolecular bonding architecture.
  • Kim, Chee Hae; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Dehbi, Hakim-Moulay; Lee, Joo Myung; Doh, Joon-Hyung; Nam, Chang-Wook; Shin, Eun-Seok; Cook, Christopher M.; Al-Lamee, Rasha; Petraco, Ricardo; Sen, Sayan; Malik, Iqbal S.; Nijjer, Sukhjinder S.; Mejia-Renteria, Hernan; Alegria-Barrero, Eduardo; Alghamdi, Ali; Altman, John; Baptista, Sergio B.; Bhindi, Ravinay; Bojara, Waldemar; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Silva, Pedro Canas; Di Mario, Carlo; Erglis, Andrejs; Gerber, Robert T.; Going, Olaf; Haerle, Tobias; Hellig, Farrel; Indolfi, Ciro; Janssens, Luc; Jeremias, Allen; Kharbanda, Rajesh K.; Khashaba, Ahmed; Kikuta, Yuetsu; Krackhardt, Florian; Laine, Mika; Lehman, Sam J.; Matsuo, Hitoshi; Meuwissen, Martijin; Niccoli, Giampaolo; Piek, Jan J.; Ribichini, Flavo; Samady, Habib; Sapontis, James; Seto, Arnold H.; Sezer, Murat; Sharp, Andrew S. P.; Singh, Jasvindar; Takashima, Hiroaki; Talwar, Suneel; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Tang, Kare; Van Belle, Eric; van Royen, Niels; Vinhas, Hugo; Vrints, Christiaan J.; Walters, Darren; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Samuels, Bruce; Buller, Christopher; Patel, Manesh R.; Serruys, Patrick W.; Escaned, Javier; Davies, Justin E. (2019)
    OBJECTIVES This study sought to evaluate sex differences in procedural characteristics and clinical outcomes of instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR)- and fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided revascularization strategies. BACKGROUND An iFR-guided strategy has shown a lower revascularization rate than an FFR-guided strategy, without differences in clinical outcomes. METHODS This is a post hoc analysis of the DEFINE-FLAIR (Functional Lesion Assessment of Intermediate stenosis to guide Revascularization) study, in which 601 women and 1,891 men were randomized to iFR- or FFR-guided strategy. The primary endpoint was 1-year major adverse cardiac events (MACE), a composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or unplanned revascularization. RESULTS Among the entire population, women had a lower number of functionally significant lesions per patient (0.31 +/- 0.51 vs. 0.43 +/- 0.59; p <0.001) and less frequently underwent revascularization than men (42.1% vs. 53.1%; p <0.001). There was no difference in mean iFR value according to sex (0.91 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.91 +/- 0.10; p = 0.442). However, the mean FFR value was lower in men than in women (0.83 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.85 +/- 0.10; p = 0.001). In men, an FFR-guided strategy was associated with a higher rate of revascularization than an iFR-guided strategy (57.1% vs. 49.3%; p = 0.001), but this difference was not observed in women (41.4% vs. 42.6%; p = 0.757). There was no difference in MACE rates between iFR- and FFR-guided strategies in both women (5.4% vs. 5.6%, adjusted hazard ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval: 0.50 to 2.43; p = 0.805) and men (6.6% vs. 7.0%, adjusted hazard ratio: 0.98; 95% confidence interval: 0.66 to 1.46; p = 0.919). CONCLUSIONS An FFR-guided strategy was associated with a higher rate of revascularization than iFR-guided strategy in men, but not in women. However, iFR- and FFR-guided strategies showed comparable clinical outcomes, regardless of sex. (C) 2019 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
  • Moreau, Juulia-Gabrielle; Kohout, Tomas; Wünnemann, Kai; Halodova, Patricie; Haloda, Jakub (2019)
    Shock-darkening, the melting of metals and iron sulfides into a network of veins within silicate grains, altering reflectance spectra of meteorites, was previously studied using shock physics mesoscale modeling. Melting of iron sulfides embedded in olivine was observed at pressures of 40-50 GPa. This pressure range is at the transition between shock stage 5 (C-S5) and 6 (C-S6) of the shock metamorphism classification in ordinary and enstatite chondrites. To better characterize C-S5 and C-S6 with a mesoscale modeling approach and assess post-shock heating and melting, we used multi-phase (i.e. olivine/enstatite, troilite, iron, pores, and plagioclase) meshes with realistic configurations of grains. We carried out a systematic study of shock compression in ordinary and enstatite chondrites at pressures between 30 and 70 GPa. To setup mesoscale sample meshes with realistic silicate, metal, iron sulfide, and open pore shapes, we converted backscattered electron microscope images of three chondrites. The resolved macroporosity in meshes was 3-6%. Transition from shock C-S5 to C-S6 was observed through (1) the melting of troilite above 40 GPa with melt fractions of similar to 0.7-0.9 at 70 GPa, (2) the melting of olivine and iron above 50 GPa with melt fraction of similar to 0.001 and 0.012, respectively, at 70 GPa, and (3) the melting of plagioclase above 30 GPa (melt fraction of 1, at 55 GPa). Post-shock temperatures varied from similar to 540 K at 30 GPa to similar to 1300 K at 70 GPa. We also constructed models with increased porosity up to 15% porosity, producing higher post-shock temperatures (similar to 800 K increase) and melt fractions (similar to 0.12 increase) in olivine. Additionally we constructed a pre-heated model to observe post-shock heating and melting during thermal metamorphism. This model presented similar results (melting) at pressures 10-15 GPa lower compared to the room temperature models. Finally, we demonstrated dependence of post-shock heating and melting on the orientation of open cracks relative to the shock wave front. In conclusion, the modeled melting and post-shock heating of individual phases were mostly consistent with the current shock classification scheme (Stoffler et al., 1991, 2018).
  • Peltola, Olli; Raivonen, Maarit; Li, Xuefei; Vesala, Timo (2018)
    Emission via bubbling, i.e. ebullition, is one of the main methane (CH4) emission pathways from wetlands to the atmosphere. Direct measurement of gas bubble formation, growth and release in the peat-water matrix is challenging and in consequence these processes are relatively unknown and are coarsely represented in current wetland CH4 emission models. In this study we aimed to evaluate three ebullition modelling approaches and their effect on model performance. This was achieved by implementing the three approaches in one process-based CH4 emission model. All the approaches were based on some kind of threshold: either on CH4 pore water concentration (ECT), pressure (EPT) or free-phase gas volume (EBG) threshold. The model was run using 4 years of data from a boreal sedge fen and the results were compared with eddy covariance measurements of CH4 fluxes. Modelled annual CH4 emissions were largely unaffected by the different ebullition modelling approaches; however, temporal variability in CH4 emissions varied an order of magnitude between the approaches. Hence the ebullition modelling approach drives the temporal variability in modelled CH4 emissions and therefore significantly impacts, for instance, high-frequency (daily scale) model comparison and calibration against measurements. The modelling approach based on the most recent knowledge of the ebullition process (volume threshold, EBG) agreed the best with the measured fluxes (R-2 = 0.63) and hence produced the most reasonable results, although there was a scale mismatch between the measurements (ecosystem scale with heterogeneous ebullition locations) and model results (single horizontally ho-mogeneous peat column). The approach should be favoured over the two other more widely used ebullition modelling approaches and researchers are encouraged to implement it into their CH4 emission models.
  • Nelskylä, Annika; Nurmi, Jouni; Jousi, Milla; Schramko, Alexey; Mervaala, Eero; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Skrifvars, Markus (2017)
    Background and aim: We hypothesised that the use of 50% compared to 100% oxygen maintains cerebral oxygenation and ameliorates the disturbance of cardiac mitochondrial respiration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Methods: Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was induced electrically in anaesthetised healthy adult pigs and left untreated for seven minutes followed by randomisation to manual ventilation with 50% or 100% oxygen and mechanical chest compressions (LUCAS (R)). Defibrillation was performed at thirteen minutes and repeated if necessary every two minutes with 1 mg intravenous adrenaline. Cerebral oxygenation was measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (rSO(2), INVOS (TM) 5100C Cerebral Oximeter) and with a probe (NEUROVENT-PTO, RAUMEDIC) in the frontal brain cortex (PbO2). Heart biopsies were obtained 20 min after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) with an analysis of mitochondrial respiration (OROBOROS Instruments Corp., Innsbruck, Austria), and compared to four control animals without VF and CPR. Brain rSO(2) and PbO2 were log transformed and analysed with a mixed linear model and mitochondrial respiration with an analysis of variance. Results: Of the twenty pigs, one had a breach of protocol and was excluded, leaving nine pigs in the 50% group and ten in the 100% group. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved in six pigs in the 50% group and eight in the 100% group. The rSO(2) (p = 0.007) was lower with FiO(2) 50%, but the PbO2 was not (p = 0.93). After ROSC there were significant interactions between time and FiO(2) regarding both rSO(2) (p = 0.001) and PbO2 (p = 0.004). Compared to the controls, mitochondrial respiration was decreased, with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) levels of 57 (17) pmol s(-1) mg(-1) compared to 92 (23) pmol s(-1) mg(-1) (p = 0.008), but there was no difference between different oxygen fractions (p = 0.79). Conclusions: The use of 50% oxygen during CPR results in lower cerebral oximetry values compared to 100% oxygen but there is no difference in brain tissue oxygen. Cardiac arrest disturbs cardiac mitochondrial respiration, but it is not alleviated with the use of 50% compared to 100% oxygen (Ethical and hospital approvals ESAVI/1077/04.10.07/2016 and HUS/215/2016, 7 30.3.2016, Funding Helsinki University and others). (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.