Browsing by Subject "PRESSURE"

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  • Li, Dong; Chang, Xiao; Connolly, John J.; Tian, Lifeng; Liu, Yichuan; Bhoj, Elizabeth J.; Robinson, Nora; Abrams, Debra; Li, Yun R.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Kim, Cecilia E.; Li, Jin; Wang, Fengxiang; Snyder, James; Lemma, Maria; Hou, Cuiping; Wei, Zhi; Guo, Yiran; Qiu, Haijun; Mentch, Frank D.; Thomas, Kelly A.; Chiavacci, Rosetta M.; Cone, Roger; Li, Bingshan; Sleiman, Patrick A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Eating Disorders Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; Kaprio, Jaakko; Palotie, Aarno; Raevuori-Helkamaa, Anu; Ripatti, Samuli; Price Fdn Collaborative Grp (2017)
    We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of anorexia nervosa (AN) using a stringently defined phenotype. Analysis of phenotypic variability led to the identification of a specific genetic risk factor that approached genome-wide significance (rs929626 in EBF1 (Early B-Cell Factor 1); P = 2.04 x 10(-7); OR = 0.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.61-0.8) with independent replication (P = 0.04), suggesting a variant-mediated dysregulation of leptin signaling may play a role in AN. Multiple SNPs in LD with the variant support the nominal association. This demonstrates that although the clinical and etiologic heterogeneity of AN is universally recognized, further careful sub-typing of cases may provide more precise genomic signals. In this study, through a refinement of the phenotype spectrum of AN, we present a replicable GWAS signal that is nominally associated with AN, highlighting a potentially important candidate locus for further investigation.
  • Murtola, Tiina; Malinen, Jarmo; Geneid, Ahmed; Alku, Paavo (2019)
    A multichannel dataset comprising high-speed videoendoscopy images, and electroglottography and free-field microphone signals, was used to investigate phonation onsets in vowel production. Use of the multichannel data enabled simultaneous analysis of the two main aspects of phonation, glottal area, extracted from the high-speed videoendoscopy images, and glottal flow, estimated from the microphone signal using glottal inverse filtering. Pulse-wise parameterization of the glottal area and glottal flow indicate that there is no single dominant way to initiate quasi-stable phonation. The trajectories of fundamental frequency and normalized amplitude quotient, extracted from glottal area and estimated flow, may differ markedly during onsets. The location and steepness of the amplitude envelopes of the two signals were observed to be closely related, and quantitative analysis supported the hypothesis that glottal area and flow do not carry essentially different amplitude information during vowel onsets. Linear models were used to predict the phonation onset times from the characteristics of the subsequent steady phonation. The phonation onset time of glottal area was found to have good predictability from a combination of the fundamental frequency and the normalized amplitude quotient of the glottal flow, as well as the gender of the speaker. For the phonation onset time of glottal flow, the best linear model was obtained using the fundamental frequency and the normalized amplitude quotient of the glottal flow as predictors.
  • Nilsson, Abraham; Ibounig, Thomas; Lyth, Johan; Alkner, Bjorn; von Walden, Ferdinand; Fornander, Lotta; Rämö, Lasse; Schmidt, Andrew; Schilcher, Jörg (2022)
    Introduction The ischaemic pain of acute compartment syndrome (ACS) can be difficult to discriminate from the pain linked to an associated fracture. Lacking objective measures, the decision to perform fasciotomy is based on clinical findings and performed at a low level of suspicion. Biomarkers of muscle cell damage may help to identify and monitor patients at risk, similar to current routines for patients with acute myocardial infarction. This study will test the hypothesis that biomarkers of muscle cell damage can predict ACS in patients with tibial fractures. Methods and analysis Patients aged 15-65 years who have suffered a tibial fracture will be included. Plasma (P)-myoglobin and P-creatine phosphokinase will be analysed at 6-hourly intervals after admission to the hospital (for 48 hours) and-if applicable-after surgical fixation or fasciotomy (for 24 hours). In addition, if ACS is suspected at any other point in time, blood samples will be collected at 6-hourly intervals. An independent expert panel will assess the study data and will classify those patients who had undergone fasciotomy into those with ACS and those without ACS. All primary comparisons will be perforated between fracture patients with and without ACS. The area under the receiver operator characteristics curves will be used to identify the success of the biomarkers in discriminating between fracture patients who develop ACS and those who do not. Logistic regression analyses will be used to assess the discriminative abilities of the biomarkers to predict ACS corrected for prespecified covariates. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Regional Ethical Review Boards in Linkoping (2017/514-31) and Helsinki/Uusimaa (HUS/2500/2000). The BioFACTS study will be reported in accordance with the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology recommendations.
  • Hernesniemi, Jussi A.; Sipilä, Kalle; Tikkakoski, Antti; Tynkkynen, Juho; Mishra, Pashupati; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Nikus, Kjell; Nieminen, Tuomo; Lehtimaki, Terho; Kähönen, Mika (2020)
    Objective To evaluate whether cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and heart rate recovery (HRR) associate with the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) independently of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Methods The Finnish Cardiovascular Study is a prospective clinical study of patients referred to clinical exercise testing in 2001-2008 and follow-up until December 2013. Patients without pacemakers undergoing first maximal or submaximal exercise testing with cycle ergometer were included (n=3776). CRF in metabolic equivalents (METs) was estimated by achieving maximal work level. HRR was defined as the reduction in heart rate 1 min after maximal exertion. Adjudication of SCD was based on death certificates. LVEF was measured for clinical indications in 71.4% of the patients (n=2697). Results Population mean age was 55.7 years (SD 13.1; 61% men). 98 SCDs were recorded during a median follow-up of 9.1 years (6.9-10.7). Mean CRF and HRR were 7.7 (SD 2.9) METs and 25 (SD 12) beats/min/min. Both CRF and HRR were associated with the risk of SCD in the entire study population (HR(CRF)0.47 (0.37-0.59), p Conclusions CRF and HRR are significantly associated with the risk of SCD regardless of LVEF.
  • Nurmi, Jouni; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Kirves, Hetti; Raatiniemi, Lasse; Toivonen, Tuukka; Tommila, Miretta; Piiroinen, Heini; Setälä, Piritta; Karhivuori, Pamela; Tukia, Simo; Olkinuora, Anna (2022)
    Background: During prehospital anaesthesia, oxygen delivery to the brain might be inadequate to match the oxygen consumption, with unknown long-term functional outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring cerebral oxygenation during prehospital anaesthesia and determining the long-term outcomes. Methods: We performed a prospective observational feasibility study in two helicopter emergency medical services units. Frontal lobe regional oxygen saturation (rSO(2)) of adult patients undergoing prehospital anaesthesia was monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) by a Nonin H500 oximeter. The outcome was evaluated with a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 30 days and 1 year. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was measured with a 15D instrument at 1 year. Results: Of 101 patients enrolled, 83 were included. The mean baseline rSO(2) was 79% (73-84). Desaturation for at least 5 min to rSO(2) below 50% or a decrease of 10% from baseline occurred in four (5%, 95% CI 2%-12%) and 19 (23%, 95% CI 15-93) patients. At 1 year, 32 patients (53%, 95% CI 41-65) achieved favourable neurological outcomes. The median 15D score was 0.889 (Q1-Q3, 0.796-0.970). Conclusion: Monitoring cerebral oxygenation with a hand-held oximeter during prehospital anaesthesia and collecting data on functional outcomes and HRQoL are feasible. Only half of the patients achieved a favourable functional outcome. The effects of cerebral oxygenation on outcomes during prehospital critical care need to be assessed in future studies.
  • Pöysa, Hannu; Vaananen, Veli-Matti (2018)
    The proportion of first-year birds in annual wing samples provided by hunters has been used as a measure of breeding success in waterfowl. The proportion of first-year birds in the wing samples of Eurasian wigeon (Mareca penelope) from Denmark and the UK shows a long-term decline, probably reflecting a decrease in breeding success. However, previous studies report conflicting results in the relationship between variation in the proportion of first-year birds and variation in climatic conditions. We used wing data of hunter-shot Eurasian wigeon from Finland to study whether the proportion of first-year birds shows a similar long-term decline and whether between-year variation in the proportion of young is associated with variation in climatic conditions. We found a long-term decline in the proportion of first-year birds. The proportion of young also varied considerably between years, but this variation was not associated with weather or the climatic variables considered for the breeding and wintering periods. More research is needed concerning factors that affect long-term changes and annual variation in the proportion of young in the hunting bag and on the suitability of this index to measure productivity in ducks.
  • Sen, Sayan; Ahmad, Yousif; Dehbi, Hakim-Moulay; Howard, James P.; Iglesias, Juan F.; Al-Lamee, Rasha; Petraco, Ricardo; Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Bhindi, Ravinay; Lehman, Sam; Walters, Darren; Sapontis, James; Janssens, Luc; Vrints, Christiaan J.; Khashaba, Ahmed; Laine, Mika; Van Belle, Eric; Krackhardt, Florian; Bojara, Waldemar; Going, Olaf; Haerle, Tobias; Indolfi, Ciro; Niccoli, Giampaolo; Ribichini, Flavio; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Takashima, Hiroaki; Kikuta, Yuetsu; Erglis, Andrejs; Vinhas, Hugo; Silva, Pedro Canas; Baptista, Sergio B.; Alghamdi, Ali; Hellig, Farrel; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Nam, Chang-Wook; Shin, Eun-Seok; Doh, Joon-Hyung; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Alegria-Barrero, Eduardo; Meuwissen, Martijin; Piek, Jan J.; van Royen, Niels; Sezer, Murat; Di Mario, Carlo; Gerber, Robert T.; Malik, Iqbal S.; Sharp, Andrew S. P.; Talwar, Suneel; Tang, Kare; Samady, Habib; Altman, John; Seto, Arnold H.; Singh, Jasvindar; Jeremias, Allen; Matsuo, Hitoshi; Kharbanda, Rajesh K.; Patel, Manesh R.; Serruys, Patrick; Escaned, Javier; Davies, Justin E. (2019)
    BACKGROUND Physicians are not always comfortable deferring treatment of a stenosis in the left anterior descending (LAD) artery because of the perception that there is a high risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The authors describe, using the DEFINE-FLAIR (Functional Lesion Assessment of Intermediate Stenosis to Guide Revascularisation) trial, MACE rates when LAD lesions are deferred, guided by physiological assessment using fractional flow reserve (FFR) or the instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR). OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to establish the safety of deferring treatment in the LAD using FFR or iFR within the DEFINE-FLAIR trial. METHODS MACE rates at 1 year were compared between groups (iFR and FFR) in patients whose physiological assessment led to LAD lesions being deferred. MACE was defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), and unplanned revascularization at 1 year. Patients, and staff performing follow-up, were blinded to whether the decision was made with FFR or iFR. Outcomes were adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS A total of 872 patients had lesions deferred in the LAD (421 guided by FFR, 451 guided by iFR). The event rate with iFR was significantly lower than with FFR (2.44% vs. 5.26%; adjusted HR: 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22 to 0.95; p = 0.04). This was driven by significantly lower unplanned revascularization with iFR and numerically lower MI (unplanned revascularization: 2.22% iFR vs. 4.99% FFR; adjusted HR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.93; p = 0.03; MI: 0.44% iFR vs. 2.14% FFR; adjusted HR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.05 to 1.07; p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS iFR-guided deferral appears to be safe for patients with LAD lesions. Patients in whom iFR-guided deferral was performed had statistically significantly lower event rates than those with FFR-guided deferral. (c) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier on behalf of the American College of Cardiology Foundation. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Louca, Panayiotis; Nogal, Ana; Moskal, Aurelie; Goulding, Neil J.; Shipley, Martin J.; Alkis, Taryn; Lindbohm, Joni; Hu, Jie; Kifer, Domagoj; Wang, Ni; Chawes, Bo; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kivimaki, Mika; Murphy, Rachel A.; Yu, Bing; Gunter, Marc J.; Suhre, Karsten; Lawlor, Deborah A.; Mangino, Massimo; Menni, Cristina (2022)
    Hypertension is the main modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality but discovering molecular mechanisms for targeted treatment has been challenging. Here we investigate associations of blood metabolite markers with hypertension by integrating data from nine intercontinental cohorts from the COnsortium of METabolomics Studies. We included 44,306 individuals with circulating metabolites (up to 813). Metabolites were aligned and inverse normalised to allow intra-platform comparison. Logistic models adjusting for covariates were performed in each cohort and results were combined using random-effect inverse-variance meta-analyses adjusting for multiple testing. We further conducted canonical pathway analysis to investigate the pathways underlying the hypertension-associated metabolites. In 12,479 hypertensive cases and 31,827 controls without renal impairment, we identified 38 metabolites, associated with hypertension after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, ethnicity, and multiple testing. Of these, 32 metabolite associations, predominantly lipid (steroids and fatty acyls) and organic acids (amino-, hydroxy-, and keto-acids) remained after further adjusting for comorbidities and dietary intake. Among the identified metabolites, 5 were novel, including 2 bile acids, 2 glycerophospholipids, and ketoleucine. Pathway analysis further implicates the role of the amino-acids, serine/glycine, and bile acids in hypertension regulation. In the largest cross-sectional hypertension-metabolomics study to date, we identify 32 circulating metabolites (of which 5 novel and 27 confirmed) that are potentially actionable targets for intervention. Further in-vivo studies are needed to identify their specific role in the aetiology or progression of hypertension.
  • Raj, Rahul; Wennervirta, Jenni M.; Tjerkaski, Jonathan; Luoto, Teemu M.; Posti, Jussi P.; Nelson, David W.; Takala, Riikka; Bendel, Stepani; Thelin, Eric P.; Luostarinen, Teemu; Korja, Miikka (2022)
    Intensive care for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) aims to optimize intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). The transformation of ICP and CPP time-series data into a dynamic prediction model could aid clinicians to make more data-driven treatment decisions. We retrained and externally validated a machine learning model to dynamically predict the risk of mortality in patients with TBI. Retraining was done in 686 patients with 62,000 h of data and validation was done in two international cohorts including 638 patients with 60,000 h of data. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve increased with time to 0.79 and 0.73 and the precision recall curve increased with time to 0.57 and 0.64 in the Swedish and American validation cohorts, respectively. The rate of false positives decreased to
  • Lillemae, Kadri; Laine, Antti T.; Schramko, Alexey; Niemi, Tomi T. (2018)
    Background:Albumin and mannitol may interfere with hemostasis, but their coinfluence is unclear. We aimed to determine the effects of albumin alone and in combination with mannitol or Ringer acetate (RAC) on hemostasis in crossover in vitro study.Materials and Methods:From citrated fresh whole blood withdrawn from 10 volunteers, we prepared 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 vol% dilutions of 4% albumin (Alb group). Each sample was thereafter diluted by 15% mannitol (Alb/Man group) or RAC (Alb/RAC group) at a ratio of 9:1. Using thromboelastometry, FibTEM (fibrinogen ROTEM) and ExTEM (extrinsic ROTEM) tests were performed.Results:A 20 vol%, but not 2.5 to 15 vol% dilution of albumin caused a prolonged clot formation time, -angle decrease, and maximum clot firmness (MCF) weakening compared with undiluted sample (P
  • Ala-Kauhaluoma, Marianne; Vikatmaa, Pirkka; Koskinen, Suvi M.; Ijäs, Petra; Nuotio, Krista; Silvennoinen, Heli; Relander, Kristiina; Lindsberg, Perttu J.; Soinne, Lauri; Summanen, Paula A. (2022)
    Purpose Retinal vascular function was assessed in patients with carotid stenosis (CS) before and six months after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and in controls at a six-month interval. Methods We studied 68 patients (81% male, mean age 69) and 41 healthy non-medicated controls (77%, 68) from March 2015 to December 2018. Our ophthalmological examination included flicker-induced arteriolar and venular measurements with a Dynamic Vessel Analyser in both eyes. Results At baseline, flicker-induced arteriolar and venular dilation was reduced in the ipsilateral eyes of the patients compared with dilation in the controls (arteriolar 1.0% versus 2.6%, p = 0.001 and venular 2.2% versus 2.8%, p = 0.049). These differences subsided after CEA. In patients' ipsilateral eyes, flicker-induced arteriolar dilation was borderline postoperatively (preoperative 1.0% versus postoperative 1.6%, p = 0.06), whereas venular dilation increased (2.2% versus 2.8%, p = 0.025). We found various tentative associations with the change in flicker-induced dilations after CEA, but not with the preoperative dilations. Conclusions Postoperative recovery of the reduced flicker-induced arteriolar and venular dilatation in the ipsilateral eye shows that, after CEA, the activity-dependent vascular reactivity of haemodynamically compromised retinal tissue can improve.
  • Reddy, Mittapalle Kiran; Pohjalainen, Hilla; Helkkula, Pyry; Kaitue, Kasimir; Minkkinen, Mikko; Tolppanen, Heli; Nieminen, Tuomo; Alku, Paavo (2022)
    Heart failure (HF) is one of the most life-threatening diseases globally. HF is an under-diagnosed condition, and more screening tools are needed to detect it. A few recent studies have suggested that HF also affects the functioning of the speech production mechanism by causing generation of edema in the vocal folds and by impairing the lung function. It has not yet been studied whether these possible effects of HF on the speech production mechanism are large enough to cause acoustically measurable differences to distinguish speech produced in HF from that produced by healthy speakers. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to compare speech production between HF patients and healthy controls by focusing on the excitation signal generated at the level of the vocal folds, the glottal flow. The glottal flow was computed from speech using the quasi-closed phase glottal inverse filtering method and the estimated flow was parameterized with 12 glottal parameters. The sound pressure level (SPL) was measured from speech as an additional parameter. The statistical analyses conducted on the parameters indicated that most of the glottal parameters and SPL were significantly different between the HF patients and healthy controls. The results showed that the HF patients generally produced a more rounded glottal pulse and a lower SPL level compared to the healthy controls, indicating incomplete glottal closure and inappropriate leakage of air through the glottis. The results observed in this preliminary study indicate that glottal features are capable of distinguishing speakers with HF from healthy controls. Therefore, the study suggests that glottal features constitute a potential feature extraction approach which should be taken into account in future large-scale investigations in studying the automatic detection of HF from speech.
  • Montonen, Risto; Kassamakov, Ivan; Lehmann, Peter; Österberg, Kenneth; Haeggström, Edward (2018)
    The group refractive index is important in length calibration of Fourier domain interferometers by transparent transfer standards. We demonstrate accurate group refractive index quantification using a Fourier domain short coherence Sagnac interferometer. Because of a justified linear length calibration function, the calibration constants cancel out in the evaluation of the group refractive index, which is then obtained accurately from two uncalibrated lengths. Measurements of two standard thickness coverslips revealed group indices of 1.5426 +/- 0.0042 and 1.5434 +/- 0.0046, with accuracies quoted at the 95% confidence level. This agreed with the dispersion data of the coverslip manufacturer and therefore validates our method. Our method provides a sample specific and accurate group refractive index quantification using the same Fourier domain interferometer that is to be calibrated for the length. This reduces significantly the requirements of the calibration transfer standard. (C) 2018 Optical Society of America
  • Kuutila, Miikka; Mantyla, Mika; Claes, Maelick; Elovainio, Marko; Adams, Bram (2021)
    Reports of poor work well-being and fluctuating productivity in software engineering have been reported in both academic and popular sources. Understanding and predicting these issues through repository analysis might help manage software developers' well-being. Our objective is to link data from software repositories, that is commit activity, communication, expressed sentiments, and job events, with measures of well-being obtained with a daily experience sampling questionnaire. To achieve our objective, we studied a single software project team for eight months in the software industry. Additionally, we performed semi-structured interviews to explain our results. The acquired quantitative data are analyzed with generalized linear mixed-effects models with autocorrelation structure. We find that individual variance accounts for most of the R-2 values in models predicting developers' experienced well-being and productivity. In other words, using software repository variables to predict developers' well-being or productivity is challenging due to individual differences. Prediction models developed for each developer individually work better, with fixed effects R-2 value of up to 0.24. The semi-structured interviews give insights into the well-being of software developers and the benefits of chat interaction. Our study suggests that individualized prediction models are needed for well-being and productivity prediction in software development.
  • Sahle, Christoph J.; Schroer, Martin A.; Juurinen, Iina; Niskanen, Johannes (2016)
    We present a study on the influence of the naturally occurring organic osmolytes tri-methylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and urea on the bulk structure of water using X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy. Addition of TMAO is known to stabilize proteins in otherwise destabilizing aqueous urea solutions. The experimental X-ray Raman scattering spectra change systematically with increasing solute concentration revealing different effects on the structure of water due to the presence of the two osmolytes. Although these effects are distinct for both molecular species, they have mutually compensating influences on the spectra of the ternary water-TMAO-urea mixtures. This compensation effect seen in the spectra vanishes only at the highest studied ternary concentration of 4 M: 4 M (TMAO : urea). Our experiment shows that the hydrogen-bonding structure of water remains rather intact in the presence of the aforementioned osmolytes if both of them are present.
  • Lintunen, Anna; Salmon, Yann; Hölttä, Teemu; Suhonen, Heikki (2022)
    Abstract Bubbles of gas trapped in the xylem during freezing are a major cause of damage for trees growing at high altitudes or latitudes, as the bubbles may cause embolism during thawing. Yet the factors controlling bubble formation upon freeze-thaw cycles remain poorly understood. Especially the size of the bubbles formed in the ice is crucial for winter embolism formation. We used high-resolution X-ray microtomography combined with freezing experiments to investigate the size and shape of 68 343 gas bubbles in frozen conduits in branches of Betula pendula. We also studied how conduit size, tree water status (-0.2 MPa vs -0.6 MPa) and bark permeability to gases (decreased by Vaseline-coating) affect the gas bubbles characteristics. High-resolution X-ray images allowed us to detect gas bubbles down to 1.0 ?m in diameter and revealed that not only small spherical gas bubbles but gaseous volumes of various shapes and sizes were found from the frozen xylem indicating that gas bubbles may have started to grow already during the freezing propagation. Most of the gas bubbles were found in fibers, but the rare gas bubbles found in the vessels were larger than those in the fibers. Bubble volume increased with conduit volume in both fibers and vessels, but conduit size alone could not explain gas bubble volume. Low water potential and restriction of gas escape from the branch seem to cause more, larger, and less spherical bubbles and thus increase the risk of embolism formation. These findings open new research avenues for further studies of winter embolism formation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Moreau, Juulia-Gabrielle; Kohout, Tomas; Wünnemann, Kai (2018)
    We studied shock-darkening in ordinary chondrites by observing the propagation of shock waves and melting through mixtures of metals and iron sulfides. We used the shock physics code iSALE at the mesoscale to simulate shock compression of modeled ordinary chondrites (using olivine, iron and troilite). We introduced FeS-FeNi eutectic properties and partial melting in a series of chosen configurations of iron and troilite grains mixtures in a sample plate. We observed, at a nominal pressure of 45 GPa, partial melting of troilite in all models. Only few of the models showed partial melting of iron (a phase difficult to melt in shock heating) due to the eutectic properties of the mixtures. Iron melting only occurred in models presenting either strong shock wave concentration effects or effects of heating by pore crushing, for which we provided more details. Further effects are discussed such as the frictional heating between iron and troilite and the heat diffusion in scenarios with strongly heated troilite. We also characterized troilite melting in the 32-60 GPa nominal pressure range. We concluded that specific dispositions of the iron and troilite grains in mixtures exist that lead to melting of iron and explain why it is possible to find a mix of metals and iron sulfides in shock-darkened ordinary chondrites.
  • Murtola, Tiina; Aalto, Atte; Malinen, Jarmo; Aalto, Daniel; Vainio, Martti (2018)
    During voiced speech, vocal folds interact with the vocal tract acoustics. The resulting glottal source-resonator coupling has been observed using mathematical and physical models as well as in in vivo phonation. We propose a computational time-domain model of the full speech apparatus that contains a feedback mechanism from the vocal tract acoustics to the vocal fold oscillations. It is based on numerical solution of ordinary and partial differential equations defined on vocal tract geometries that have been obtained by magnetic resonance imaging. The model is used to simulate rising and falling pitch glides of [alpha, i] in the fundamental frequency (f(o)) interval [145 Hz, 315 Hz]. The interval contains the first vocal tract resonance f(R1) and the first formant F-1 of [i] as well as the fractions of the first resonance f(R1)/5, f(R1)/4, and f(R1)/3 of [alpha]. The glide simulations reveal a locking pattern in the f(o) trajectory approximately at f(R1) of [i]. The resonance fractions of [alpha] produce perturbations in the pressure signal at the lips but no locking.
  • Alloul, H.; Wzietek, P.; Mito, T.; Pontiroli, D.; Aramini, M.; Ricco, M.; Itie, J. P.; Elkaim, E. (2017)
    We present a detailed NMR study of the insulator-to-metal transition induced by an applied pressure p in the A15 phase of Cs3C60. We evidence that the insulating antiferromagnetic (AFM) and superconducting (SC) phases coexist only in a narrow p range. At fixed p, in the metallic state above the SC transition T-c, the Cs-133 and C-13 NMR spin-lattice relaxation data are seemingly governed by a pseudogaplike feature. We prove that this feature, also seen in the (CsNMR)-Cs-133 shift data, is rather a signature of the Mott transition which broadens and smears out progressively for increasing (p,T). The analysis of the variation of the quadrupole splitting nu(Q) of the Cs-133 NMR spectrum precludes any cell symmetry change at the Mott transition and only monitors a weak variation of the lattice parameter. These results open an opportunity to consider theoretically the Mott transition in a multiorbital three-dimensional system well beyond its critical point.
  • Laakkonen, Hanne; Happonen, Juha-Matti; Marttinen, Eino; Paganus, Aila; Holtta, Tuula; Holmberg, Christer; Rönnholm, Kai (2010)