Browsing by Subject "PRETERM"

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  • Livson, Sivan; Jarva, Hanna; Kalliala, Ilkka; Lokki, A. Inkeri; Heikkinen-Eloranta, Jenni; Nieminen, Pekka; Meri, Seppo (2021)
    Background Human pregnancy alters profoundly the immune system. The local involvement and mechanisms of activation of the complement system in the cervicovaginal milieu during pregnancy and delivery remain unexplored. Objectives To determine whether normal pregnancy and delivery are associated with local activation of complement or changes in the immunoglobulin profile in the cervix. Study Design This study was designed to assess IgA, IgG, and complement activation in the cervicovaginal area in three groups of patients: i) 49 pregnant women (week 41+3-42+0) not in active labor, ii) 24 women in active labor (38+4-42+2), and iii) a control group of nonpregnant women (n=23) at child-bearing age. We collected mucosal samples from the lateral fornix of the vagina and external cervix during routine visits and delivery. The Western blot technique was used to detect complement C3 and its activation products. For semiquantitative analysis, the bands of the electrophoresed proteins in gels were digitized on a flatbed photo scanner and analyzed. IgA and IgG were analyzed by Western blotting and quantified by ELISA. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's Multiple Comparison tests were used for statistical comparisons. Results A higher abundance but lower activation level of C3 in both the external cervix (P Conclusions Our results reveal an unexpectedly strong activation of the complement system and the presence IgG immunoglobulins in the cervicovaginal area during pregnancy, active labor, and among nonpregnant women. In contrast to the higher amounts of C3 in the cervicovaginal secretions during labor, its activation level was lower. Complement activating IgG was detected in higher concentrations than IgA in the mucosal secretions during pregnancy and labor. Taken together our results imply the presence a locally operating humoral immune system in the cervicovaginal mucosa.
  • Haftorn, Kristine L.; Lee, Yunsung; Denault, William R. P.; Page, Christian M.; Nustad, Haakon E.; Lyle, Robert; Gjessing, Hakon K.; Malmberg, Anni; Magnus, Maria C.; Naess, Oyvind; Czamara, Darina; Räikkönen, Katri; Lahti, Jari; Magnus, Per; Haberg, Siri E.; Jugessur, Astanand; Bohlin, Jon (2021)
    Background Gestational age is a useful proxy for assessing developmental maturity, but correct estimation of gestational age is difficult using clinical measures. DNA methylation at birth has proven to be an accurate predictor of gestational age. Previous predictors of epigenetic gestational age were based on DNA methylation data from the Illumina HumanMethylation 27 K or 450 K array, which have subsequently been replaced by the Illumina MethylationEPIC 850 K array (EPIC). Our aims here were to build an epigenetic gestational age clock specific for the EPIC array and to evaluate its precision and accuracy using the embryo transfer date of newborns from the largest EPIC-derived dataset to date on assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Methods We built an epigenetic gestational age clock using Lasso regression trained on 755 randomly selected non-ART newborns from the Norwegian Study of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (START)-a substudy of the Norwegian Mother, Father, and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). For the ART-conceived newborns, the START dataset had detailed information on the embryo transfer date and the specific ART procedure used for conception. The predicted gestational age was compared to clinically estimated gestational age in 200 non-ART and 838 ART newborns using MM-type robust regression. The performance of the clock was compared to previously published gestational age clocks in an independent replication sample of 148 newborns from the Prediction and Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restrictions (PREDO) study-a prospective pregnancy cohort of Finnish women. Results Our new epigenetic gestational age clock showed higher precision and accuracy in predicting gestational age than previous gestational age clocks (R-2 = 0.724, median absolute deviation (MAD) = 3.14 days). Restricting the analysis to CpGs shared between 450 K and EPIC did not reduce the precision of the clock. Furthermore, validating the clock on ART newborns with known embryo transfer date confirmed that DNA methylation is an accurate predictor of gestational age (R-2 = 0.767, MAD = 3.7 days). Conclusions We present the first EPIC-based predictor of gestational age and demonstrate its robustness and precision in ART and non-ART newborns. As more datasets are being generated on the EPIC platform, this clock will be valuable in studies using gestational age to assess neonatal development.
  • Zhang, Ge; Bacelis, Jonas; Lengyel, Candice; Teramo, Kari; Hallman, Mikko; Helgeland, Oyvind; Johansson, Stefan; Myhre, Ronny; Sengpiel, Verena; Njolstad, Pal Rasmus; Jacobsson, Bo; Muglia, Louis (2015)
    Background Observational epidemiological studies indicate that maternal height is associated with gestational age at birth and fetal growth measures (i.e., shorter mothers deliver infants at earlier gestational ages with lower birth weight and birth length). Different mechanisms have been postulated to explain these associations. This study aimed to investigate the casual relationships behind the strong association of maternal height with fetal growth measures (i.e., birth length and birth weight) and gestational age by a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using phenotype and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data of 3,485 mother/infant pairs from birth cohorts collected from three Nordic countries (Finland, Denmark, and Norway). We constructed a genetic score based on 697 SNPs known to be associated with adult height to index maternal height. To avoid confounding due to genetic sharing between mother and infant, we inferred parental transmission of the height-associated SNPs and utilized the haplotype genetic score derived from nontransmitted alleles as a valid genetic instrument for maternal height. In observational analysis, maternal height was significantly associated with birth length (p = 6.31 x 10(-9)), birth weight (p = 2.19 x 10(-15)), and gestational age (p = 1.51 x 10(-7)). Our parental-specific haplotype score association analysis revealed that birth length and birth weight were significantly associated with the maternal transmitted haplotype score as well as the paternal transmitted haplotype score. Their association with the maternal nontransmitted haplotype score was far less significant, indicating a major fetal genetic influence on these fetal growth measures. In contrast, gestational age was significantly associated with the nontransmitted haplotype score (p = 0.0424) and demonstrated a significant (p = 0.0234) causal effect of every 1 cm increase in maternal height resulting in similar to 0.4 more gestational d. Limitations of this study include potential influences in causal inference by biological pleiotropy, assortative mating, and the nonrandom sampling of study subjects. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the observed association between maternal height and fetal growth measures (i.e., birth length and birth weight) is mainly defined by fetal genetics. In contrast, the association between maternal height and gestational age is more likely to be causal. In addition, our approach that utilizes the genetic score derived from the nontransmitted maternal haplotype as a genetic instrument is a novel extension to the Mendelian randomization methodology in casual inference between parental phenotype (or exposure) and outcomes in offspring.
  • Marchi, Viviana; Hakala, Anna; Knight, Andrew; D'Acunto, Federica; Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Guzzetta, Andrea; Vanhatalo, Sampsa (2019)
    Aim: General movement assessment requires substantial expertise for accurate visual interpretation. Our aim was to evaluate an automated pose estimation method, using conventional video records, to see if it could capture infant movements using objective biomarkers. Methods: We selected archived videos from 21 infants aged eight to 17 weeks who had taken part in studies at the IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris (Italy), from 2011 to 2017. Of these, 14 presented with typical low-risk movements, while seven presented with atypical movements and were later diagnosed with cerebral palsy. Skeleton videos were produced using a computational pose estimation model adapted for infants and these were blindly assessed to see whether they contained the information needed for classification by human experts. Movements of skeletal key points were analysed using kinematic metrics to provide a biomarker to distinguish between groups. Results: The visual assessments of the skeleton videos were very accurate, with Cohen's K of 0.90 when compared with the classification of conventional videos. Quantitative analysis showed that arm movements were more variable in infants with typical movements. Conclusion: It was possible to extract automated estimation of movement patterns from conventional video records and convert them to skeleton footage. This could allow quantitative analysis of existing footage.
  • Sandboge, Samuel; Kuula, Juho; Björkqvist, Johan; Hovi, Petteri; Mäkitie, Outi; Kajantie, Eero (2022)
    Background Children and adults born very low birthweight (VLBW,
  • Livson, Sivan; Virtanen, Seppo; Lokki, A. Inkeri; Holster, Tiina; Rahkonen, Leena; Kalliala, Ilkka; Nieminen, Pekka; Salonen, Anne; Meri, Seppo (2022)
    BackgroundVaginal microbiome and the local innate immune defense, including the complement system, contribute to anti- and proinflammatory homeostasis during pregnancy and parturition. The relationship between commensal vaginal bacteria and complement activation during pregnancy and delivery is not known. ObjectiveTo study the association of the cervicovaginal microbiota composition to activation and regulation of the complement system during pregnancy and labor. Study designWe recruited women during late pregnancy (weeks 41 + 5 to 42 + 0, n=48) and women in active labor (weeks 38 + 4 to 42 + 2, n=25). Mucosal swabs were taken from the external cervix and lateral fornix of the vagina. From the same sampling site, microbiota was analyzed with 16S RNA gene amplicon sequencing. A Western blot technique was used to detect complement C3, C4 and factor B activation and presence of complement inhibitors. For semiquantitative analysis, the bands of the electrophoresed proteins in gels were digitized on a flatbed photo scanner and staining intensities were analyzed using ImageJ/Fiji win-64 software. Patient data was collected from medical records and questionnaires. ResultsThe vaginal microbiota was Lactobacillus-dominant in most of the samples (n=60), L. iners and L. crispatus being the dominant species. L. gasseri and L. jensenii were found to be more abundant during pregnancy than active labor. L. jensenii abundance correlated with C4 activation during pregnancy but not in labor. Gardnerella vaginalis was associated with C4 activation both during pregnancy and labor. The amount of L. gasseri correlated with factor B activation during pregnancy but not during labor. Atopobium vaginae was more abundant during pregnancy than labor and correlated with C4 activation during labor and with factor B activation during pregnancy. Activation of the alternative pathway factor B was significantly stronger during pregnancy compared to labor. During labor complement activation may be inhibited by the abundant presence of factor H and FHL1. ConclusionsThese results indicate that bacterial composition of the vaginal microbiota could have a role in the local activation and regulation of complement-mediated inflammation during pregnancy. At the time of parturition complement activation appears to be more strictly regulated than during pregnancy.
  • Khazaei, Mohammad; Raeisi, Khadijeh; Croce, Pierpaolo; Tamburro, Gabriella; Tokariev, Anton; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Zappasodi, Filippo; Comani, Silvia (2021)
    Neonates spend most of their life sleeping. During sleep, their brain experiences fast changes in its functional organization. Microstate analysis permits to capture the rapid dynamical changes occurring in the functional organization of the brain by representing the changing spatio-temporal features of the electroencephalogram (EEG) as a sequence of short-lasting scalp topographies-the microstates. In this study, we modeled the ongoing neonatal EEG into sequences of a limited number of microstates and investigated whether the extracted microstate features are altered in REM and NREM sleep (usually known as active and quiet sleep states-AS and QS-in the newborn) and depend on the EEG frequency band. 19-channel EEG recordings from 60 full-term healthy infants were analyzed using a modified version of the k-means clustering algorithm. The results show that similar to 70% of the variance in the datasets can be described using 7 dominant microstate templates. The mean duration and mean occurrence of the dominant microstates were significantly different in the two sleep states. Microstate syntax analysis demonstrated that the microstate sequences characterizing AS and QS had specific non-casual structures that differed in the two sleep states. Microstate analysis of the neonatal EEG in specific frequency bands showed a clear dependence of the explained variance on frequency. Overall, our findings demonstrate that (1) the spatio-temporal dynamics of the neonatal EEG can be described by non-casual sequences of a limited number of microstate templates; (2) the brain dynamics described by these microstate templates depends on frequency; (3) the features of the microstate sequences can well differentiate the physiological conditions characterizing AS and QS.
  • Stolt, Suvi; Lind, Annika; Matomäki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa (2016)
  • Stolt, Suvi; Korja, Riikka; Matomaki, Jaakko; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena; Lehtonen, Liisa (2014)
    Background: It is not clearly understood how the quality of early mother-child interaction influences language development in very-low-birth-weight children (VLBW). Aims: We aim to analyze associations between early language and the quality of mother-child interaction, and, the predictive value of the features of early mother-child interaction on language development at 24 months of corrected age in VLBW children. Study design: A longitudinal prospective follow-up study design was used. Methods: The participants were 28 VLBW children and 34 full-term controls. Language development was measured using different methods at 6, 12 and at 24 months of age. The quality of mother-child interaction was assessed using PC-ERA method at 6 and at 12 months of age. Results: Associations between the features of early interaction and language development were different in the groups of VLBW and full-term children. There were no significant correlations between the features of mother-child interaction and language skills when measured at the same age in the VLBW group. Significant longitudinal correlations were detected in the VLBW group especially if the quality of early interactions was measured at six months and language skills at 2 years of age. However, when the predictive value of the features of early interactions for later poor language performance was analyzed separately, the features of early interaction predicted language skills in the VLBW group only weakly. Conclusions: The biological factors may influence on the language development more in the VLBW children than in the full-term children. The results also underline the role of maternal and dyadic factors in early interactions. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Nyman, Anna; Munck, Petriina; Koivisto, Mari; Hagelstam, Camilla; Korhonen, Tapio; Lehtonen, Liisa; Haataja, Leena (2019)
    Objective: Executive function (EF) problems of children born at very low birth weight (VLBW; = 70 had clinically significant problems in the Working Memory subscale at school. Although they had clinically significant problems at home in the Behavioral Regulation Index, the difference disappeared when adjusted for paternal education. Lower gestational age, lower birth weight z-score, surgical necrotizing enterocolitis, low paternal and maternal education, and lower full-scale IQ were identified to be risk factors for higher scores in ecological assessment of EF. Conclusion: VLBW or VLGA children in this cohort exhibit fewer EF problems in ecological assessment of EF compared to previous literature. EF problems of this study population vary by home and school setting and are emphasized in working memory at school. Screening for EF problems in school environment is recommended to target the support.
  • Allotey, J.; Whittle, R.; Snell, K.I.E.; IPPIC Collaborative Network; Villa, Pia; Heinonen, Seppo; Kajantie, Eero (2022)
    Objective Stillbirth is a potentially preventable complication of pregnancy. Identifying women at high risk of stillbirth can guide decisions on the need for closer surveillance and timing of delivery in order to prevent fetal death. Prognostic models have been developed to predict the risk of stillbirth, but none has yet been validated externally. In this study, we externally validated published prediction models for stillbirth using individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis to assess their predictive performance. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, DH-DATA and AMED databases were searched from inception to December 2020 to identify studies reporting stillbirth prediction models. Studies that developed or updated prediction models for stillbirth for use at any time during pregnancy were included. IPD from cohorts within the International Prediction of Pregnancy Complications (IPPIC) Network were used to validate externally the identified prediction models whose individual variables were available in the IPD. The risk of bias of the models and cohorts was assessed using the Prediction study Risk Of Bias ASsessment Tool (PROBAST). The discriminative performance of the models was evaluated using the C-statistic, and calibration was assessed using calibration plots, calibration slope and calibration-in-the-large. Performance measures were estimated separately in each cohort, as well as summarized across cohorts using random-effects meta-analysis. Clinical utility was assessed using net benefit. Results Seventeen studies reporting the development of 40 prognostic models for stillbirth were identified. None of the models had been previously validated externally, and the full model equation was reported for only one-fifth (20%, 8/40) of the models. External validation was possible for three of these models, using IPD from 19 cohorts (491 201 pregnant women) within the IPPIC Network database. Based on evaluation of the model development studies, all three models had an overall high risk of bias, according to PROBAST. In the IPD meta-analysis, the models had summary C-statistics ranging from 0.53 to 0.65 and summary calibration slopes ranging from 0.40 to 0.88, with risk predictions that were generally too extreme compared with the observed risks. The models had little to no clinical utility, as assessed by net benefit. However, there remained uncertainty in the performance of some models due to small available sample sizes. Conclusions The three validated stillbirth prediction models showed generally poor and uncertain predictive performance in new data, with limited evidence to support their clinical application. The findings suggest methodological shortcomings in their development, including overfitting. Further research is needed to further validate these and other models, identify stronger prognostic factors and develop more robust prediction models. (c) 2021 The Authors. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.
  • Berdal, Elias Kjolseth; Wollum, Arnt Erik Karlsen; Hollund, Ingrid Marie Husby; Iversen, Johanne Marie; Kajantie, Eero; Evensen, Kari Anne I. (2022)
    Background Preterm birth with very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight < 1500 g) is associated with health problems later in life. How VLBW individuals perceive their physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is important to understand their putative burden of disease. Previous studies have shown mixed results, and longitudinal studies into adulthood have been requested. This study aimed to investigate differences in HRQoL between preterm VLBW and term born individuals at 32 years of age, and to study changes in HRQoL from 20 to 32 years. Methods In a geographically based longitudinal study, 45 VLBW and 68 term born control participants completed the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) at 32 years of age. Data from three previous timepoints was also available (20, 23 and 28 years of age). The SF-36 yields eight domain scores as well as a physical and a mental component summary. Between-group differences in these variables were investigated. We also performed subgroup analyses excluding individuals with disabilities, i.e., cerebral palsy and/or low estimated intelligence quotient. Results At 32 years of age, the physical component summary was 5.1 points lower (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.6 to 1.6), and the mental component summary 4.1 points lower (95% CI: 8.4 to - 0.3) in the VLBW group compared with the control group. For both physical and mental component summaries there was an overall decline in HRQoL from 20 to 32 years of age in the VLBW group. When we excluded individuals with disabilities (n = 10), group differences in domain scores at 32 years were reduced, but physical functioning, bodily pain, general health, and role-emotional scores remained lower in the VLBW subgroup without disabilities compared with the control group. Conclusion We found that VLBW individuals reported lower HRQoL than term born controls at 32 years of age, and that HRQoL declined in the VLBW group from 20 to 32 years of age. This was in part, but not exclusively explained by VLBW individuals with disabilities.
  • Finnish ELBW Cohort Study Grp FinE; Haavisto, Anu; Klenberg, Liisa; Tommiska, Viena; Lano, Aulikki; Mikkola, Kaija; Fellman, Vineta (2022)
    Background Recent longitudinal studies suggest stable cognitive development in preterm children, although with great individual variation. This prospective neurocognitive follow-up study of extremely low birthweight (ELBW, 115) showed stable development (-3.2 points, p=0.250). Multiple linear regression showed that neonatal complications (intraventricular haemorrhage grade 3-4 and blood culture positive sepsis) and maternal education significantly predicted lower intelligence at the second assessment (F(3,106)=7.27, p
  • Huhtala, Mikael S.; Tertti, Kristiina; Juhila, Juuso; Sorsa, Timo; Rönnemaa, Tapani (2020)
    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is characterized by disturbed glucose metabolism and activation of low-grade inflammation. We studied whether metformin treatment has favorable or unfavorable effects on inflammatory markers and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) in GDM patients compared with insulin, and whether these markers associate with major maternal or fetal clinical outcomes. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a previous randomized controlled trial comparing metformin (n = 110) and insulin (n = 107) treatment of GDM. Fasting serum samples were collected at the time of diagnosis (baseline, mean 30 gestational weeks [gw]) and at 36 gw. Inflammatory markers serum high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) and glycoprotein acetylation (GlycA) as well as three IGFBP-1 phosphoisoform concentrations were determined. Results: In the metformin and insulin groups combined, hsCRP decreased (p = 0.01), whereas IL-6 (p = 0.002), GlycA (p <0.0001) and all IGFBP-1 phosphoisoforms (p <0.0001) increased from baseline to 36 gw. GlycA (p = 0.02) and non-phosphorylated IGFBP-1 (p = 0.008) increased more in patients treated with metformin than those treated with insulin. Inflammatory markers did not clearly associate with pregnancy outcomes but non-phosphorylated IGFBP-1 was inversely associated with gestational weight gain. Conclusions: Metformin had beneficial effects on maternal serum IGFBP-1 concentrations compared to insulin, as increased IGFBP-1 related to lower total and late pregnancy maternal weight gain. GlycA increased more during metformin treatment compared to insulin. The significance of this observation needs to be more profoundly examined in further studies. There were no evident clinically relevant relations between inflammatory markers and pregnancy outcome measures.
  • Antinmaa, Jaana; Lapinleimu, Helena; Salonen, Jaakko; Stolt, Suvi; Kaljonen, Anne; Jääskeläinen, Satu (2020)
    Aim: To study whether auditory function measured with brainstem auditory evoked potential and brainstem audiometry recordings in the neonatal period associates with language development 1 year later in preterm infants.Methods: This retrospective study included 155 preterm infants (birthweight ≤1500 g and/or birth ≤32 gestational weeks) born between 2007 and 2012 at the Turku University Hospital. Auditory function was recorded in neonatal period. Information of language development was gathered at the mean corrected age of 1 year by using the Finnish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory.Results: Slower auditory processing (longer interpeak interval, IPI I-V) in the right ear in the neonatal brainstem auditory evoked potential recording associated with smaller receptive lexicon size at 1 year (P = .043). Infants with longer IPI I-V were more likely to have a deviant (≤17 words) receptive lexicon size (P = .033). The ab-sence of a contralateral response with right ear stimulation increased the risk for deviant lexicon size (P = .049).Conclusion: The results suggest that impaired auditory function in the neonatal pe-riod in preterm infants may lead to a poorer receptive language outcome 1 year later. Auditory pathway function assessment provides information for the identification of preterm children at risk for weak language development.
  • Gunnar, Riikka J.; Kanerva, Kaisa; Salmi, Silja; Häyrinen, Taru; Haataja, Leena; Pakarinen, Mikko P.; Merras-Salmio, Laura (2020)
    Objective: The impact of pediatric intestinal failure (IF) on neurodevelopment beyond infancy has not been systematically studied. Our aim was to evaluate cognitive and motor impairment and to identify risk factors for adverse outcomes among children with IF. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional single-center study at the Helsinki University Children's Hospital. Patients with IF with >60 days of parental nutrition (PN) dependency aged between 3 and 16 years (n = 40) were invited to participate. The cognitive and motor skills were evaluated using validated tests: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd edition, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition, and Movement Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd edition. Results: All the patients attending the study tests (n = 30, males = 24) were included. Their median age, gestational age, and birth weight was 7.5 (range 3-16) years, 35 (interquartile range [IQR] 28-38) weeks and 2238 (IQR 1040-3288) grams, respectively. Median duration of PN was 13 (IQR 5-37) months and 9 patients were currently on PN. Median intelligence quotient was 78 (IQR 65-91) and 10 (35%) patients had an intelligence quotient under 70 (-2 standard deviation). Significant motor impairment was detected in 10 patients (36%) and milder difficulties in 8 (28%). Adverse cognitive outcome was associated with neonatal short bowel syndrome, number of interventions under general anesthesia, and length of inpatient status, whereas adverse motor outcome was associated with prematurity. Conclusion: Clinically significant cognitive and motor impairments are alarmingly common among neonatal patients with IF. We recommend early neurodevelopmental follow-up for all children with IF.
  • Kiuru, Annika; Ahola, Terhi; Klenberg, Liisa; Tommiska, Viena; Lano, Aulikki; Kleemola, Päivi; Haavisto, Anu; Fellman, Vineta (2019)
  • Eriksson, Johan G.; Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive (2018)
    Background: According to the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis, several noncommunicable diseases, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and coronary heart disease, have their origins in early life. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has traditionally been assumed to develop as the result of an interaction between genetic and environmental factors, although more recently, the importance of factors present early in life has been recognized. Study Design: Longitudinal birth cohort study. Setting & Participants: 20,431 people born in 1924 to 1944 in Helsinki, Finland, who were part of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were followed up through their life course from birth until death or age 86 years. Predictor: Prenatal growth and socioeconomic factors. Outcomes: Death or hospitalization for CKD. Results: Smaller body size at birth was associated with increased risk for developing CKD. Each standard deviation higher birth weight was associated with an HR for CKD of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.74-0.91; P <0.001). Associations with ponderal index at birth, placental weight, and birth length were also statistically significant (P <0.001, P <0.001, and P = 0.002, respectively), but only among men. Prematurity also predicted increased risk for CKD. Limitations: The study was restricted to people who were born in Helsinki in 1924 to 1944. Conclusions: Smaller body size at birth was associated with increased risk for developing CKD in men. Prematurity was also associated with increased risk for CKD in women. These findings in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study support the importance of early life factors in the development of CKD.
  • Hautala, Sini; Tokariev, Anton; Roienko, Oleksii; Häyrinen, Taru; Ilen, Elina; Haataja, Leena; Vanhatalo, Sampsa (2021)
    Objective: To develop methods for recording and analysing infant's proximal muscle activations. Methods: Surface electromyography (sEMG) of truncal muscles was recorded in three months old infants (N = 18) during spontaneous movement and controlled postural changes. The infants were also divided into two groups according to motor performance. We developed an efficient method for removing dynamic cardiac artefacts to allow i) accurate estimation of individual muscle activations, as well as ii) quantitative characterization of muscle networks. Results: The automated removal of cardiac artefacts allowed quantitation of truncal muscle activity, which showed predictable effects during postural changes, and there were differences between high and low performing infants. The muscle networks showed consistent change in network density during spontaneous movements between supine and prone position. Moreover, activity correlations in individual pairs of back muscles linked to infant́s motor performance. Conclusions: The hereby developed sEMG analysis methodology is feasible and may disclose differences between high and low performing infants. Analysis of the muscle networks may provide novel insight to central control of motility. Significance: Quantitative analysis of infant's muscle activity and muscle networks holds promise for an objective neurodevelopmental assessment of motor system.
  • Stolt, Suvi; Klippi, Anu; Launonen, Kaisa; Munck, Petriina; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena; the PIPARI Study Group (2007)
    "This paper focuses on the aspects of the lexicon in 66 prematurely born very-low-birth-weight and 87 full-term Finnish children at 2;0, studied using the Finnish version of the MacArthur Communicative Developmental Inventory. The groups did not differ in vocabulary size. Furthermore, the female advantage in vocabulary size was not seen in preterm children. The overall shapes of the trajectories for the main lexical categories as a function of vocabulary size were highly similar in both groups and followed those described in the literature. However, there were significant differences in the percentage of nouns and grammatical function words between the two groups. The results suggest that prematurity 'cuts off' the female advantage in vocabulary development. Furthermore, it also seems that there are differences between prematurely born and full-term children in the composition of the lexicon at 2;0. The findings support the universal sequence in the development of lexical categories."