Browsing by Subject "PRETREATMENT"

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  • Virtanen, Tiina; Parkkila, Petteri; Koivuniemi, Artturi; Lahti, Jussi; Viitala, Tapani; Kallioinen, Mari; Mänttäri, Mika; Bunker, Alex (2018)
    Adsorptive fouling, by phenolic compounds, is a serious issue regarding the development and use of membrane based filtration technologies for water purification and wastewater treatment. We have developed a novel, combined, protocol of Raman spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments, along with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, to study the interaction of vanillin, a model phenolic compound, with the polyethersulfone (PES) surface of a membrane. The adsorption of vanillin to the PES surface was found to be highly pH dependent; the source of this was determined, by MD simulation, to be the stronger interaction with the protonated form of vanillin, predominant at low pH. Vanillin interacts with the PES surface, both through entropy driven, hydrophobic, interactions and, for the case of the protonated form, H-bonding of the hydroxyl group with the sulphur oxygens of the PES molecules. In addition to general insight into the fouling process that can be used to develop new methods to inhibit adsorptive fouling, our results also elucidate the specific interaction of the PES membrane with vanillin that can be used in the development of anti-fouling coatings, based on the structure of vanillin.
  • West, Mark A.; Hickson, Aynsley C.; Mattinen, Maija-Liisa; Lloyd-Jones, Gareth (2014)
    Lignin preparations from kraft and sulfite pulping, steam explosion, and enzyme saccharification processes were assessed as substrates for lignin polymerization catalyzed by Trametes hirsuta laccase (ThL). Oxygen consumption associated with laccase catalyzed oxidation of the selected lignins was measured using a microplate-based oxygen assay. Laccase-induced changes in the molecular masses of the lignin polymers were assessed with aqueous-alkaline size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and changes in monomeric phenolics by reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Obtaining consistent results in the lignin-laccase assay system required careful pH monitoring and control. All lignin preparations were oxidized by ThL, the rate being highest for steam-exploded eucalypt and lowest for enzyme-saccharified lignin. Comparing lignins, higher lignin-laccase reactivity was correlated with lower lignin molecular mass and higher amounts of monomeric phenolics. Solubility was not an indicator of reactivity. Steam-exploded and lignosulfonate-treated pine preparations were further fractionated by ultrafiltration to determine what molecular mass fractions were the most reactive in ThL catalyzed oxidation. Both retentate (> 3kDa), and to a lesser degree permeate (<3kDa), fractions were reactive.
  • Kouzi, Afamia; Puranen, Matti; Kontro, Merja H. (2020)
    Biogas production from sewage sludge volatile solids (VS) by anaerobic digestion slows down towards the end of the process, among inhibitory factors being pH increase upon ammonia accumulation, poorly digestible biomaterials, and high fixed solid (FS) content. The possibility of concentrating the digested sludge VS (41.7-56.6% on a dry weight basis) by surface and bottom layer separation with biogas post-production was studied. Furthermore, the potential to recycle concentrated VS and digested sludge back to the process after adjusting pH 7.0 to optimal for biogas-producing microbes and after acid, alkali, thermal, and sonolytic treatments was examined. In general, pH 7.0 control alone improved biogas production from the recycled digested sludge the most. An equally good improvement in biogas production was achieved by recycling the digested sludge, which had been heated until ammonia had evaporated and the pH dropped to 7.0 (1-2 h, 75 degrees C), and at the same time, VS was degraded. The biogas production from the sonicated and recycled sludge was almost as good as from the pH-adjusted, or heat-treated recycled sludge. After the acid and base treatments of the digested sludge, the recycled sludge yielded often the lowest biogas volume, as the added chemicals increased the FS concentration, which proved to be a more important inhibitory factor than poorly degradable VS. The high FS content significantly reduced the benefits of the treatments. By separating the surface and bottom layers with biogas post-production, the surface layer of VS was concentrated to 51.6-61.8%, while different compositions of the layers affected the biogas production.
  • Zhang, Rui; Maltari, Riku; Guo, Ming; Kontro, Jussi; Eronen, Aleksi; Repo, Timo (2020)
    More than 90 % of global lignin production comes from Kraft pulp mills but due to shortage of economical viable methods to valorise lignin, it is commonly burned for energy. Therefore, finding new routes to utilize Kraft lignin (KL) as a renewable raw material for the chemical industry is of significant economic and environmental importance. Herein we report a novel, two-step procedure for facile synthesis of vanillin from technical KL by combining solvent fractionation and catalytic oxidation reaction. From the studied green solvents, 1-propanol was the most attractive for one-step, single solvent fractionation as it afforded uniform, low molecular weight lignin fractions (Mw=1300 g·mol−1, Mn=580 g·mol−1) with yield of 46 wt%. Using this homogeneous lignin as a raw material, CuSO4 catalyzed oxidation reaction proceeds smoothly, and under optimized conditions a high vanillin yield of 10.9 wt% was achieved. The method reported herein is promising as it facilitates straightforward and high yield vanillin synthesis from commercially available technical KL.
  • Ma, Yibo; Stubb, Jonas; Kontro, Inkeri; Nieminen, Kaarlo; Hummel, Michael; Sixta, Herbert (2018)
    Man-made lignocellulosic fibres were successfully prepared from unbleached birch kraft pulps by using the Ioncell-F technology. Pulps with different lignin content were produced by tailored kraft pulping with varying intensity. The degree of polymerization of the pulps was adjusted by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and electron beam treatment. All substrates were completely soluble in 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-enium acetate ([DBNH] OAc) and the respective solutions were spinnable to yield fibres with good to excellent mechanical properties despite the use of only mildly refined wood pulp. The tensile properties decreased gradually as the lignin concentration in the fibres increased. Changes in the chemical composition also affected the structure and morphology of the fibres. Both the molecular orientation and the crystallinity decreased while the presence of lignin enhanced the water accessibility. The effects of the crystallite size and lignin content on monolayer water adsorption are discussed.
  • Mattila, Hans Kristian; Kačar, Dina; Mali, Tuulia Leena Elina; Lundell, Taina Kristina (2018)
    The Polyporales phlebioid white rot fungus Phlebia radiata is efficient in decomposing the wood main components, and in producing ethanol from lignocelluloses and waste materials. Based to these qualifications, the fungus was adopted for design of a consolidated bioprocess method to convert wood waste materials into ethanol without pretreatments. Higher ethanol yield was aimed by introducing collaborative fungal cultivations including isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, other yeasts, and a brown rot fungus. Various waste lignocellulose materials such as wheat and barley straw, recycled wood-fiber based core board, recycled construction waste wood, spruce saw dust, and birch wood were applied to represent wood and non-wood waste lignocellulose of different origin, chemical content and structure. In solid-state single cultivations with the white rot fungus P. radiata, both core board and barley straw turned out as suitable substrates for the consolidated bioprocess. Up to 32.4 ± 4.5 g/L of ethanol accumulated in the solid-state core board cultivation in 30 days whereas with barley straw, 7.0 ± 0.01 g/L of ethanol was obtained. Similar concentrations of ethanol were produced in increased-volume and higher gravity bioreactor cultivations without chemical, physical or enzymatic pretreatment. In all, our consolidated method adopting a white rot fungus is a promising and economic alternative for second generation bioethanol production from waste and residual lignocelluloses.
  • Parviainen, A.; Wahlstrom, R.; Liimatainen, U.; Liitia, T.; Rovio, S.; Helminen, J. K. J.; Hyvakko, U.; King, A. W. T.; Suurnakki, A.; Kilpelainen, I. (2015)
    The recyclability of 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0] non-5-enium acetate ([DBNH][OAc]), as a direct dissolution solvent for cellulose, was evaluated during laboratory scale recycling trials. The main objective was to simulate the conditions of a spinning bath from a Lyocell-type air-gap spinning process, called the IONCELL-F process. The saline solution was then concentrated, recycled and reused as many times as possible before cellulose dissolution was no longer possible. The chemical compositions of the ionic liquid and pulp were recorded throughout the experiments. The results of the experiments showed that [DBNH][OAc] can be recycled from aqueous media with an average recovery rate of 95.6 wt% using basic laboratory equipment, without any further process intensification or optimisation. The recycling of the ionic liquid did not change the chemical composition or degree of polymerisation of the recovered pulp but the colour of the regenerated pulps gradually darkened as the recycling times increased. The ionic liquid was found to hydrolyse 6.0-13.6 mol% per cycle, under these conditions. The build-up of the hydrolysis product, 3-( aminopropyl)-2-pyrrolidonium acetate, killed the dissolution feature at between 30.6-45.6 wt% hydrolysis product. The enzymatic digestibility of the regenerated pulp samples was studied with both a monocomponent endoglucanase and a cellulase mixture. The amount of residual [DBNH][OAc] in the regenerated pulps was determined, by both NMR and capillary electrophoresis. Although hydrolysis of the ionic liquid occurs, this study clearly shows potential for industrial application, with appropriate process equipment and recycling conditions.
  • Veit, Christina; Janczak, Andrew M.; Ranheim, Birgit; Vas, Judit; Valros, Anna; Sandercock, Dale A.; Piepponen, Petteri; Dulgheriu, Daniela; Nordgreen, Janicke (2021)
    Poor health is a risk factor for damaging behaviors, but the mechanisms behind this link are unknown. Injection of pigs with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can be used to model aspects of poor health. Recent studies have shown that LPS-injected pigs perform more tail- and ear-directed behavior compared to saline-injected pigs and suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines may play a role in these behaviors. The aims of this study were to test the effect of LPS on the social behavior of pigs and the neurotransmitters and modulators in their brains and to test the effect of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug on the effects of LPS. Fifty-two female pigs (11-12 weeks) were allocated to four treatments comprising two injections: saline-saline (SS), saline-LPS (SL), ketoprofen-saline (KS), and ketoprofen-LPS (KL). Activity was scan-sampled every 5 min for 6 h after the last injection in the pen. Social behavior was observed continuously in 10 x 15-min bouts between 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. 1 day before (baseline) and 1 and 2 days after the injection. Saliva was analyzed for cortisol and plasma for tryptophan and kynurenine. The frontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and brain stem were sampled 72 h after the injection and analyzed for cytokines and monoamines. LPS activated the HPA axis and decreased the activity within 6 h after the injection. Ketoprofen lowered the effect of LPS on cortisol release and attenuated the behavioral signs of sickness in challenged pigs. SL pigs manipulated the ears of their pen mates significantly longer than SS pigs 2 days after the injection. LPS had no observed effect on IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-18. At 72 h after the injection, plasma tryptophan was depleted in SL pigs, and tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations in the frontal cortex and brain stem of SL pigs were significantly lower compared to those in SS pigs. Dopamine concentrations in the hypothalamus of SL pigs were significantly lower compared to those in SS pigs. Serotonin concentrations in the hypothalamus and noradrenaline concentrations in the hippocampus of SL pigs were significantly lower compared to those in KL pigs. In conclusion, LPS influenced the different neurotransmitters and modulators in the brain that are hypothesized to play an important role in the regulation of mood and behavior.
  • Hagel, Sebastian; Kirjoranta, Satu; Mikkonen, Kirsi S.; Tenkanen, Maija; Körner, Ina; Saake, Bodo (2021)
    Street tree pruning residues are a widely available and currently undervalorized bioresource. Their utilization could help alleviate an increasing biomass shortage and offset costs of the pruning process for the municipalities. In this work, a holistic valorization pathway of pruning residues leading to fibers, oligosaccharides, biogas, and compost is presented. For this, representative mixtures of tree pruning materials from the most prevalent street tree genera (oak, linden, maple) found in Hamburg (Germany) were prepared by shredding and cleaning procedures. Collection of sample material was performed in summer and winter to account for seasonality. A steam-based fractionation was conducted using treatment severities ranging from log R-0 = 2.5 to 4.0. At the highest severity, a fiber yield of around 66%, and liquor yield of 26-30% was determined. The fibers were evaluated with respect to their properties for paper product applications, with higher treatment severities leading to higher paper strengths. From the oligosaccharide-rich liquor, emulsions were created, which showed promising stability properties over 8 weeks of storage. The liquors and the rejects from the material preparation also displayed good potential for biomethane production. Overall, the differences between material collected in summer and winter were found to be small, indicating the possibility for a year-round utilization of pruning residues. For the presented utilization pathway, high severity treatments were the most promising, featuring a high liquor yield, good biomethane potential, and the highest paper strengths.