Browsing by Subject "PRICES"

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  • Lappi, Pauli (2017)
    We study non-compliance in an emissions trading system in which firms may bank and borrow permits. We find a condition involving auditing probability that characterizes compliance and allows us to analyze the time paths of actual emissions, reported emissions and violations. We find two interesting time instants. At the first time instant, reported emissions begin to be lower than the actual emissions, and at the second time instant, the reported emissions become zero and the actual emissions become constant. The results indicate, among other things, that a given penalty scheme may fail to induce compliance over the whole planning interval, even though it achieves compliance over the initial stage.
  • Poikolainen, Kari (2021)
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate to what degree scientific evidence supports contemporary paternalistic alcohol policy practices targeting fully competent adults. Design/methodology/approach Paternalism may be acceptable if it is effective, fair and protects the safety of the citizen or a third party from the harms caused by the citizen's autonomic actions. To be justifiable, paternalistic actions should bring about clearly more benefits than harms. Otherwise, autonomy should prevail. The evidence related to alcohol control policies is assessed against these principles. Findings In peaceful civilized societies, alcohol control policies (high prices, restrictions on supply and marketing) have no or only insignificant effectiveness. Some policies are unfair and may bring about more harms than benefits. There is strong evidence showing that brief interventions aiming to reduce alcohol intake are inefficient. Wide-scale screening for such interventions is likely to waste health service resources. There is sufficient evidence to refute the claim that the previously mentioned policies are effective measures to reduce alcohol-related harms. Heavy alcohol use during pregnancy and driving motor vehicles while intoxicated may bring about harm to others than the user. Behavioural interventions to reduce heavy use in pregnancy have been shown to be inefficient. Light alcohol use may have no harmful effect on the developing embryo, whereas heavy use is likely to cause harm. There is moderate evidence for enforcing legal blood alcohol concentration limits to reduce traffic accidents and fatalities. Originality/value This is the first review on the acceptability of paternalism in currently recommended alcohol policies. It shows that in only a few cases, paternalism is effective and compatible with freedom and fairness.
  • Kriikku, Pirkko; Ojanperä, Ilkka (2020)
    Background: Alcohol may cause death directly by acute poisoning, as well as induce illnesses or accidents that lead to death. Our research question was whether the current decreasing trend in acute fatal alcohol poisonings in Finland is a real phenomenon or an artefact caused by possible changes in the process of determining the cause of death. Methods: All cases in the national post-mortem toxicology database in which the underlying cause of death was acute alcohol poisoning in 1987-2018 were investigated in terms of blood alcohol concentration (BAC), age and gender. The number of acute alcohol poisonings was compared to the number of deaths from alcohol induced illness in the post-mortem toxicology database. Results: A total of 12 126 acute alcohol poisoning cases were retrieved. Between 2004 and 2017 the number of acute alcohol poisonings decreased 60.1 %. At the same time the number of alcohol induced illnesses in the study material remained stable or decreased marginally. The median BAC in all acute alcohol poisonings was 3.2 g/kg. The annual median BAC values showed a small but significant decrease over the study period. The proportion of women in acute alcohol poisonings increased significantly over the study period, from 17.1%-22.3%. Women were on average 2.5 years older than men. Conclusions: On grounds of the BAC statistics and supporting evidence, we conclude that the significant decrease in the number of fatal alcohol poisonings is true and likely reflects changes in the overall consumption of alcohol.