Browsing by Subject "PRICES"

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  • Lappi, Pauli (2017)
    We study non-compliance in an emissions trading system in which firms may bank and borrow permits. We find a condition involving auditing probability that characterizes compliance and allows us to analyze the time paths of actual emissions, reported emissions and violations. We find two interesting time instants. At the first time instant, reported emissions begin to be lower than the actual emissions, and at the second time instant, the reported emissions become zero and the actual emissions become constant. The results indicate, among other things, that a given penalty scheme may fail to induce compliance over the whole planning interval, even though it achieves compliance over the initial stage.
  • Kriikku, Pirkko; Ojanperä, Ilkka (2020)
    Background: Alcohol may cause death directly by acute poisoning, as well as induce illnesses or accidents that lead to death. Our research question was whether the current decreasing trend in acute fatal alcohol poisonings in Finland is a real phenomenon or an artefact caused by possible changes in the process of determining the cause of death. Methods: All cases in the national post-mortem toxicology database in which the underlying cause of death was acute alcohol poisoning in 1987-2018 were investigated in terms of blood alcohol concentration (BAC), age and gender. The number of acute alcohol poisonings was compared to the number of deaths from alcohol induced illness in the post-mortem toxicology database. Results: A total of 12 126 acute alcohol poisoning cases were retrieved. Between 2004 and 2017 the number of acute alcohol poisonings decreased 60.1 %. At the same time the number of alcohol induced illnesses in the study material remained stable or decreased marginally. The median BAC in all acute alcohol poisonings was 3.2 g/kg. The annual median BAC values showed a small but significant decrease over the study period. The proportion of women in acute alcohol poisonings increased significantly over the study period, from 17.1%-22.3%. Women were on average 2.5 years older than men. Conclusions: On grounds of the BAC statistics and supporting evidence, we conclude that the significant decrease in the number of fatal alcohol poisonings is true and likely reflects changes in the overall consumption of alcohol.