Browsing by Subject "PRIMARY SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX"

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  • Hotta, Jaakko; Saari, Jukka; Koskinen, Miika; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Forss, Nina; Hari, Riitta (2017)
    Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) display various abnormalities in central motor function, and their pain is intensified when they perform or just observe motor actions. In this study, we examined the abnormalities of brain responses to action observation in CRPS. We analyzed 3-T functional magnetic resonance images from 13 upper limb CRPS patients (all female, ages 31-58 years) and 13 healthy, age- and sex-matched control subjects. The functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired while the subjects viewed brief videos of hand actions shown in the first-person perspective. A pattern-classification analysis was applied to characterize brain areas where the activation pattern differed between CRPS patients and healthy subjects. Brain areas with statistically significant group differences (q <.05, false discovery rate-corrected) included the hand representation area in the sensorimotor cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, secondary somatosensory cortex, inferior parietal lobule, orbitofrontal cortex, and thalamus. Our findings indicate that CRPS impairs action observation by affecting brain areas related to pain processing and motor control. Perspective: This article shows that in CRPS, the observation of others' motor actions induces abnormal neural activity in brain areas essential for sensorimotor functions and pain. These results build the cerebral basis for action-observation impairments in CRPS. (C) 2016 by the American Pain Society
  • Lankinen, Kaisu; Smeds, Eero; Tikka, Pia; Pihko, Elina; Hari, Riitta; Koskinen, Miika (2016)
    Observation of another person's actions and feelings activates brain areas that support similar functions in the observer, thereby facilitating inferences about the other's mental and bodily states. In real life, events eliciting this kind of vicarious brain activations are intermingled with other complex, ever-changing stimuli in the environment. One practical approach to study the neural underpinnings of real-life vicarious perception is to image brain activity during movie viewing. Here the goal was to find out how observed haptic events in a silent movie would affect the spectator's sensorimotor cortex. The functional state of the sensorimotor cortex was monitored by analyzing, in 16 healthy subjects, magnetoencephalographic (MEG) responses to tactile finger stimuli that were presented once per second throughout the session. Using canonical correlation analysis and spatial filtering, consistent single-trial responses across subjects were uncovered, and their waveform changes throughout the movie were quantified. The long-latency (85-175 ms) parts of the responses were modulated in concordance with the participants' average moment-by-moment ratings of own engagement in the haptic content of the movie (correlation r=0.49; ratings collected after the MEG session). The results, obtained by using novel signal-analysis approaches, demonstrate that the functional state of the human sensorimotor cortex fluctuates in a fine-grained manner even during passive observation of temporally varying haptic events. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4061-4068, 2016. (c) 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • Hari, Riitta; Baillet, Sylvain; Barnes, Gareth; Burgess, Richard; Forss, Nina; Gross, Joachim; Hämäläinen, Matti; Jensen, Ole; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Mauguière, François; Nakasato, Nobukatzu; Puce, Aina; Romani, Gian-Luca; Schnitzler, Alfons; Taulu, Samu (2018)
    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) records weak magnetic fields outside the human head and thereby provides millisecond-accurate information about neuronal currents supporting human brain function. MEG and electroencephalography (EEG) are closely related complementary methods and should be interpreted together whenever possible. This manuscript covers the basic physical and physiological principles of MEG and discusses the main aspects of state-of-the-art MEG data analysis. We provide guidelines for best practices of patient preparation, stimulus presentation, MEG data collection and analysis, as well as for MEG interpretation in routine clinical examinations. In 2017, about 200 whole-scalp MEG devices were in operation worldwide, many of them located in clinical environments. Yet, the established clinical indications for MEG examinations remain few, mainly restricted to the diagnostics of epilepsy and to preoperative functional evaluation of neurosurgical patients. We are confident that the extensive ongoing basic MEG research indicates potential for the evaluation of neurological and psychiatric syndromes, developmental disorders, and the integrity of cortical brain networks after stroke. Basic and clinical research is, thus, paving way for new clinical applications to be identified by an increasing number of practitioners of MEG. (C) 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Gogulski, Juha; Zetter, Rasmus; Nyrhinen, Mikko; Pertovaara, Antti; Carlson, Synnove (2017)
    The human prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been shown to be important for metacognition, the capacity to monitor and control one's own cognitive processes. Here we dissected the neural architecture of somatosensory metacognition using navigated single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to modulate tactile working memory (WM) processing. We asked subjects to perform tactile WM tasks and to give a confidence rating for their performance after each trial. We circumvented the challenge of interindividual variability in functional brain anatomy by applying TMS to two PFC areas that, according to tractography, were neurally connected with the primary somatosensory cortex (S1): one area in the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), another in the middle frontal gyrus (MFG). These two PFC locations and a control cortical area were stimulated during both spatial and temporal tactile WM tasks. We found that tractography-guided TMS of the SFG area selectively enhanced metacognitive accuracy of tactile temporal, but not spatial WM. Stimulation of the MFG area that was also neurally connected with the S1 had no such effect on metacognitive accuracy of either the temporal or spatial tactile WM. Our findings provide causal evidence that the PFC contains distinct neuroanatomical substrates for introspective accuracy of tactile WM.
  • Salo, Karita S.-T.; Vaalto, Selja M. I.; Koponen, Lari M.; Nieminen, Jaakko O.; Ilmoniemi, Risto J. (2019)
    Chronic neuropathic pain is known to alter the primary motor cortex (M1) function. Less is known about the normal, physiological effects of experimental neurogenic pain on M1. The objective of this study is to determine how short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) is altered in the M1 representation area of a muscle exposed to experimental pain compared to SICI of another muscle not exposed to pain. The cortical representation areas of the right abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and biceps brachii (BB) muscles of 11 subjects were stimulated with a multi-locus transcranial magnetic stimulation device while the resulting motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded with electromyography. Single- and paired-pulse TMS was administered in seven conditions, including one with the right hand placed in cold water. The stimulation intensity for the conditioning pulses in the paired-pulse examination was 80% of the resting motor threshold (RMT) of the stimulated site and 120% of RMT for both the test and single pulses. The paired-pulse MEP amplitudes were normalized with the mean amplitude of the single-pulse MEPs of the same condition and muscle. SICI was compared between conditions. After the cold pain, the normalized paired-pulse MEP amplitudes decreased in APB, but not in BB, indicating that SICI was potentially increased only in the cortical area of the muscle subjected to pain. These data suggest that SICI is increased in the M1 representation area of a hand muscle shortly after exposure to pain has ended, which implies that short-lasting pain can alter the inhibitory balance in M1.