Browsing by Subject "PRIMARY-CARE"

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  • Laukkanen, Eila; Hintikka, Jukka J.; Kylma, Jari; Kekkonen, Virve; Marttunen, Mauri (2010)
  • Lundberg, Johan; Cars, Thomas; Lööv, Sven-Åke; Söderling, Jonas; Tiihonen, Jari; Leval, Amy; Gannedahl, Anna; Björkholm, Carl; Själin, Mikael; Hellner, Clara (2022)
    Objective Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent condition and a significant contributor to global disability. The vast majority of MDD is handled by primary care, but most real-life studies on MDD only include data from secondary care. The aim of this study was therefore to estimate the total clinical and societal burden of incident MDD including data from all healthcare levels in a large well-defined western European healthcare region. Methods Population-wide observational study included healthcare data from Region Stockholm, Sweden's largest region with approximately 2.4 million inhabitants. All patients in Region Stockholm having their first unipolar MDD episode between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2018, were included. The sample also included matched study population controls. Outcomes were psychiatric and non-psychiatric comorbid conditions, antidepressant therapy use, healthcare resource utilization, work loss, and all-cause mortality. Results In the study period, 137,822 patients in Region Stockholm were diagnosed with their first unipolar MDD episode. Compared with matched controls, MDD patients had a higher burden of non-psychiatric and psychiatric comorbid conditions, 3.2 times higher outpatient healthcare resource utilization and 8.6 times more work loss. MDD was also associated with a doubled all-cause mortality compared with matched controls (HR: 2.2 [95% CI: 2.0-2.4]). Conclusions The high mortality, morbidity, healthcare resource utilization, and work loss found in this study confirms that MDD is associated with individual suffering and low functioning leading to substantial costs for patients and society. These findings should motivate additional efforts in improving outcomes for MDD patients.
  • Vargese, Saritha Susan; Halonen, Pauliina; Raitanen, Jani; Forma, Leena; Jylhä, Marja; Aaltonen, Mari (2021)
    Background Comorbidities have major implications for the care of people with dementia. Aim To investigate the patterns of comorbidities in dementia in the last five years of life and how these patterns differed between three cohorts. Methods The study included people who died at age 70 and above in 2001 (n = 13,717), 2007 (n = 34,750) and 2013 (n = 38,087) in Finland. ICD-10 morbidity data for a five-year period prior to death were extracted from national registers. Principal component analysis was employed to identify patterns for several morbidities. The associations of principal component scores with dementia were analysed using binary logistic regression. Linear regression was used to examine changes in the number of morbidities in patterns over time. Results The morbidity patterns identified in the last years of life were (1) cardiometabolic disorders, (2) neurological, (3) cerebrovascular diseases and (4) musculoskeletal, thyroid and psychiatric disorders. Among the patterns, neurological and musculoskeletal, thyroid and psychiatric disorders were associated with dementia. The number of diagnoses in the cerebrovascular pattern increased and those in the musculoskeletal, thyroid and psychiatric pattern decreased over time. Discussion Comorbidity patterns identified in this nationwide register study are largely in line with previous evidence. Time difference in these patterns provide crucial information for service planning. Conclusions Comorbidities in dementia in the last years of life occur in patterns and change over time. More systematic monitoring and updated clinical guidelines are needed for the care of comorbidities with dementia.
  • Åberg, Fredrik; Luukkonen, Panu K.; But, Anna; Salomaa, Veikko; Britton, Annie; Petersen, Kasper Meidahl; Bojesen, Stig Egil; Balling, Mie; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Puukka, Pauli; Männistö, Satu; Lundqvist, Annamari; Perola, Markus; Jula, Antti; Färkkilä, Martti (2022)
    Background & Aims: Current screening strategies for chronic liver disease focus on detection of subclinical advanced liver fibrosis but cannot identify those at high future risk of severe liver disease. Our aim was to develop and validate a risk pre-diction model for incident chronic liver disease in the general population based on widely available factors. Methods: Multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to develop prediction models for liver-related outcomes with and without laboratory measures (Modellab and Modelnon-lab) in 25,760 individuals aged 40-70 years. Their data were sourced from the Finnish population-based health examination surveys FINRISK 1992-2012 and Health 2000 (derivation cohort). The models were externally validated in the Whitehall II (n = 5,058) and Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS) (n = 3,049) cohorts. Results: The absolute rate of incident liver outcomes per 100,000 person-years ranged from 53 to 144. The final prediction model included age, sex, alcohol use (drinks/week), waist-hip ratio, diabetes, and smoking, and Modellab also included gamma-glutamyltransferase values. Internally validated Wolbers' C -sta-tistics were 0.77 for Modellab and 0.75 for Modelnon-lab, while apparent 15-year AUCs were 0.84 (95% CI 0.75-0.93) and 0.82 (95% CI 0.74-0.91). The models identified a small proportion (< 2%) of the population with > 10% absolute 15-year risk for liver events. Of all liver events, only 10% occurred in participants in the lowest risk category. In the validation cohorts, 15-year AUCs were 0.78 (Modellab) and 0.65 (Modelnon-lab) in the CCHS cohort, and 0.78 (Modelnon-lab) in the Whitehall II cohort. Conclusions: Based on widely available risk factors, the Chronic Liver Disease (CLivD) score can be used to predict risk of future advanced liver disease in the general population. Lay summary: Liver disease often progresses silently without symptoms and thus the diagnosis is often delayed until severe complications occur and prognosis becomes poor. In order to identify individuals in the general population who have a high risk of developing severe liver disease in the future, we developed and validated a Chronic Liver Disease (CLivD) risk prediction score, based on age, sex, alcohol use, waist-hip ratio, diabetes, and smoking, with or without measurement of the liver enzyme gamma-glutamyltransferase. The CLivD score can be used as part of health counseling, and for planning further liver investigations and follow-up. (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Association for the Study of the Liver.
  • Kauppila, Timo; Liedes-Kauppila, Marja; Lehto, Mika; Mustonen, Katri; Rahkonen, Ossi; Raina, Marko; Heikkinen, Anna M. (2022)
    This study, conducted in a Finnish city, examined whether a long-lasting observed trend in Finnish primary health care, namely, a decreasing rate of office-hour visits to general practitioners (GPs), would lead to reduced services for specific gender, diagnosis or age groups. This was an observational retrospective follow-up study. The annual number of visits to office-hour primary care GPs in different gender, diagnosis and age groups was recorded during a 13-year follow-up period. The effect of the decreasing visit rate on the annual mortality rate in different age and gender groups was also studied. The total number of monthly visits to office-hour GPs decreased slowly over the whole study period. This decrease was stronger in women and older people. The proportion of recorded infectious diseases (Groups A and J and especially diagnoses related to infections of respiratory airways) decreased. Proportions of recorded chronic diseases increased (Group I, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and osteoarthrosis) during the follow-up. The annual rate of visits to office-hour GP/per GP decreased. There was a decrease in the mortality in two of the age groups (20-64, 65+ years) and no change in the youngest population (0-19 years). The decrease in the office-hours GP activity does not seem to increase mortality either.
  • Popp, Alina; Kivela, Laura; Fuchs, Valma; Kurppa, Kalle (2019)
    Celiac disease is one of the most common food-related chronic disorders in children. Unfortunately, this multifaceted disease is challenging to recognize and remains markedly underdiagnosed. Screening of either known at-risk groups or even the whole population could increase the suboptimal diagnostic yield substantially. Many recent guidelines recommend screening of at least selected risk groups, but more wide-scale screening remains controversial. The increasing prevalence of celiac disease and the development of autoantibody assays have also led to a gradual shift in the diagnostics towards less invasive serology-based criteria in a subgroup of symptomatic children. The main open questions concern whether these criteria are applicable to all countries and clinical settings, as well as to adult patients. On the other hand, widening screening and the mistaken practice of initiating a gluten-free diet before the appropriate exclusion of celiac disease increase the number of borderline seropositive cases, which may also challenge the classical histopathological diagnostics. Sophisticated diagnostic methods and a deeper understanding of the natural history of early developing celiac disease may prove useful in these circumstances.
  • Knaster, Peter; Estlander, Ann-Mari; Karlsson, Hasse; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kalso, Eija (2016)
    Background Diagnosing depression in chronic pain is challenging due to overlapping somatic symptoms. In questionnaires, such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), responses may be influenced more by pain than by the severity of depression. In addition, previous studies have suggested that symptoms of negative self-image, a key element in depression, are uncommon in chronic pain-related depression. The object of this study is to assess the relationship of the somatic and cognitive-emotional items of BDI with the diagnosis of depression, pain intensity, and disability. Methods One hundred consecutive chronic pain patients completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID) for the diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) according to DSM-IV. Two subscales of BDI (negative view of self and somatic-physical function) were created according to the factor model presented by Morley. Results In the regression analysis, the somatic-physical function factor associated with MDD, while the negative view of self factor did not. Patients with MDD had higher scores in several of the BDI items when analysed separately. Insomnia and weight loss were not dependent on the depression diagnosis. Limitations The relatively small sample size and the selected patient sample limit the generalisability of the results. Conclusions Somatic symptoms of depression are also common in chronic pain and should not be excluded when diagnosing depression in pain patients. Regardless of the assessment method, diagnosing depression in chronic pain remains a challenge and requires careful interpretation of symptoms.
  • Aaltonen, Kari I.; Rosenström, Tom; Jylhä, Pekka; Holma, Irina; Holma, Mikael; Pallaskorpi, Sanna; Riihimäki, Kirsi; Suominen, Kirsi; Vuorilehto, Maria; Isometsä, Erkki T. (2020)
    Background: Preceding suicide attempts strongly predict future suicidal acts. However, whether attempting suicide per se increases the risk remains undetermined. We longitudinally investigated among patients with mood disorders whether after a suicide attempt future attempts occur during milder depressive states, indicating a possible lowered threshold for acting. Methods: We used 5-year follow-up data from 581 patients of the Jorvi Bipolar Study, Vantaa Depression Study, and Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study cohorts. Lifetime suicide attempts were investigated at baseline and during the follow-up. At follow-up interviews, life-chart data on the course of the mood disorder were generated and suicide attempts timed. By using individual-level data and multilevel modeling, we investigated at each incident attempt the association between the lifetime ordinal number of the attempt and the major depressive episode (MDE) status (full MDE, partial remission, or remission). Results: A total of 197 suicide attempts occurred among 90 patients, most during MDEs. When the dependencies between observations and individual liabilities were modeled, no association was found between the number of past suicide attempts at the time of each attempt and partial remissions. No association between adjusted inter-suicide attempt times and the number of past attempts emerged during follow-up. No indication for direct risk-increasing effects was found. Conclusion: Among mood disorder patients, repeated suicide attempts do not tend to occur during milder depressive states than in the preceding attempts. Previous suicide attempts may indicate underlying diathesis, future risk being principally set by the course of the disorder itself.
  • Rantonen, J.; Karppinen, J.; Vehtari, A.; Luoto, S.; Viikari-Juntura, E.; Hupli, M.; Malmivaara, A.; Taimela, S. (2018)
    Background: We assessed the effectiveness of three interventions that were aimed to reduce non-acute low back pain (LBP) related symptoms in the occupational health setting. Methods: Based on a survey (n = 2480; response rate 71%) on LBP, we selected a cohort of 193 employees who reported moderate LBP (Visual Analogue Scale VAS > 34 mm) and fulfilled at least one of the following criteria during the past 12 months: sciatica, recurrence of LBP >= 2 times, LBP >= 2 weeks, or previous sickness absence. A random sample was extracted from the cohort as a control group (Control, n = 50), representing the natural course of LBP. The remaining 143 employees were invited to participate in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of three 1:1:1 allocated parallel intervention arms: multidisciplinary rehabilitation (Rehab, n = 43); progressive exercises (Physio, n = 43) and self-care advice (Advice, n = 40). Seventeen employees declined participation in the intervention. The primary outcome measures were physical impairment (PHI), LBP intensity (Visual Analogue Scale), health related quality of life (QoL), and accumulated sickness absence days. We imputed missing values with multiple imputation procedure. We assessed all comparisons between the intervention groups and the Control group by analysing questionnaire outcomes at 2 years with ANOVA and sickness absence at 4 years by using negative binomial model with a logarithmic link function. Results: Mean differences between the Rehab and Control groups were - 3 [95% CI -5 to - 1] for PHI, - 13 [- 24 to - 1] for pain intensity, and 0.06 [0.00 to 0.12] for QoL. Mean differences between the Physio and Control groups were - 3 [95% CI -5 to - 1] for PHI, -13 [- 29 to 2] for pain intensity, and 0.07 [0.01 to 0.13] for QoL. The main effects sizes were from 0.4 to 0.6. The interventions were not effective in reducing sickness absence. Conclusions: Rehab and Physio interventions improved health related quality of life, decreased low back pain and physical impairment in non-acute, moderate LBP, but we found no differences between the Advice and Control group results. No effectiveness on sickness absence was observed.
  • Harkko, Jaakko; Nordquist, Hilla; Pietiläinen, Olli; Piha, Kustaa; Mänty, Minna; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Kouvonen, Anne (2021)
    Objectives We examined whether frequent short-term sickness absence (FSTSA) and primary care use in occupational health service (OHS) were associated with medically-certified long-term sickness absence (LTSA) due to mental disorders among young employees. Methods We used record-linkage data covering the young employees (< 35 years) of the City of Helsinki, Finland (n = 8,282) from 2010 to 2014. The outcome was LTSA due to mental disorders. Cox regression models were fitted. Results FSTSAs were associated with subsequent LTSA. Also OHS use predicted LTSA due to mental disorders; however, this association was not found for those with prior FSTSA. Conclusions Both FSTSA and primary care use indicate subsequent LTSA independently, and together these indicators identify a larger proportion of individuals at risk of LTSA due to mental disorders.
  • Nurminen, Janne; Puustinen, Juha; Lahteenmaki, Ritva; Vahlberg, Tero; Lyles, Alan; Partinen, Markku; Raiha, Ismo; Neuvonen, Pertti J.; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa (2014)
  • Knittle, Keegan Phillip; Nurmi, Johanna; Crutzen, Rik; Hankonen, Nelli Elisa; Beattie, Marguerite; Dombrowski, Stephan (2018)
    Motivation is a proximal determinant of behaviour, and increasing motivation is central to most health behaviour change interventions. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to identify features of physical activity interventions associated with favourable changes in three prominent motivational constructs: intention, stage of change and autonomous motivation. A systematic literature search identified 89 intervention studies (k=200; N=19,212) which assessed changes in these motivational constructs for physical activity. Intervention descriptions were coded for potential moderators, including behaviour change techniques (BCTs), modes of delivery and theory use. Random effects comparative subgroup analyses identified 18 BCTs and 10 modes of delivery independently associated with changes in at least one motivational outcome (effect sizes ranged from d=0.12 to d=0.74). Interventions delivered face-to-face or in gym settings, or which included the BCTs behavioural goal setting', self-monitoring (behaviour)' or behavioural practice/rehearsal', or which combined self-monitoring (behaviour) with any other BCT derived from control theory, were all associated with beneficial changes in multiple motivational constructs (effect sizes ranged from d=0.12 to d=0.46). Meta-regression analyses indicated that increases in intention and stage of change, but not autonomous motivation, were significantly related to increases in physical activity. The intervention characteristics associated with changes in motivation seemed to form clusters related to behavioural experience and self-regulation, which have previously been linked to changes in physical activity behaviour. These BCTs and modes of delivery merit further systematic study, and can be used as a foundation for improving interventions targeting increases in motivation for physical activity.
  • Jokelainen, Jarno; Udd, Marianne; Kylänpää, Leena; Mustonen, Harri; Halttunen, Jorma; Lindstrom, Outi; Pöyhiä, Reino (2017)
    Objective: Patient-controlled sedation (PCS) has been shown to be a valid choice for sedation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in randomized studies. However, large-scale studies are lacking. Material and methods: A single center, prospective observational study to determine how sedation for ERCP is administered in clinical setting. All 956 patients undergoing 1196 ERCPs in the endoscopy unit of Helsinki University Central Hospital 2012-2013, methods of sedation and adverse events associated with different sedations were recorded. Results: PCS was attempted a total of 685 times (57%), successful use of PCS was achieved with 526 patients (77% of attempts). PCS device was operated by the anesthesiologist or anesthesia nurse 268 times (22%). PCS was more likely chosen for younger (80.6% for <=60 years vs. 63.8% for >60 years, p <.001) patients and by trainee anesthetists. Anesthesiologist administered propofol sedation was used 240 times (20%). The risk of failure of PCS was increased, if systolic arterial pressure was <90mmHg, dosage of PCS > 17 ml, duration of procedure exceeded 23 min. The risk of failure was lower in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and if sedation was deeper RASS<= -2. Uneventful PCS was associated with less respiratory and cardiovascular depression than other methods. There were no statistically significant differences in safety profiles with all the methods of sedation. Conclusions: PCS is readily implemented in clinical practice, is suitable for younger and low-risk patients and is associated with less cardiorespiratory adverse effects.
  • Ala-Nikkola, Taina; Pirkola, Sami; Kaila, Minna; Joffe, Grigori; Kontio, Raija; Oranta, Olli; Sadeniemi, Minna; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Saarni, Samuli I. (2018)
    The challenges of mental health and substance abuse services (MHS) require shifting of the balance of resources from institutional care to community care. In order to track progress, an instrument that can describe these attributes of MHS is needed. We created a coding variable in the European Service Mapping Schedule-Revised (ESMS-R) mapping tool using a modified Delphi panel that classified MHS into centralized, local services with gatekeeping and local services without gatekeeping. For feasibility and validity, we tested the variable on a dataset comprising MHS in Southern Finland, covering a population of 2.3 million people. There were differences in the characteristics of services between our study regions. In our data, 41% were classified as centralized, 37% as local without gatekeeping and 22% as local services with gatekeeping. The proportion of resources allocated to local services varied from 20% to 43%. Reclassifying ESMS-R is an easy way to compare the important local vs. centralized balance of MHS systems globally, where such data exists. Further international studies comparing systems and validating this approach are needed.
  • Siren, Reijo; Eriksson, Johan G.; Peltonen, Markku; Vanhanen, Hannu (2014)
  • Koivula-Tynnilä, Hannele; Axelin, Anna; Leino-Kilpi, Helena (2018)
    Purpose: To describe patients' perceptions of informational privacy and factors promoting it in the recovery room. Design: A descriptive semistructured qualitative interview study. Methods: The study was conducted in 2013, and the data were analyzed with inductive content analysis. Adult surgical recovery room patients (n = 17) were recruited with purposive sampling at the Department of Ear, Nose and Throat diseases in a university hospital in Finland. Findings: Informational privacy was described as control of patients' health information maintained by the health care professionals and the patients. Informational privacy was especially important in relation to other patients. Health care professionals and patients' attitude, behavior, and knowledge of informational privacy, barriers of hearing and seeing, societal rules, and the electronic patient data system promoted informational privacy. Conclusions: Informational privacy in relation to other patients could be improved in the recovery room, for example, by developing patient health information transmission and architectural solutions.
  • Kausto, Johanna; Rosenstrom, Tom Henrik; Ervasti, Jenni; Pietiläinen, Olli; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Rahkonen, Ossi; Harkko, Jaakko; Väänänen, Ari; Kouvonen, Anne; Lallukka, Tea (2021)
    Objective An intervention was carried out at the occupational healthcare services (OHS) of the City of Helsinki beginning in 2016. We investigated the association between the intervention and employee sick leaves using interrupted time series analysis. Design Register-based cohort study with a quasi-experimental study design. Setting Employees of the City of Helsinki. Participants We analysed individual-level register-based data on all employees who were employed by the city for any length of time between 2013 and 2018 (a total 86 970 employees and 3 014 075 sick leave days). Sick leave days and periods that were OHS-based constituted the intervention time series and the rest of the sick leave days and periods contributed to the comparison time series. Intervention Recommendations provided to physicians on managing pain and prescribing sick leave for low back, shoulder and elbow pain. Outcome measures Number of sick leave days per month and sick leave periods per year. Results For all sick leave days prescribed at OHS, there was no immediate change in sick leave days, whereas a gradual change showing decreasing number of OHS-based sick leave days was detected. On average, the intervention was estimated to have saved 2.5 sick leave days per year per employee. For other sick leave days, there was an immediate increase in the level of sick leave days after the intervention and a subsequent gradual trend showing decreasing number of sick leave days. Conclusions The intervention may have reduced employee sick leaves and therefore it is possible that it had led to direct cost savings. However, further evidence for causal inferences is needed.
  • Bousquet, Jean; Schunemann, Holger J.; Hellings, Peter W.; Arnavielhe, Sylvie; Bachert, Claus; Bedbrook, Anna; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Brozek, Jan; Calderon, Moises; Canonica, G. Walter; Casale, Thomas B.; Chavannes, Niels H.; Cox, Linda; Chrystyn, Henry; Cruz, Alvaro A.; Dahl, Ronald; De Carlo, Giuseppe; Demoly, Pascal; Devillier, Phillipe; Dray, Gerard; Fletcher, Monica; Fokkens, Wytske J.; Fonseca, Joao; Gonzalez-Diaz, Sandra N.; Grouse, Lawrence; Keil, Thomas; Kuna, Piotr; Larenas-Linnemann, Desiree; Carlsen, Karin C. Lodrup; Meltzer, Eli O.; Mullol, Jaoquim; Muraro, Antonella; Naclerio, Robert N.; Palkonen, Susanna; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Price, David; Ryan, Dermot; Samolinski, Boleslaw; Scadding, Glenis K.; Sheikh, Aziz; Spertini, Francois; Valiulis, Arunas; Valovirta, Erkka; Walker, Samantha; Wickman, Magnus; Yorgancioglu, Arzu; Haahtela, Tari; Zuberbier, Torsten; MASK Study Grp (2016)
    The selection of pharmacotherapy for patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) depends on several factors, including age, prominent symptoms, symptom severity, control of AR, patient preferences, and cost. Allergen exposure and the resulting symptoms vary, and treatment adjustment is required. Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) might be beneficial for the assessment of disease control. CDSSs should be based on the best evidence and algorithms to aid patients and health care professionals to jointly determine treatment and its step-up or step-down strategy depending on AR control. Contre les MAladies Chroniques pour un VIeillissement Actif en Languedoc-Roussillon (MACVIA-LR [fighting chronic diseases for active and healthy ageing]), one of the reference sites of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing, has initiated an allergy sentinel network (the MACVIA-ARIA Sentinel Network). A CDSS is currently being developed to optimize AR control. An algorithm developed by consensus is presented in this article. This algorithm should be confirmed by appropriate trials.
  • Andersen, Heidi; Kankaanranta, Hannu; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Piirilä, Päivi; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Langhammer, Arnulf; Backman, Helena; Lundbäck, Bo; Rönmark, Eva; Lehtimäki, Lauri; Ilmarinen, Pinja (2021)
    Multimorbidity is an emerging public health priority. This study aims to assess the role of lifestyle and socioeconomic status in the prevalence of multimorbidity and chronic diseases by using two language groups that are part of the same genetic subgroup but differ by daily habits. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2016 with randomly selected population sample with 4173 responders (52.3%) aged 20-69 years in Western Finland. We included 3864 Finnish participants with Swedish (28.1%) or Finnish (71.9%) as a native language. We used a questionnaire to assess participants' chronic diseases and lifestyle. We determined multimorbidity as a disease count >= 2. Finnish speakers were more likely to have a diagnosis of COPD, heart failure, diabetes, reflux disease, chronic kidney failure, and painful conditions than Swedish speakers. The prevalence of multimorbidity was higher for Finnish speakers in the age group of 60-69 years (41.0% vs. 32.0%, p = 0.018) than Swedish speakers. A higher proportion of Finnish speakers smoked, were obese, inactive, and had lower socioeconomic status compared to Swedish speakers. All these factors, in addition to age and female sex, were significant risk factors for multimorbidity. Prevalence of multimorbidity was different in two language groups living in the same area and was associated with differences in lifestyle factors such as smoking, physical inactivity and obesity.
  • Helminen, Eeva-Eerika; Arokoski, Jari P. A.; Selander, Tuomas A.; Sinikallio, Sanna H. (2020)
    Objective: To identify predictors of long-term pain and disability in knee osteoarthritis. Design: A longitudinal cohort study of five years. Setting: Primary care providers. Subjects: In all, 108 patients (mean age = 63.6 years, standard deviation (SD) = 7.2 years) with knee pain (> 40 mm on a 100 mm visual analogue scale in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index pain scale) and radiographic grading (Kellgren-Lawrence: 2-4) of knee osteoarthritis who participated in a randomized controlled trial. Main measures: Disease-specific pain and functioning were assessed using the corresponding WOMAC subscales. Generic functioning was assessed by the RAND-36 subscales for function and physical and mental component summary scores. Possible baseline predictors for these outcomes were (1) demographic and disease-related variables and (2) psychological variables of mood (anxiety, depression), pain-related cognitions (pain self-efficacy, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia), and positive resource factors (life satisfaction, sense of coherence). Results: Multivariate linear mixed model analyses revealed that minimal anxiety at baseline predicted significantly better results for pain (WOMAC, P = 0.019) and function (WOMAC, P = 0.001, RAND-36 function P = 0.001). High pain self-efficacy predicted significantly better scores in RAND-36 function (P = 0.006), physical (P = 0.004) and mental (P = 0.001) component summaries. Pain catastrophizing predicted higher pain (P = 0.015), whereas fear of movement predicted poorer functioning in RAND-36 physical (P = 0.016) and mental (P = 0.009) component summaries. Those satisfied with life reported higher scores in RAND-36 function (P = 0.002) and mental component summary (P = 0.041). A low number of comorbidities predicted significantly better results in pain (WOMAC P = 0.019) and function (WOMAC P = 0.033, RAND-36 P = 0.009). Conclusion: Anxiety, pain-related cognitions, and psychological resources predict symptoms in knee osteoarthritis in the long term.