Browsing by Subject "PRIMARY-CARE"

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  • Laukkanen, Eila; Hintikka, Jukka J.; Kylma, Jari; Kekkonen, Virve; Marttunen, Mauri (2010)
  • Popp, Alina; Kivela, Laura; Fuchs, Valma; Kurppa, Kalle (2019)
    Celiac disease is one of the most common food-related chronic disorders in children. Unfortunately, this multifaceted disease is challenging to recognize and remains markedly underdiagnosed. Screening of either known at-risk groups or even the whole population could increase the suboptimal diagnostic yield substantially. Many recent guidelines recommend screening of at least selected risk groups, but more wide-scale screening remains controversial. The increasing prevalence of celiac disease and the development of autoantibody assays have also led to a gradual shift in the diagnostics towards less invasive serology-based criteria in a subgroup of symptomatic children. The main open questions concern whether these criteria are applicable to all countries and clinical settings, as well as to adult patients. On the other hand, widening screening and the mistaken practice of initiating a gluten-free diet before the appropriate exclusion of celiac disease increase the number of borderline seropositive cases, which may also challenge the classical histopathological diagnostics. Sophisticated diagnostic methods and a deeper understanding of the natural history of early developing celiac disease may prove useful in these circumstances.
  • Knaster, Peter; Estlander, Ann-Mari; Karlsson, Hasse; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kalso, Eija (2016)
    Background Diagnosing depression in chronic pain is challenging due to overlapping somatic symptoms. In questionnaires, such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), responses may be influenced more by pain than by the severity of depression. In addition, previous studies have suggested that symptoms of negative self-image, a key element in depression, are uncommon in chronic pain-related depression. The object of this study is to assess the relationship of the somatic and cognitive-emotional items of BDI with the diagnosis of depression, pain intensity, and disability. Methods One hundred consecutive chronic pain patients completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID) for the diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) according to DSM-IV. Two subscales of BDI (negative view of self and somatic-physical function) were created according to the factor model presented by Morley. Results In the regression analysis, the somatic-physical function factor associated with MDD, while the negative view of self factor did not. Patients with MDD had higher scores in several of the BDI items when analysed separately. Insomnia and weight loss were not dependent on the depression diagnosis. Limitations The relatively small sample size and the selected patient sample limit the generalisability of the results. Conclusions Somatic symptoms of depression are also common in chronic pain and should not be excluded when diagnosing depression in pain patients. Regardless of the assessment method, diagnosing depression in chronic pain remains a challenge and requires careful interpretation of symptoms.
  • Aaltonen, Kari I.; Rosenström, Tom; Jylhä, Pekka; Holma, Irina; Holma, Mikael; Pallaskorpi, Sanna; Riihimäki, Kirsi; Suominen, Kirsi; Vuorilehto, Maria; Isometsä, Erkki T. (2020)
    Background: Preceding suicide attempts strongly predict future suicidal acts. However, whether attempting suicide per se increases the risk remains undetermined. We longitudinally investigated among patients with mood disorders whether after a suicide attempt future attempts occur during milder depressive states, indicating a possible lowered threshold for acting. Methods: We used 5-year follow-up data from 581 patients of the Jorvi Bipolar Study, Vantaa Depression Study, and Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study cohorts. Lifetime suicide attempts were investigated at baseline and during the follow-up. At follow-up interviews, life-chart data on the course of the mood disorder were generated and suicide attempts timed. By using individual-level data and multilevel modeling, we investigated at each incident attempt the association between the lifetime ordinal number of the attempt and the major depressive episode (MDE) status (full MDE, partial remission, or remission). Results: A total of 197 suicide attempts occurred among 90 patients, most during MDEs. When the dependencies between observations and individual liabilities were modeled, no association was found between the number of past suicide attempts at the time of each attempt and partial remissions. No association between adjusted inter-suicide attempt times and the number of past attempts emerged during follow-up. No indication for direct risk-increasing effects was found. Conclusion: Among mood disorder patients, repeated suicide attempts do not tend to occur during milder depressive states than in the preceding attempts. Previous suicide attempts may indicate underlying diathesis, future risk being principally set by the course of the disorder itself.
  • Rantonen, J.; Karppinen, J.; Vehtari, A.; Luoto, S.; Viikari-Juntura, E.; Hupli, M.; Malmivaara, A.; Taimela, S. (2018)
    Background: We assessed the effectiveness of three interventions that were aimed to reduce non-acute low back pain (LBP) related symptoms in the occupational health setting. Methods: Based on a survey (n = 2480; response rate 71%) on LBP, we selected a cohort of 193 employees who reported moderate LBP (Visual Analogue Scale VAS > 34 mm) and fulfilled at least one of the following criteria during the past 12 months: sciatica, recurrence of LBP >= 2 times, LBP >= 2 weeks, or previous sickness absence. A random sample was extracted from the cohort as a control group (Control, n = 50), representing the natural course of LBP. The remaining 143 employees were invited to participate in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of three 1:1:1 allocated parallel intervention arms: multidisciplinary rehabilitation (Rehab, n = 43); progressive exercises (Physio, n = 43) and self-care advice (Advice, n = 40). Seventeen employees declined participation in the intervention. The primary outcome measures were physical impairment (PHI), LBP intensity (Visual Analogue Scale), health related quality of life (QoL), and accumulated sickness absence days. We imputed missing values with multiple imputation procedure. We assessed all comparisons between the intervention groups and the Control group by analysing questionnaire outcomes at 2 years with ANOVA and sickness absence at 4 years by using negative binomial model with a logarithmic link function. Results: Mean differences between the Rehab and Control groups were - 3 [95% CI -5 to - 1] for PHI, - 13 [- 24 to - 1] for pain intensity, and 0.06 [0.00 to 0.12] for QoL. Mean differences between the Physio and Control groups were - 3 [95% CI -5 to - 1] for PHI, -13 [- 29 to 2] for pain intensity, and 0.07 [0.01 to 0.13] for QoL. The main effects sizes were from 0.4 to 0.6. The interventions were not effective in reducing sickness absence. Conclusions: Rehab and Physio interventions improved health related quality of life, decreased low back pain and physical impairment in non-acute, moderate LBP, but we found no differences between the Advice and Control group results. No effectiveness on sickness absence was observed.
  • Harkko, Jaakko; Nordquist, Hilla; Pietiläinen, Olli; Piha, Kustaa; Mänty, Minna; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Kouvonen, Anne (2021)
    We examined whether frequent short-term sickness absence (FSTSA) and primary care use in occupational health service (OHS) were associated with medically-certified long-term sickness absence (LTSA) due to mental disorders among young employees.
  • Nurminen, Janne; Puustinen, Juha; Lahteenmaki, Ritva; Vahlberg, Tero; Lyles, Alan; Partinen, Markku; Raiha, Ismo; Neuvonen, Pertti J.; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa (2014)
  • Knittle, Keegan Phillip; Nurmi, Johanna; Crutzen, Rik; Hankonen, Nelli Elisa; Beattie, Marguerite; Dombrowski, Stephan (2018)
    Motivation is a proximal determinant of behaviour, and increasing motivation is central to most health behaviour change interventions. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to identify features of physical activity interventions associated with favourable changes in three prominent motivational constructs: intention, stage of change and autonomous motivation. A systematic literature search identified 89 intervention studies (k=200; N=19,212) which assessed changes in these motivational constructs for physical activity. Intervention descriptions were coded for potential moderators, including behaviour change techniques (BCTs), modes of delivery and theory use. Random effects comparative subgroup analyses identified 18 BCTs and 10 modes of delivery independently associated with changes in at least one motivational outcome (effect sizes ranged from d=0.12 to d=0.74). Interventions delivered face-to-face or in gym settings, or which included the BCTs behavioural goal setting', self-monitoring (behaviour)' or behavioural practice/rehearsal', or which combined self-monitoring (behaviour) with any other BCT derived from control theory, were all associated with beneficial changes in multiple motivational constructs (effect sizes ranged from d=0.12 to d=0.46). Meta-regression analyses indicated that increases in intention and stage of change, but not autonomous motivation, were significantly related to increases in physical activity. The intervention characteristics associated with changes in motivation seemed to form clusters related to behavioural experience and self-regulation, which have previously been linked to changes in physical activity behaviour. These BCTs and modes of delivery merit further systematic study, and can be used as a foundation for improving interventions targeting increases in motivation for physical activity.
  • Jokelainen, Jarno; Udd, Marianne; Kylänpää, Leena; Mustonen, Harri; Halttunen, Jorma; Lindstrom, Outi; Pöyhiä, Reino (2017)
    Objective: Patient-controlled sedation (PCS) has been shown to be a valid choice for sedation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in randomized studies. However, large-scale studies are lacking. Material and methods: A single center, prospective observational study to determine how sedation for ERCP is administered in clinical setting. All 956 patients undergoing 1196 ERCPs in the endoscopy unit of Helsinki University Central Hospital 2012-2013, methods of sedation and adverse events associated with different sedations were recorded. Results: PCS was attempted a total of 685 times (57%), successful use of PCS was achieved with 526 patients (77% of attempts). PCS device was operated by the anesthesiologist or anesthesia nurse 268 times (22%). PCS was more likely chosen for younger (80.6% for <=60 years vs. 63.8% for >60 years, p <.001) patients and by trainee anesthetists. Anesthesiologist administered propofol sedation was used 240 times (20%). The risk of failure of PCS was increased, if systolic arterial pressure was <90mmHg, dosage of PCS > 17 ml, duration of procedure exceeded 23 min. The risk of failure was lower in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and if sedation was deeper RASS<= -2. Uneventful PCS was associated with less respiratory and cardiovascular depression than other methods. There were no statistically significant differences in safety profiles with all the methods of sedation. Conclusions: PCS is readily implemented in clinical practice, is suitable for younger and low-risk patients and is associated with less cardiorespiratory adverse effects.
  • Ala-Nikkola, Taina; Pirkola, Sami; Kaila, Minna; Joffe, Grigori; Kontio, Raija; Oranta, Olli; Sadeniemi, Minna; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Saarni, Samuli I. (2018)
    The challenges of mental health and substance abuse services (MHS) require shifting of the balance of resources from institutional care to community care. In order to track progress, an instrument that can describe these attributes of MHS is needed. We created a coding variable in the European Service Mapping Schedule-Revised (ESMS-R) mapping tool using a modified Delphi panel that classified MHS into centralized, local services with gatekeeping and local services without gatekeeping. For feasibility and validity, we tested the variable on a dataset comprising MHS in Southern Finland, covering a population of 2.3 million people. There were differences in the characteristics of services between our study regions. In our data, 41% were classified as centralized, 37% as local without gatekeeping and 22% as local services with gatekeeping. The proportion of resources allocated to local services varied from 20% to 43%. Reclassifying ESMS-R is an easy way to compare the important local vs. centralized balance of MHS systems globally, where such data exists. Further international studies comparing systems and validating this approach are needed.
  • Siren, Reijo; Eriksson, Johan G.; Peltonen, Markku; Vanhanen, Hannu (2014)
  • Koivula-Tynnilä, Hannele; Axelin, Anna; Leino-Kilpi, Helena (2018)
    Purpose: To describe patients' perceptions of informational privacy and factors promoting it in the recovery room. Design: A descriptive semistructured qualitative interview study. Methods: The study was conducted in 2013, and the data were analyzed with inductive content analysis. Adult surgical recovery room patients (n = 17) were recruited with purposive sampling at the Department of Ear, Nose and Throat diseases in a university hospital in Finland. Findings: Informational privacy was described as control of patients' health information maintained by the health care professionals and the patients. Informational privacy was especially important in relation to other patients. Health care professionals and patients' attitude, behavior, and knowledge of informational privacy, barriers of hearing and seeing, societal rules, and the electronic patient data system promoted informational privacy. Conclusions: Informational privacy in relation to other patients could be improved in the recovery room, for example, by developing patient health information transmission and architectural solutions.
  • Bousquet, Jean; Schunemann, Holger J.; Hellings, Peter W.; Arnavielhe, Sylvie; Bachert, Claus; Bedbrook, Anna; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Brozek, Jan; Calderon, Moises; Canonica, G. Walter; Casale, Thomas B.; Chavannes, Niels H.; Cox, Linda; Chrystyn, Henry; Cruz, Alvaro A.; Dahl, Ronald; De Carlo, Giuseppe; Demoly, Pascal; Devillier, Phillipe; Dray, Gerard; Fletcher, Monica; Fokkens, Wytske J.; Fonseca, Joao; Gonzalez-Diaz, Sandra N.; Grouse, Lawrence; Keil, Thomas; Kuna, Piotr; Larenas-Linnemann, Desiree; Carlsen, Karin C. Lodrup; Meltzer, Eli O.; Mullol, Jaoquim; Muraro, Antonella; Naclerio, Robert N.; Palkonen, Susanna; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Price, David; Ryan, Dermot; Samolinski, Boleslaw; Scadding, Glenis K.; Sheikh, Aziz; Spertini, Francois; Valiulis, Arunas; Valovirta, Erkka; Walker, Samantha; Wickman, Magnus; Yorgancioglu, Arzu; Haahtela, Tari; Zuberbier, Torsten; MASK Study Grp (2016)
    The selection of pharmacotherapy for patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) depends on several factors, including age, prominent symptoms, symptom severity, control of AR, patient preferences, and cost. Allergen exposure and the resulting symptoms vary, and treatment adjustment is required. Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) might be beneficial for the assessment of disease control. CDSSs should be based on the best evidence and algorithms to aid patients and health care professionals to jointly determine treatment and its step-up or step-down strategy depending on AR control. Contre les MAladies Chroniques pour un VIeillissement Actif en Languedoc-Roussillon (MACVIA-LR [fighting chronic diseases for active and healthy ageing]), one of the reference sites of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing, has initiated an allergy sentinel network (the MACVIA-ARIA Sentinel Network). A CDSS is currently being developed to optimize AR control. An algorithm developed by consensus is presented in this article. This algorithm should be confirmed by appropriate trials.
  • Andersen, Heidi; Kankaanranta, Hannu; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Piirilä, Päivi; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Langhammer, Arnulf; Backman, Helena; Lundbäck, Bo; Rönmark, Eva; Lehtimäki, Lauri; Ilmarinen, Pinja (2021)
    Multimorbidity is an emerging public health priority. This study aims to assess the role of lifestyle and socioeconomic status in the prevalence of multimorbidity and chronic diseases by using two language groups that are part of the same genetic subgroup but differ by daily habits. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2016 with randomly selected population sample with 4173 responders (52.3%) aged 20-69 years in Western Finland. We included 3864 Finnish participants with Swedish (28.1%) or Finnish (71.9%) as a native language. We used a questionnaire to assess participants' chronic diseases and lifestyle. We determined multimorbidity as a disease count >= 2. Finnish speakers were more likely to have a diagnosis of COPD, heart failure, diabetes, reflux disease, chronic kidney failure, and painful conditions than Swedish speakers. The prevalence of multimorbidity was higher for Finnish speakers in the age group of 60-69 years (41.0% vs. 32.0%, p = 0.018) than Swedish speakers. A higher proportion of Finnish speakers smoked, were obese, inactive, and had lower socioeconomic status compared to Swedish speakers. All these factors, in addition to age and female sex, were significant risk factors for multimorbidity. Prevalence of multimorbidity was different in two language groups living in the same area and was associated with differences in lifestyle factors such as smoking, physical inactivity and obesity.
  • Helminen, Eeva-Eerika; Arokoski, Jari P. A.; Selander, Tuomas A.; Sinikallio, Sanna H. (2020)
    Objective: To identify predictors of long-term pain and disability in knee osteoarthritis. Design: A longitudinal cohort study of five years. Setting: Primary care providers. Subjects: In all, 108 patients (mean age = 63.6 years, standard deviation (SD) = 7.2 years) with knee pain (> 40 mm on a 100 mm visual analogue scale in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index pain scale) and radiographic grading (Kellgren-Lawrence: 2-4) of knee osteoarthritis who participated in a randomized controlled trial. Main measures: Disease-specific pain and functioning were assessed using the corresponding WOMAC subscales. Generic functioning was assessed by the RAND-36 subscales for function and physical and mental component summary scores. Possible baseline predictors for these outcomes were (1) demographic and disease-related variables and (2) psychological variables of mood (anxiety, depression), pain-related cognitions (pain self-efficacy, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia), and positive resource factors (life satisfaction, sense of coherence). Results: Multivariate linear mixed model analyses revealed that minimal anxiety at baseline predicted significantly better results for pain (WOMAC, P = 0.019) and function (WOMAC, P = 0.001, RAND-36 function P = 0.001). High pain self-efficacy predicted significantly better scores in RAND-36 function (P = 0.006), physical (P = 0.004) and mental (P = 0.001) component summaries. Pain catastrophizing predicted higher pain (P = 0.015), whereas fear of movement predicted poorer functioning in RAND-36 physical (P = 0.016) and mental (P = 0.009) component summaries. Those satisfied with life reported higher scores in RAND-36 function (P = 0.002) and mental component summary (P = 0.041). A low number of comorbidities predicted significantly better results in pain (WOMAC P = 0.019) and function (WOMAC P = 0.033, RAND-36 P = 0.009). Conclusion: Anxiety, pain-related cognitions, and psychological resources predict symptoms in knee osteoarthritis in the long term.
  • Feel4Diabetes Res Grp; Kivelä, Jemina; Wikström, Katja; Virtanen, Eeva; Georgoulis, Michael; Lindström, Jaana (2020)
    Background Feel4Diabetes was a school and community based intervention aiming to promote healthy lifestyle and tackle obesity for the prevention of type 2 diabetes among families in 6 European countries. We conducted this literature review in order to guide the development of evidence-based implementation of the Feel4Diabetes intervention. We focused on type 2 diabetes prevention strategies, including all the phases from risk identification to implementation and maintenance. Special focus was given to prevention among vulnerable groups and people under 45 years. Methods Scientific and grey literature published between January 2000 and January 2015 was searched for relevant studies using electronic databases. To present the literature review findings in a systematic way, we used the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. A complementary literature search from February 2015 to December 2018 was also conducted. Results The initial review included 27 studies with a follow-up >= 12 months and 9 studies with a follow-up >= 6 months and with a participant mean age <45 years. We found out that interventions should be targeted at people at risk to improve recruiting and intervention effectiveness. Screening questionnaires (primarily Finnish Diabetes Risk Score FINDRISC) and blood glucose measurement can both be used for screening; the method does not appear to affect intervention effectiveness. Screening and recruitment is time-consuming, especially when targeting lower socioeconomic status and age under 45 years. The intervention intensity is more important for effectiveness than the mode of delivery. Moderate changes in several lifestyle habits lead to good intervention results. A minimum of 3-year follow-up seemed to be required to show a reduction in diabetes risk in high-risk individuals. In participants <45 years, the achieved results in outcomes were less pronounced. The complementary review included 12 studies, with similar results regarding intervention targets and delivery modes, as well as clinical significance. Conclusion This narrative review highlighted several important aspects that subsequently guided the development of the Feel4Diabetes high-risk intervention. Research on diabetes prevention interventions targeted at younger adults or vulnerable population groups is still relatively scarce. Feel4Diabetes is a good example of a project aiming to fill this research gap.
  • Jylhä, Pekka; Rosenstrom, Tom; Mantere, Outi; Suominen, Kirsi; Melartin, Tarja; Vuorilehto, Maria; Holma, Mikael; Riihimaki, Kirsi; Oquendo, Maria A.; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Isometsa, Erkki T. (2016)
    Background: Comorbid personality disorders may predispose patients with mood disorders to suicide attempts (SAs), but factors mediating this effect are not well known. Methods: Altogether 597 patients from three prospective cohort studies (Vantaa Depression Study, Jorvi Bipolar Study, and Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study) were interviewed at baseline, at 18 months, and in VDS and PC-VDS at 5 years. Personality disorders (PDs) at baseline, number of previous SAs, life-charted time spent in major depressive episodes (MDEs), and precise timing of SAs during follow-up were determined and investigated. Results: Overall, 219 (36.7%) patients had a total of 718 lifetime SAs; 88 (14.7%) patients had 242 SAs during the prospective follow-up. Having any PD diagnosis increased the SA rate, both lifetime and prospectively evaluated, by 90% and 102%, respectively. All PD clusters increased the rate of new SAs, although cluster C PDs more than the others. After adjusting for time spent in MDEs, only cluster C further increased the SA rate (by 52%). Mediation analyses of PD effects on prospectively ascertained SAs indicated significant mediated effects through time at risk in MDEs, but also some direct effects. Limitations: Findings generalizable only to patients with mood disorders. Conclusions: Among mood disorder patients, comorbid PDs increase the risk of SAs to approximately two-fold. The excess risk is mostly due to patients with comorbid PDs spending more time in depressive episodes than those without. Consequently, risk appears highest for PDs that most predispose to chronicity and recurrences. However, also direct risk-modifying effects of PDs exist. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Tiirikainen, Kati; Haravuori, Henna; Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri (2019)
    Symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are common among adolescents and can lead to severe psychosocial impairment, yet there is a lack of a good quality scale to measure symptoms of generalized anxiety in young people. The 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) is a self-report scale used to measure GAD symptoms and has been validated in adult populations, but the measures psychometric properties regarding adolescents are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability, factorial validity, and construct validity of the GAD-7 in adolescents in a nationally representative sample from a general population. Our study was based on Finnish survey data on 111,171 adolescents aged 14-18 years. Our results show that the GAD-7 demonstrates good psychometric properties in adolescents. The internal consistency of the GAD-7 was good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.91) and the instrument's unidimensional factor structure was supported. The associations of GAD-7 sum scores with self-report measures of depression and social anxiety supported construct validity. The psychometric properties of the GAD-7 in this sample of adolescents were similar to those reported among adults. However, studies in which diagnostic interviews are performed are needed to demonstrate the diagnostic efficacy of the measure in this age group.
  • Paljärvi, Tapio; Martikainen, Pekka; Leinonen, Taina; Vuori, Erkki; Mäkelä, Pia (2018)
    Background: Physician's intention to prescribe drugs could potentially be used to improve targeting of alcohol interventions and enhanced disease management to patients with a high risk of severe alcohol-related harm within outpatient settings. Methods: Comparison of ten-year incidence trajectories of 13.8 million reimbursed purchases of prescription drugs among 303,057 Finnish men and women of whom 7490 ultimately died due to alcohol-related causes (Ale+), 14,954 died without alcohol involvement (Alc-), and 280,613 survived until the end of 2007. Results: 5-10 years before death, 88% of the persons with an Alc+ death had received prescription medication, and over two-thirds (69%) had at least one reimbursed purchase of drugs for the alimentary tract and metabolism, the cardiovascular system, or the nervous system. Among persons with an Alc+ death, the incidence rate (IR) for purchases of hypnotics, and sedatives was L38 times higher (95% confidence interval (C1):1.32,1.44) compared to those with an Alc death, and 4.07 times higher (95%C1:3.92,4.22) compared to survivors; and the IR for purchases of anxiolytics was 1.40 times higher (95%Ck1.34,1.47) compared to those with an Ale death, and 3.61 times higher (95%C1:3.48,3.78) compared to survivors. Conclusions: Using physician's intention to prescribe drugs affecting the alimentary tract and metabolism, cardiovascular system and nervous system could potentially be used to flag patients who might benefit from screening, targeted interventions or enhanced disease management. In particular, patients who are to be prescribed anxiolytics, hypnotics, and sedatives, and antidepressants may benefit from enhanced interventions targeted to problem drinking.
  • Fuchs, Valma; Kurppa, Kalle; Huhtala, Heini; Laurila, Kaija; Maki, Markku; Collin, Pekka; Salmi, Teea; Luostarinen, Liisa; Saavalainen, Paivi; Kaukinen, Katri (2019)
    Background The revised paediatric criteria for coeliac disease allow omission of duodenal biopsies in symptomatic children who have specific serology and coeliac disease-associated genetics. It remains unclear whether this approach is also applicable for adults with various clinical presentations. Aim To evaluate the accuracy of serology-based criteria in adults with variable pre-test probabilities for coeliac disease. Methods Three study cohorts comprised adults with high-risk clinical coeliac disease suspicion (n = 421), moderate-risk family members of coeliac disease patients (n = 2357), and low-risk subjects from the general population (n = 2722). Serological and clinical data were collected, and "triple criteria" for coeliac disease comprised transglutaminase 2 antibodies >10x the upper limit of normal, positive endomysium antibodies, and appropriate genetics without requirement of symptoms. The diagnosis was based on intestinal biopsy. Results The diagnosis of coeliac disease was established in 274 subjects. Of these, 59 high-risk subjects, 17 moderate-risk subjects, and 14 low-risk subjects fulfilled the "triple criteria". All had histologically proven coeliac disease, giving the criteria a positive predictive value of 100%. Altogether, 90 (33%) of all 274 newly diagnosed patients could have avoided biopsy, including 37% among high-risk, 20% among moderate-risk, and 48% among low-risk patients. No histological findings other than coeliac disease were found in the biopsies of "triple positive" subjects. Conclusions Coeliac disease can reliably and safely be diagnosed without biopsy in adults fulfilling the "triple criteria" regardless of the pre-test probability. Revised criteria would enable the number of endoscopies to be reduced by one-third.