Browsing by Subject "PROFILE"

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  • Udden, Fabian; Filipe, Matuba; Reimer, Ake; Paul, Maria; Matuschek, Erika; Thegerstrom, John; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Pelkonen, Tuula; Riesbeck, Kristian (2018)
    Background: Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is an important cause of hearing loss in children and constitutes a serious health problem globally with a strong association to resource-limited living conditions. Topical antibiotics combined with aural toilet is the first-hand treatment for CSOM but antimicrobial resistance and limited availability to antibiotics are obstacles in some areas. The goal of this study was to define aerobic pathogens associated with CSOM in Angola with the overall aim to provide a background for local treatment recommendations. Methods: Samples from ear discharge and the nasopharynx were collected and cultured from 152 patients with ear discharge and perforation of the tympanic membrane. Identification of bacterial species was performed with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and pneumococci were serotyped using multiplex polymerase chain reactions. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done according to EUCAST. Results: One hundred eighty-four samples from ear discharge and 151 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and yielded 534 and 289 individual isolates, respectively. In all patients, correspondence rate of isolates from 2 ears in patients with bilateral disease was 27.3% and 9.3% comparing isolates from the nasopharynx and ear discharge, respectively. Proteus spp. (14.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.2%) and Enterococcus spp. (8.8%) were dominating pathogens isolated from ear discharge. A large part of the remaining species belonged to Enterobacteriaceoe (23.5%). Pneumococci and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in approximately 10% of nasopharyngeal samples. Resistance rates to quinolones exceeded 10% among Enterobacterioceae and was 30.8% in S. aureus, whereas 6.3% of P. aeruginosa were resistant. Conclusions: The infection of the middle ear in CSOM is highly polymicrobial, and isolates found in nasopharynx do not correspond well with those found in ear discharge. Pathogens associated with CSOM in Angola are dominated by gram-negatives including Enterobacteriaceoe and P. aeruginosa, while gram-positive enterococci also are common. Based on the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing topical quinolones would be the preferred antibiotic therapy of CSOM in Angola. Topical antiseptics such as aluminium acetate, acetic acid or boric acid, however, may be more feasible options due to a possibly emerging antimicrobial resistance.
  • Arju, Georg; Taivosalo, Anastassia; Pismennoi, Dmitri; Lints, Taivo; Vilu, Raivo; Daneberga, Zanda; Vorslova, Svetlana; Renkonen, Risto; Joenvaara, Sakari (2020)
    Until now, cheese peptidomics approaches have been criticised for their lower throughput. Namely, analytical gradients that are most commonly used for mass spectrometric detection are usually over 60 or even 120 min. We developed a cheese peptide mapping method using nano ultra-high-performance chromatography data-independent acquisition high-resolution mass spectrometry (nanoUHPLC-DIA-HRMS) with a chromatographic gradient of 40 min. The 40 min gradient did not show any sign of compromise in milk protein coverage compared to 60 and 120 min methods, providing the next step towards achieving higher-throughput analysis. Top 150 most abundant peptides passing selection criteria across all samples were cross-referenced with work from other publications and a good correlation between the results was found. To achieve even faster sample turnaround enhanced DIA methods should be considered for future peptidomics applications.
  • Pussinen, Pirkko J.; Paju, Susanna; Koponen, Jaana; Viikari, Jorma; Taittonen, Leena; Laitinen, Tomi; Burgner, David; Kähönen, Mika; Hutri-Kähönen, Niina; Raitakari, Olli; Juonala, Markus (2019)
    IMPORTANCE Severe forms of common chronic oral infections or inflammations are associated with increased cardiovascular risk in adults. To date, the role of childhood oral infections in cardiovascular risk is not known because no long-term studies have been conducted. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether signs of oral infections in childhood are associated with cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The cohort study (n = 755) was derived from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study in Finland initiated in 1980. Participants underwent clinical oral examinations during childhood, when they were aged 6, 9, or 12 years and a clinical cardiovascular follow-up in adulthood in 2001 at age 27, 30, or 33 years and/or in 2007 at age 33, 36, or 39 years. Cardiovascular risk factors were measured at baseline and during the follow-up until the end of 2007. Final statistical analyses were completed on February 19, 2019. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Four signs of oral infections (bleeding on probing, periodontal probing pocket depth, caries, and dental fillings) were documented. Cumulative lifetime exposure to 6 cardiovascular risk factors was calculated from dichotomized variables obtained by using the area-under-the-curve method. Subclinical atherosclerosis (ie, carotid artery intima-media thickness [IMT]) was quantified in 2001 (n = 468) and 2007 (n = 489). RESULTS This study included 755 participants, of whom 371 (49.1%) were male; the mean (SD) age at baseline examination was 8.07 (2.00) years. In this cohort, 33 children (4.5%) had no sign of oral infections, whereas 41 (5.6%) had 1 sign, 127 (17.4%) had 2 signs, 278 (38.3%) had 3 signs, and 248 (34.1%) had 4 signs. The cumulative exposure to risk factors increased with the increasing number of oral infections both in childhood and adulthood. In multiple linear regression models, childhood oral infections, including signs of either periodontal disease (R-2 = 0.018; P = .01), caries (R-2 = 0.022; P = .008), or both (R-2 = 0.024; P = .004), were associated with adulthood IMT. The presence of any sign of oral infection in childhood was associated with increased IMT (third tertile vs tertiles 1 and 2) with a relative risk of 1.87 (95% CI, 1.25-2.79), whereas the presence of all 4 signs produced a relative risk of 1.95 (95% CI, 1.28-3.00). The associations were more obvious in boys: if periodontal disease were present, the corresponding estimate was 1.69 (95% CI, 1.21-2.36); if caries, 1.46 (95% CI, 1.04-20.05); and if all 4 signs of oral infections, 2.25 (95% CI, 1.30-3.89). The associations were independent of cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Oral infections in childhood appear to be associated with the subclinical carotid atherosclerosis seen in adulthood.
  • Joensuu, Eveliina; Munck, Petriina; Setänen, Sirkku; Lipsanen, Jari; Huhtala, Mira; Lapinleimu, Helena; Stolt, Suvi K. J. (2021)
    Preterm children (born
  • Halonen, Jaana I.; Dehbi, Hakim-Moulay; Hansell, Anna L.; Gulliver, John; Fecht, Daniela; Blangiardo, Marta; Kelly, Frank J.; Chaturvedi, Nish; Kivimaki, Mika; Tonne, Cathryn (2017)
    Background: Road traffic noise has been linked to increased risk of stroke, for which hypertension and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) are risk factors. A link between traffic noise and hypertension has been established, but there are few studies on blood pressure and no studies on cIMT. Objectives: To examine cross-sectional associations for long-term exposure to night-time noise with cIMT, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and hypertension. Methods: The study population consisted of 2592 adults from the Whitehall II and SABRE cohort studies living within Greater London who had cIMT, SBP and DBP measured. Exposure to night-time road traffic noise (A-weighted dB, referred to as dBA) was estimated at each participant's residential postcode centroid. Results: Mean night-time road noise levels were 52 dBA (SD=4). In the pooled analysis adjusted for cohort, sex, age, ethnicity, marital status, smoking, area-level deprivation and NOx there was a 9.1 mu m (95% CI: -7.1, 25.2) increase in cIMT in association with 10 dBA increase in night-time noise. Analyses by noise categories of 5560 dBA (16.2 mu m, 95% CI:-8.7, 41.2), and N60 dBA (21.2 mu m, 95% CI:-2.5, 44.9) vs. 60 dBA vs. Conclusions: After adjustments, including for air pollution, the association between night-time road traffic noise and cIMT was only observed among non-medication users but associations with blood pressure and hypertension were largely null. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Oksuz, Tugba; Tacer-Caba, Zeynep; Nilufer-Erdil, Dilara; Boyacioglu, Dilek (2019)
    In this study, it is aimed to understand the changes in sour cherry phytochemicals when their co-digestions are simulated in dairy model systems comprising skim milk, non-fat-yoghurt, probiotic yoghurt or cream. These co-digestions were analyzed for their total phenolic and anthocyanin contents, total antioxidant activity (TAA) in addition to phenolic and anthocyanin profiles, individually. Sour cherry phenolics were stable during gastric conditions (120%); 54% lost in pancreatic digestion and being available (59%) in serum available fraction (IN). Anthocyanins were lost both in gastric (30%) and pancreatic digestions (16%), being only little available (0.6%) in IN. Soymilk had inhibitory effects on TAA. Dairy food matrix components evaluated were found to have distinct effects on the measured bioavailability of individual sour cherry phenolics. This study might aid both consumers and industry on selecting the food matrices to aiding increase in bioavailability.
  • Peltomaa, Elina; Hällfors, Heidi; Taipale, Sami J. (2019)
    Recent studies have clearly shown the importance of omega-3 (-3) and omega-6 (-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for human and animal health. The long-chain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6-3) are especially recognized for their nutritional value, and ability to alleviate many diseases in humans. So far, fish oil has been the main human source of EPA and DHA, but alternative sources are needed to satisfy the growing need for them. Therefore, we compared a fatty acid profile and content of 10 diatoms and seven dinoflagellates originating from marine, brackish and freshwater habitats. These two phytoplankton groups were chosen since they are excellent producers of EPA and DHA in aquatic food webs. Multivariate analysis revealed that, whereas the phytoplankton group (46%) explained most of the differences in the fatty acid profiles, habitat (31%) together with phytoplankton group (24%) explained differences in the fatty acid contents. In both diatoms and dinoflagellates, the total fatty acid concentrations and the -3 and -6 PUFAs were markedly higher in freshwater than in brackish or marine strains. Our results show that, even though the fatty acid profiles are genetically ordered, the fatty acid contents may vary greatly by habitat and affect the -3 and -6 availability in food webs.
  • Mantyselka, Pekka; Niskanen, Leo; Kautiainen, Hannu; Saltevo, Juha; Wurtz, Peter; Soininen, Pasi; Kangas, Antti J.; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Vanhala, Mauno (2014)
  • Jansen, Y. J. L.; Rozeman, E. A.; Mason, R.; Goldinger, S. M.; Foppen, M. H. Geukes; Hoejberg, L.; Schmidt, H.; van Thienen, J.; Haanen, J. B. A. G.; Tiainen, L.; Svane, I. M.; Mäkelä, S.; Seremet, T.; Arance, A.; Dummer, R.; Bastholt, L.; Nyakas, M.; Straume, O.; Menzies, A. M.; Long, G.; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Blank, C. U.; Neyns, B. (2019)
    Background Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) blocking monoclonal antibodies improve the overall survival of patients with advanced melanoma but the optimal duration of treatment has not been established. Patients and Methods This academic real-world cohort study investigated the outcome of 185 advanced melanoma patients who electively discontinued anti-PD-1 therapy with pembrolizumab (N=167) or nivolumab (N=18) in the absence of disease progression (PD) or treatment limiting toxicity (TLT) at 14 medical centres across Europe and Australia. Results Median time on treatment was 12months (range 0.7-43). The best objective tumour response at the time of treatment discontinuation was complete response (CR) in 117 (63%) patients, partial response (PR) in 44 (24%) patients and stable disease (SD) in 16 (9%) patients; 8 (4%) patients had no evaluable disease (NE). After a median follow-up of 18months (range 0.7-48) after treatment discontinuation, 78% of patients remained free of progression. Median time to progression was 12months (range 2-23). PD was less frequent in patients with CR (14%) compared with patients with PR (32%) and SD (50%). Six out of 19 (32%) patients who were retreated with an anti-PD-1 at the time of PD obtained a new antitumour response. Conclusions In this real-world cohort of advanced melanoma patients discontinuing anti-PD-1 therapy in the absence of TLT or PD, the duration of anti-PD-1 therapy was shorter when compared with clinical trials. In patients obtaining a CR, and being treated for >6months, the risk of relapse after treatment discontinuation was low. Patients achieving a PR or SD as best tumour response were at higher risk for progression after discontinuing therapy, and defining optimal treatment duration in such patients deserves further study. Retreatment with an anti-PD-1 at the time of progression may lead to renewed antitumour activity in some patients. Clinical trial registration NCT02673970 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02673970?cond=melanoma&cntry=BE&city=Jette&rank=3)
  • Borssen, Magnus; Haider, Zahra; Landfors, Mattias; Noren-Nystrom, Ulrika; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Asberg, Ann E.; Kanerva, Jukka; Madsen, Hans O.; Marquart, Hanne; Heyman, Mats; Hultdin, Magnus; Roos, Goran; Forestier, Erik; Degerman, Sofie (2016)
    Background. Despite increased knowledge about genetic aberrations in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), no clinically feasible treatment-stratifying marker exists at diagnosis. Instead patients are enrolled in intensive induction therapies with substantial side effects. In modern protocols, therapy response is monitored by minimal residual disease (MRD) analysis and used for postinduction risk group stratification. DNA methylation profiling is a candidate for subtype discrimination at diagnosis and we investigated its role as a prognostic marker in pediatric T-ALL. Procedure. Sixty-five diagnostic T-ALL samples from Nordic pediatric patients treated according to the Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology ALL 2008 (NOPHO ALL 2008) protocol were analyzed by HumMeth450K genome wide DNA methylation arrays. Methylation status was analyzed in relation to clinical data and early T-cell precursor (ETP) phenotype. Results. Two distinct CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) groups were identified. Patients with a CIMP-negative profile had an inferior response to treatment compared to CIMP-positive patients (3-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR3y) rate: 29% vs. 6%, P = 0.01). Most importantly, CIMP classification at diagnosis allowed subgrouping of high-risk T-ALL patients (MRD >= 0.1% at day 29) into two groups with significant differences in outcome (CIR3y rates: CIMP negative 50% vs. CIMP positive 12%; P = 0.02). These groups did not differ regarding ETP phenotype, but the CIMP-negative group was younger (P = 0.02) and had higher white blood cell count at diagnosis (P = 0.004) compared with the CIMP-positive group. Conclusions. CIMP classification at diagnosis in combination with MRD during induction therapy is a strong candidate for further risk classification and could confer important information in treatment decision making. (C) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • Grotenfelt, N. E.; Wasenius, N.; Eriksson, J. G.; Huvinen, E.; Stach-Lempinen, B.; Koivusalo, S. B.; Rönö, K. (2020)
    Aim. - To assess in women at high risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) the effect of a lifestyle intervention on the metabolic health of their offspring around 5 years after delivery. Methods. - For the original Finnish gestational diabetes prevention study (RADIEL), 720 women with a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) >= 30 kg/m(2) and/or previous GDM were enrolled before or during early pregnancy and allocated to either an interventional (n = 126) or conventional (n = 133) care group. The present 5-year follow-up substudy assessed the metabolic health outcomes of their offspring. Ageand gender-standardized residuals of metabolic health components (waist circumference, mean arterial pressure, high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels, and fasting insulin/glucose ratio) were also combined to determine the accumulation of metabolic effects. Body composition was assessed by electrical bioimpedance. Results. - Offspring of women in the intervention group had a less optimal metabolic profile after the 5-year follow-up compared with offspring in the usual care group (P = 0.014). This difference in metabolic health was primarily related to lipid metabolism, and was more prominent among boys (P = 0.001) than girls (P = 0.74). Neither GDM, gestational weight gain, prepregnancy BMI, offspring age nor timing of randomization (before or during pregnancy) could explain the detected difference, which was also more pronounced among the offspring of GDM pregnancies (P= 0.010). Offspring body composition was similar in both groups (P> 0.05). Conclusion. - The lifestyle intervention aimed at GDM prevention was associated with unfavourable metabolic outcomes among offspring at around 5 years of age. (C) 2019 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Schalekamp-Timmermans, Sarah; Arends, Lidia R.; Alsaker, Elin; Chappell, Lucy; Hansson, Stefan; Harsem, Nina K.; Jalmby, Maya; Jeyabalan, Arundhathi; Laivuori, Hannele; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Magnus, Per; Myers, Jenny; Olsen, Jorn; Poston, Lucilla; Redman, Christopher W.; Staff, Anne C.; Villa, Pia; Roberts, James M.; Steegers, Eric A.; Global Pregnancy Collaboration (Oxford University Press, 2017)
    Background: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a major pregnancy disorder complicating up to 8% of pregnancies. Increasing evidence indicates a sex-specific interplay between the mother,placenta and fetus. This may lead to different adaptive mechanisms during pregnancy. Methods: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis to determine associations of fetal sex and PE, with specific focus on gestational age at delivery in PE. This was done on 219 575 independent live-born singleton pregnancies, with a gestational age at birth between 22.0 and 43.0 weeks of gestation, from 11 studies participating in a worldwide consortium of international research groups focusing on pregnancy. Results: Of the women, 9033 (4.1%) experienced PE in their pregnancy and 48.8% of the fetuses were female versus 51.2% male. No differences in the female/male distribution were observed with respect to term PE (delivered >= 37 weeks). Preterm PE (delivered <37 weeks) was slightly more prevalent among pregnancies with a female fetus than in pregnancies with a male fetus [odds ratio (OR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.21]. Very preterm PE (delivered <34 weeks) was even more prevalent among pregnancies with a female fetus as compared with pregnancies with a male fetus (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.17-1.59). Conclusions: Sexual dimorphic differences in the occurrence of PE exist, with preterm PE being more prevalent among pregnancies with a female fetus as compared with pregnancies with a male fetus and with no differences with respect to term PE.
  • Schalekamp-Timmermans, Sarah; Arends, Lidia R.; Alsaker, Elin; Chappell, Lucy; Hansson, Stefan; Harsem, Nina K.; Jalmby, Maya; Jeyabalan, Arundhathi; Laivuori, Hannele; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Magnus, Per; Myers, Jenny; Olsen, Jorn; Poston, Lucilla; Redman, Christopher W.; Staff, Anne C.; Villa, Pia; Roberts, James M.; Steegers, Eric A.; Global Pregnancy Collaboration (2017)
    Background: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a major pregnancy disorder complicating up to 8% of pregnancies. Increasing evidence indicates a sex-specific interplay between the mother,placenta and fetus. This may lead to different adaptive mechanisms during pregnancy. Methods: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis to determine associations of fetal sex and PE, with specific focus on gestational age at delivery in PE. This was done on 219 575 independent live-born singleton pregnancies, with a gestational age at birth between 22.0 and 43.0 weeks of gestation, from 11 studies participating in a worldwide consortium of international research groups focusing on pregnancy. Results: Of the women, 9033 (4.1%) experienced PE in their pregnancy and 48.8% of the fetuses were female versus 51.2% male. No differences in the female/male distribution were observed with respect to term PE (delivered >= 37 weeks). Preterm PE (delivered <37 weeks) was slightly more prevalent among pregnancies with a female fetus than in pregnancies with a male fetus [odds ratio (OR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.21]. Very preterm PE (delivered <34 weeks) was even more prevalent among pregnancies with a female fetus as compared with pregnancies with a male fetus (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.17-1.59). Conclusions: Sexual dimorphic differences in the occurrence of PE exist, with preterm PE being more prevalent among pregnancies with a female fetus as compared with pregnancies with a male fetus and with no differences with respect to term PE.
  • Topa, Hande; Jonas, Agnes; Kofler, Robert; Kosiol, Carolin; Honkela, Antti (2015)
    Motivation: Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing (HTS) have made it possible to monitor genomes in great detail. New experiments not only use HTS to measure genomic features at one time point but also monitor them changing over time with the aim of identifying significant changes in their abundance. In population genetics, for example, allele frequencies are monitored over time to detect significant frequency changes that indicate selection pressures. Previous attempts at analyzing data from HTS experiments have been limited as they could not simultaneously include data at intermediate time points, replicate experiments and sources of uncertainty specific to HTS such as sequencing depth. Results: We present the beta-binomial Gaussian process model for ranking features with significant non-random variation in abundance over time. The features are assumed to represent proportions, such as proportion of an alternative allele in a population. We use the beta-binomial model to capture the uncertainty arising from finite sequencing depth and combine it with a Gaussian process model over the time series. In simulations that mimic the features of experimental evolution data, the proposed method clearly outperforms classical testing in average precision of finding selected alleles. We also present simulations exploring different experimental design choices and results on real data from Drosophila experimental evolution experiment in temperature adaptation.
  • Mariotti, Lorenzo; Huarancca Reyes, Thais; Ramos-Diaz, Jose Martin; Jouppila, Kirsi; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo (2021)
    Increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) due to global change can affect plant development and metabolism. Quinoa tolerates extreme conditions including high UV levels. However, the physiological mechanisms behind its abiotic stress tolerance are unclear, especially those related to UV-B. We previously demonstrated that 9.12 kJ m−2 d−1 may induce UV-B-specific signaling while 18.24 kJ m−2 d−1 promotes a UV-B-independent response. Here, we explored the effects of these UV-B doses on hormonal regulation linked to plant morphology and defense among diverse varieties. Changes in fluorescence parameters of photosystem II, flavonoids and hormones (indoleacetic acid (IAA), jasmonic acid (JA), abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA)) were surveyed under controlled conditions. Here, we showed that the sensitivity to short acute UV-B doses in varieties from different habitats is influenced by their parental lines and breeding time. UV-B sensitivity does not necessarily correlate with quinoa’s geographical distribution. The role of flavonoids in the UV-B response seems to be different depending on varieties. Moreover, we found that the extent of changes in JA and SA correlate with UV-B tolerance, while the increase of ABA was mainly related to UV-B stress.
  • Mortensen, Jesper; Dich, Nadya; Clark, Alice Jessie; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Host; Head, Jenny; Kivimäki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Rod, Naja Hulvej (2019)
    The objective was to investigate the relationship between various aspects of informal caregiving and diurnal patterns of salivary cortisol, with special attention to the moderating effect of sex and work status. The study population was composed of 3727 men and women from the British Whitehall II study. Salivary cortisol was measured six times during a weekday. Aspects of caregiving included the relationship of caregiver to recipient, weekly hours of caregiving, and length of caregiving. Diurnal cortisol profiles were assessed using the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol slopes. Results showed that men, but not women, providing informal care had a blunted CAR compared with non-caregivers (P-Interaction = 0.03). Furthermore, we found a dose-response relationship showing that more weekly hours of informal care was associated with a more blunted CAR for men (P-trend = 0.03). Also, the blunted CAR for men was especially pronounced in short-term caregivers and those in paid work. In women, the steepest cortisol slope was seen among those in paid work who provided informal care (P-Interaction = 0.01). To conclude, we found different cortisol profiles in male and female informal caregivers. Male caregivers had a blunted CAR, which has previously been associated with chronic stress and burnout. Future research should investigate whether results are generalizable beyond UK citizens with a working history in the civil service.
  • Nyberg, Solja T.; Fransson, Eleonor I.; Heikkila, Katriina; Alfredsson, Lars; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; De Bacquer, Dirk; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Ferrie, Jane E.; Hamer, Mark; Joeckel, Karl-Heinz; Kittel, France; Knutsson, Anders; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lunau, Thorsten; Marmot, Michael G.; Nordin, Maria; Rugulies, Reiner; Siegrist, Johannes; Steptoe, Andrew; Westerholm, Peter J. M.; Westerlund, Hugo; Theorell, Tores; Brunner, Eric J.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Batty, G. David; Kivimaki, Mika (2013)
    Background: Job strain is associated with an increased coronary heart disease risk, but few large-scale studies have examined the relationship of this psychosocial characteristic with the biological risk factors that potentially mediate the job strain - heart disease association. Methodology and Principal Findings: We pooled cross-sectional, individual-level data from eight studies comprising 47,045 participants to investigate the association between job strain and the following cardiovascular disease risk factors: diabetes, blood pressure, pulse pressure, lipid fractions, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, obesity, and overall cardiovascular disease risk as indexed by the Framingham Risk Score. In age-, sex-, and socioeconomic status-adjusted analyses, compared to those without job strain, people with job strain were more likely to have diabetes (odds ratio 1.29; 95% CI: 1.11-1.51), to smoke (1.14; 1.08-1.20), to be physically inactive (1.34; 1.26-1.41), and to be obese (1.12; 1.04-1.20). The association between job strain and elevated Framingham risk score (1.13; 1.03-1.25) was attributable to the higher prevalence of diabetes, smoking and physical inactivity among those reporting job strain. Conclusions: In this meta-analysis of work-related stress and cardiovascular disease risk factors, job strain was linked to adverse lifestyle and diabetes. No association was observed between job strain, clinic blood pressure or blood lipids.
  • Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Lallukka, Tea; Hanson, Linda Magnusson; Pentti, Jaana; Nyberg, Solja T.; Alfredsson, Lars; Batty, G. David; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; DeBacquer, Dirk; Ervasti, Jenni; Fransson, Eleonor; Halonen, Jaana I.; Head, Jenny; Kittel, France; Knutsson, Anders; Leineweber, Constanze; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi; Salo, Paula; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Stenholm, Sari; Suominen, Sakari B.; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerholm, Peter; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimäki, Mika (2020)
    Objective To examine the relation between long working hours and change in body mass index (BMI). Methods We performed random effects meta-analyses using individual-participant data from 19 cohort studies from Europe, US and Australia (n = 122,078), with a mean of 4.4-year follow-up. Working hours were measured at baseline and categorised as part time (= 55 h/week (long working hours). There were four outcomes at follow-up: (1) overweight/obesity (BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)) or (2) overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) among participants without overweight/obesity at baseline; (3) obesity (BMI >= 30 kg/m(2)) among participants with overweight at baseline, and (4) weight loss among participants with obesity at baseline. Results Of the 61,143 participants without overweight/obesity at baseline, 20.2% had overweight/obesity at follow-up. Compared with standard weekly working hours, the age-, sex- and socioeconomic status-adjusted relative risk (RR) of overweight/obesity was 0.95 (95% CI 0.90-1.00) for part-time work, 1.07 (1.02-1.12) for 41-48 weekly working hours, 1.09 (1.03-1.16) for 49-54 h and 1.17 (1.08-1.27) for long working hours (Pfor trend
  • Martino, David; Loke, Yuk Jin; Gordon, Lavinia; Ollikainen, Miina; Cruickshank, Mark N.; Saffery, Richard; Craig, Jeffrey M. (2013)
  • Kaartinen, Miia; Karlsson, Linnea; Paavonen, E. Juulia; Polo-Kantola, Päivi; Pelto, Juho; Nousiainen, Niko; Scheinin, Noora M.; Maksimow, Mikael; Salmi, Marko; Karlsson, Hasse (2019)
    Objective: Sleep disturbances relate to altered levels of inflammatory mediators in general population, but not much is known about the associations between sleep disturbances and inflammatory mediators during pregnancy. The present exploratory study investigated whether insomnia, tiredness, general sleep quality, and insufficient sleep duration during pregnancy relate to the concentrations of maternal peripheral circulating cytokines. As sleep disturbances are frequently observed in mood disorders, the results were controlled for symptoms of depression and anxiety. Methods: 137 participants were randomly drawn from a representative FinnBrain Birth Cohort. Serum concentrations of selected cytokines were analyzed using Multiplex bead arrays from blood samples drawn at the gestational week 24. The sleep disturbances were evaluated using the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the anxiety subscale of the self-rated Symptom Checklist 90, respectively. Results: Enhanced tiredness was associated with cytokine concentrations of IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, and TNF-alpha. The observed associations resembled a reversed U-shaped curve rather than being linear. Having a good general sleep quality was associated with higher logarithmic cytokine concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, and IFN-gamma. There was no evidence for associations between insomnia or sleep loss and cytokines. Conclusions: Maternal subjective tiredness and good general sleep quality were associated with altered levels of immunological markers during pregnancy. The association was independent from symptoms of depression and anxiety.