Browsing by Subject "PROGNOSTIC VALUE"

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  • Öhman, Jonas; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Karjalainen, Pasi; Lassus, Johan (2018)
    Background: It is unclear how to optimally monitor acute heart failure (AHF) patients. We evaluated the timely interplay of cardiac filling pressures, brain natriuretic peptides (BNPs), lung ultrasound (LUS) and symptoms during AHF treatment. Methods: We enrolled 60 patients who had been hospitalised for AHF. Patients were examined with a rapid cardiothoracic ultrasound (CaTUS) protocol, combining LUS and focused echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac filling pressures (i.e. medial E/e' and inferior vena cava index [IVCi]). CaTUS was done at 0, 12, 24 and 48 hours (3 hours) and on the day of discharge, alongside clinical evaluation and laboratory samples. Patients free of congestion (Blines or pleural fluid) on LUS at discharge were categorised as responders, whereas the rest were categorised as non-responders. Improvement in congestion parameters was evaluated separately in these groups. The effect of congestion parameters on prognosis was also analysed. Results: Responders experienced a significantly larger decline in E/e' (2.58 vs. 0.38, p=0.037) and dyspnoea visual analogue scale (1-10) score (7.68 vs. 3.57, p=0.007) during the first 12 hours of treatment, while IVCi and BNPs declined later without no such rapid initial decline. Among patients experiencing a >3 U decline in E/e' during the first 12 hours of treatment, 18/21 were to become responders (p Conclusion: E/e' seemed like the most useful congestion parameter for monitoring early treatment response, predicting prognostically beneficial resolution of pulmonary congestion.
  • Montazeri Moghadam, Saeed; Pinchefsky, Elana; Tse, Ilse; Marchi, Viviana; Kohonen, Jukka; Kauppila, Minna; Airaksinen, Manu; Tapani, Karoliina; Nevalainen, Päivi; Hahn, Cecil; W. Y. Tam, Emily; Stevenson, Nathan J.; Vanhatalo, Sampsa (2021)
    Neonatal brain monitoring in the neonatal intensive care units (NICU) requires a continuous review of the spontaneous cortical activity, i.e., the electroencephalograph (EEG) background activity. This needs development of bedside methods for an automated assessment of the EEG background activity. In this paper, we present development of the key components of a neonatal EEG background classifier, starting from the visual background scoring to classifier design, and finally to possible bedside visualization of the classifier results. A dataset with 13,200 5-minute EEG epochs (8–16 channels) from 27 infants with birth asphyxia was used for classifier training after scoring by two independent experts. We tested three classifier designs based on 98 computational features, and their performance was assessed with respect to scoring system, pre- and post-processing of labels and outputs, choice of channels, and visualization in monitor displays. The optimal solution achieved an overall classification accuracy of 97% with a range across subjects of 81–100%. We identified a set of 23 features that make the classifier highly robust to the choice of channels and missing data due to artefact rejection. Our results showed that an automated bedside classifier of EEG background is achievable, and we publish the full classifier algorithm to allow further clinical replication and validation studies.
  • Slik, Khadija; Turkki, Riku; Carpen, Olli; Kurki, Samu; Korkeila, Eija; Sundström, Jari; Pellinen, Teijo (2019)
    Current risk factors in stage II colorectal carcinoma are insufficient to guide treatment decisions. Loss of CDX2 has been shown to associate with poor clinical outcome and predict benefit for adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II and III colorectal carcinoma. The prognostic relevance of CDX2 in stage II disease has not been sufficiently validated, especially in relation to clinical risk factors, such as microsatellite instability (MSI) status, BRAF mutation status, and tumor budding. In this study, we evaluated the protein expression of CDX2 in tumor center and front areas in a tissue microarrays material of stage II colorectal carcinoma patients (n=232). CDX2 expression showed a partial or total loss in respective areas in 8.6% and 10.9% of patient cases. Patients with loss of CDX2 had shorter disease-specific survival when scored independently either in tumor center or tumor front areas (log rank P=0.012; P=0.012). Loss of CDX2 predicted survival independently of other stage II risk factors, such as MSI status and BRAF mutation status, pT class, and tumor budding (hazard ratio=5.96, 95% confidence interval=1.55-22.95; hazard ratio=3.70, 95% confidence interval=1.30-10.56). Importantly, CDX2 loss predicted inferior survival only in patients with microsatellite stable, but not with MSI-high phenotype. Interestingly, CDX2 loss associated with low E-cadherin expression, tight junction disruption, and high expression of ezrin protein. The work demonstrates that loss of CDX2 is an independent risk factor of poor disease-specific survival in stage II colorectal carcinoma. Furthermore, the study suggests that CDX2 loss is linked with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition independently of tumor budding.
  • Uusitalo, Valtteri; Kamperidis, Vasileios; de Graaf, Michiel A.; Maaniitty, Teemu; Stenstrom, Iida; Broersen, Alexander; Dijkstra, Jouke; Scholte, Arthur J.; Saraste, Antti; Bax, Jeroen J.; Knuuti, Juhani (2017)
    Background: We evaluated the prognostic value of an integrated atherosclerosis risk score combining the markers of coronary plaque burden, location and composition as assessed by computed tomography angiography (CTA). Methods: 922 consecutive patients underwent CTA for suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients without atherosclerosis (n = 261) and in whom quantitative CTA analysis was not feasible due to image quality, step-artefacts or technical factors related to image acquisition or data storage (n = 153) were excluded. Thus, final study group consisted of 508 patients aged 63 9 years. Coronary plaque location, severity and composition for each coronary segment were identified using automated CTA quantification software and integrated in a single CTA score (0-42). Adverse events (AE) including death, myocardial infarction (MI) and unstable angina (UA) were obtained from the national healthcare statistics. Results: There were a total of 20 (4%) AE during a median follow-up of 3.6 years (9 deaths, 5 MI and 6 UA). The CTA risk score was divided into tertiles: 0-6.7, 6.8-14.8 and > 14.8, respectively. All MI (n = 5) and most of the other AE occurred in the highest risk score tertile (3 vs. 3 vs. 14, p = 0.002). After correction for age and gender, the CTA risk score remained independently associated with AE. Conclusions: Comprehensive CIA risk score integrating the location, burden and composition of coronary atherosclerosis predicts future cardiac events in patients with suspected CAD. (C) 2017 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Majala, Susanna; Vesterinen, Tiina; Seppänen, Hanna; Mustonen, Harri; Sundström, Jari; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Gullichsen, Risto; Schildt, Jukka; Kemppainen, Jukka; Arola, Johanna; Kauhanen, Saila (2022)
    Purpose: The aim of this study was to correlate immunohistochemical (IHC) tissue levels of SSTR1-5 with the receptor density generated from [68Ga]Ga-DOTANOC uptake in a prospective series of NF-PNENs. Methods: Twenty-one patients with a total of thirty-five NF-PNEN-lesions and twenty-one histologically confirmed lymph node metastases (LN+) were included in this prospective study. Twenty patients were operated on, and one underwent endoscopic ultrasonography and core-needle biopsy. PET/CT with both [68Ga]Ga-DOTANOC and [18F]F-FDG was performed on all patients. All histological samples were re-classified and IHC-stained with monoclonal SSTR1-5 antibodies and Ki-67 and correlated with [68Ga]Ga-DOTANOC and [18F]F-FDG PET/CT. Results: Expression of SSTR1-5 was detected in 74%, 91%, 80%, 14%, and 77% of NF-PNENs. There was a concordance of SSTR2 IHC with positive/negative [68Ga]Ga-DOTANOC finding (Spearman’s rho 0.382, p = 0.043). All [68Ga]Ga-DOTANOC-avid tumors expressed SSTR2 or SSTR3 or SSTR5. Expression of SSTR5 was higher in tumors with a low Ki-67 proliferation index (PI) (−0.353, 95% CI −0.654–0.039, p = 0.038). The mean Ki-67 PI for SSTR5 positive tumors was 2.44 (SD 2.56, CI 1.0–3.0) and 6.38 (SD 7.25, CI 2.25–8.75) for negative tumors. Conclusion: SSTR2 was the only SSTR subtype to correlate with [68Ga]Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT. Our prospective study confirms SSTR2 to be of the highest impact for SST PET/CT signal.
  • Int PSC Study Grp; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Assis, David N.; Boberg, Kirsten M.; Färkkilä, Martti; Hübscher, Stefan G. (2021)
  • Haider, Zahra; Landfors, Mattias; Golovleva, Irina; Erlanson, Martin; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Flaegstad, Trond; Kanerva, Jukka; Noren-Nystrom, Ulrika; Hultdin, Magnus; Degerman, Sofie (2020)
    Despite having common overlapping immunophenotypic and morphological features, T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and lymphoma (T-LBL) have distinct clinical manifestations, which may represent separate diseases. We investigated and compared the epigenetic and genetic landscape of adult and pediatric T-ALL (n = 77) and T-LBL (n = 15) patient samples by high-resolution genome-wide DNA methylation and Copy Number Variation (CNV) BeadChip arrays. DNA methylation profiling identified the presence of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) subgroups within both pediatric and adult T-LBL and T-ALL. An epigenetic signature of 128 differentially methylated CpG sites was identified, that clustered T-LBL and T-ALL separately. The most significant differentially methylated gene loci included the SGCE/PEG10 shared promoter region, previously implicated in lymphoid malignancies. CNV analysis confirmed overlapping recurrent aberrations between T-ALL and T-LBL, including 9p21.3 (CDKN2A/CDKN2B) deletions. A significantly higher frequency of chromosome 13q14.2 deletions was identified in T-LBL samples (36% in T-LBL vs. 0% in T-ALL). This deletion, encompassing the RB1, MIR15A and MIR16-1 gene loci, has been reported as a recurrent deletion in B-cell malignancies. Our study reveals epigenetic and genetic markers that can distinguish between T-LBL and T-ALL, and deepen the understanding of the biology underlying the diverse disease localization.
  • Almangush, Alhadi; Youssef, Omar; Pirinen, Matti; Sundström, Jari; Leivo, Ilmo; Mäkitie, Antti A. (2019)
    Tumour budding has emerged as a promising prognostic marker in many cancers. We systematically reviewed all studies that evaluated tumour budding in diagnostic biopsies. We conducted a systematic review of PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane library for all articles that have assessed tumour budding in diagnostic (i.e. pretreatment or pre-operative) biopsies of any tumour type. Two independent researchers screened the retrieved studies, removed duplicates, excluded irrelevant studies and extracted data from the eligible studies. A total of 13 reports comprising 11 cohorts were found to have studied tumour budding in diagnostic biopsies. All these reports showed that evaluation of tumour budding in diagnostic biopsies was easily applicable. A strong association was observed between tumour budding score in diagnostic biopsies and corresponding surgical samples. Evaluation of tumour budding in diagnostic biopsies had a significant prognostic value for lymph node metastasis and patient survival. In all studies, tumour budding was a valuable marker of tumour aggressiveness and can be evaluated in technically satisfactory diagnostic biopsies. Thus, the assessment of tumour budding seems to identify the behaviour of cancer, and therefore to facilitate treatment planning.
  • Paajanen, Juuso; Ilonen, Ilkka; Lauri, Helena; Järvinen, Tommi; Sutinen, Eva; Ollila, Hely; Rouvinen, Eeva; Lemström, Karl; Räsänen, Jari; Ritvos, Olli; Koli, Katri; Myllärniemi, Marjukka (2020)
    Activin A has previously been associated with cancer cachexia and in vitro resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. We studied circulating activin A concentrations as well as activin B and their antagonists' follistatin/follistatin-like 3 in presurgical patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma. We found that circulating activing A levels were elevated in malignant pleural mesothelioma and associated with cancer cachexia and poor response to platinum-based chemotherapy. Circulating activing A separated non-small-cell lung cancer from benign lung lesion. Background: Previous preclinical studies have shown that activin A is overexpressed in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), associates with cancer cachexia, and is observed in in vitro resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. We evaluated circulating activin levels and their endogenous antagonists' follistatin/follistatin-like 3 in intrathoracic tumors. Materials and Methods: Patients suspected of thoracic malignancy were recruited prior to surgery. Serum samples were collected from 21 patients with MPM, 59 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and 22 patients with benign lung lesions. Circulating activin/follistatin levels were measured using enzymelinked immunosorbent assay and compared with clinicopathologic parameters. Results: Circulating activin A levels were elevated in patients with MPM when compared with patients with NSCLC or benign lung lesion samples (P <.0001). Also, follistatin and follistatin-like 3 levels were the highest in MPM, although with less difference compared with activin A. Receiver operating characteristic analysis for activin A for separating NSCLC from benign lung lesion showed an area under the curve of 0.856 (95% confidence interval, 0.77-0.94). Activin A levels were higher in patients with cachexia (P <.001). In patients with MPM, activin A levels correlated positively with computed tomographybased baseline tumor size (R = 0.549; P = .010) and the change in tumor size after chemotherapy (R = 0.743; P = .0006). Patients with partial response or stable disease had lower circulating activin A levels than the ones with progressive disease (P = .028). Conclusion: Activin A serum level could be used as a biomarker in differentiating malignant and benign lung tumors. Circulating activin A levels were elevated in MPM and associates with cancer cachexia and reduced chemotherapy response. (C) 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Sikorski, Vilbert; Karjalainen, Pasi; Blokhina, Daria; Oksaharju, Kati; Khan, Jahangir; Katayama, Shintaro; Rajala, Helena; Suihko, Satu; Tuohinen, Suvi Sirkku; Teittinen, Kari; Nummi, Annu; Nykänen, Antti; Eskin, Arda; Stark, Christoffer; Biancari, Fausto; Kiss, Jan; Simpanen, Jarmo; Ropponen, Jussi O; Lemström, Karl; Savinainen, Kimmo; Lalowski, Maciej; Kaarne, Markku; Jormalainen, Mikko; Elomaa, Outi; Koivisto, Pertti; Raivio, Peter; Bäckström, Pia; Dahlbacka, Sebastian; Syrjälä, Simo; Vainikka, Tiina; Vähäsilta, Tommi; Tuncbag, Nurcan; Karelson, Mati; Mervaala, Eero; Juvonen, Tatu; Laine, Mika; Laurikka, Jari; Vento, Antti; Kankuri, Esko (2021)
    Epitranscriptomic modifications in RNA can dramatically alter the way our genetic code is deciphered. Cells utilize these modifications not only to maintain physiological processes, but also to respond to extracellular cues and various stressors. Most often, adenosine residues in RNA are targeted, and result in modifications including methylation and deamination. Such modified residues as N-6-methyl-adenosine (m6A) and inosine, respectively, have been associated with cardiovascular diseases, and contribute to disease pathologies. The Ischemic Heart Disease Epitranscriptomics and Biomarkers (IHD-EPITRAN) study aims to provide a more comprehensive understanding to their nature and role in cardiovascular pathology. The study hypothesis is that pathological features of IHD are mirrored in the blood epitranscriptome. The IHD-EPITRAN study focuses on m6A and A-to-I modifications of RNA. Patients are recruited from four cohorts: (I) patients with IHD and myocardial infarction undergoing urgent revascularization; (II) patients with stable IHD undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting; (III) controls without coronary obstructions undergoing valve replacement due to aortic stenosis and (IV) controls with healthy coronaries verified by computed tomography. The abundance and distribution of m6A and A-to-I modifications in blood RNA are charted by quantitative and qualitative methods. Selected other modified nucleosides as well as IHD candidate protein and metabolic biomarkers are measured for reference. The results of the IHD-EPITRAN study can be expected to enable identification of epitranscriptomic IHD biomarker candidates and potential drug targets.
  • Almangush, Alhadi; Leivo, Ilmo; Siponen, Maria; Sundquist, Elias; Mroueh, Rayan; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Soini, Ylermi; Haglund, Caj; Nieminen, Pentti; Salo, Tuula (2018)
    It is of great clinical importance to identify simple prognostic markers from preoperative biopsies that could guide treatment planning. Here, we compared tumor budding (B), depth of invasion (D), and the combined scores (i.e., budding and depth of invasion (BD) histopathologic model) in preoperative biopsies and the corresponding postoperative specimens of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). Tumor budding and depth of invasion were evaluated in the pre- and postoperative samples from 100 patients treated for OTSCC. Sensitivity and specificity statistics were used. Our results showed statistically significant (P <0.001) relationship between pre- and postoperative BD scores. There was an agreement between the pre- and postoperative BD model scores in 83 cases (83%) with 57.1% sensitivity (95% CI 39.4 to 73.7%) and 96.9% specificity (95% CI 89.3 to 99.6%). Our findings suggest that the BD model, analyzed from representative biopsies, could be used for the treatment planning of OTSCC.
  • Nevalainen, Päivi; Marchi, Viviana; Metsäranta, Marjo; Lönnqvist, Tuula; Toiviainen-Salo, Sanna; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Lauronen, Leena (2017)
    Objective: To evaluate the added value of somatosensory (SEPs) and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) recorded simultaneously with routine EEG in early outcome prediction of newborns with hypoxicischemic encephalopathy under modern intensive care. Methods: We simultaneously recorded multichannel EEG, median nerve SEPs, and flash VEPs during the first few postnatal days in 50 term newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. EEG background was scored into five grades and the worst two grades were considered to indicate poor cerebral recovery. Evoked potentials were classified as absent or present. Clinical outcome was determined from the medical records at a median age of 21 months. Unfavorable outcome included cerebral palsy, severe mental retardation, severe epilepsy, or death. Results: The accuracy of outcome prediction was 98% with SEPs compared to 90% with EEG. EEG alone always predicted unfavorable outcome when it was inactive (n = 9), and favorable outcome when it was normal or only mildly abnormal (n = 17). However, newborns with moderate or severe EEG background abnormality could have either favorable or unfavorable outcome, which was correctly predicted by SEP in all but one newborn (accuracy in this subgroup 96%). Absent VEPs were always associated with an inactive EEG, and an unfavorable outcome. However, presence of VEPs did not guarantee a favorable outcome. Conclusions: SEPs accurately predict clinical outcomes in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and improve the EEG-based prediction particularly in those newborns with severely or moderately abnormal EEG findings. Significance: SEPs should be added to routine EEG recordings for early bedside assessment of newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. (C) 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Volk, Gerd Fabian; Olsen, Kerry D.; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Silver, Carl E.; Zafereo, Mark E.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Randolph, Gregory W.; Simo, Ricard; Shaha, Ashok R.; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Ferlito, Alfio (2020)
    Purpose Facial nerve electrodiagnostics is a well-established and important tool for decision making in patients with facial nerve diseases. Nevertheless, many otorhinolaryngologist-head and neck surgeons do not routinely use facial nerve electrodiagnostics. This may be due to a current lack of agreement on methodology, interpretation, validity, and clinical application. Electrophysiological analyses of the facial nerve and the mimic muscles can assist in diagnosis, assess the lesion severity, and aid in decision making. With acute facial palsy, it is a valuable tool for predicting recovery. Methods This paper presents a guideline prepared by members of the International Head and Neck Scientific Group and of the Multidisciplinary Salivary Gland Society for use in cases of peripheral facial nerve disorders based on a systematic literature search. Results Required equipment, practical implementation, and interpretation of the results of facial nerve electrodiagnostics are presented. Conclusion The aim of this guideline is to inform all involved parties (i.e. otorhinolaryngologist-head and neck surgeons and other medical specialists, therapeutic professionals and the affected persons) and to provide practical recommendations for the diagnostic use of facial nerve electrodiagnostics.
  • Jalanko, Mikko; Väänänen, Heikki; Tarkiainen, Mika; Sipola, Petri; Jääskeläinen, Pertti; Lauerma, Kirsi; Laitinen, Tiina; Laitinen, Tomi; Laine, Mika; Heliö, Tiina; Kuusisto, Johanna; Viitasalo, Matti (2018)
    Background Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by ventricular repolarization abnormalities and risk of ventricular arrhythmias. Our aim was to study the association between the phenotype and ventricular repolarization dynamics in HCM patients. Methods Results HCM patients with either the MYBPC3-Q1061X or TPM1-D175N mutation (n = 46) and control subjects without mutation and hypertrophy (n = 35) were studied with 24-hr ambulatory ECG recordings by measuring time intervals of rate-adapted QT (QTe), maximal QT, and T-wave apex to wave end (TPE) intervals and the QTe/RR slope. Findings were correlated to specified echocardiographic and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) findings. Rate-adapted QTe interval was progressively longer in HCM patients with decreasing heart rates compared to control subjects (p = 0.020). The degree of hypertrophy correlated with measured QTe values. HCM patients with maximal wall thickness higher than the mean (20.6 mm) had longer maximum QTe and median TPE intervals compared to control subjects and HCM patients with milder hypertrophy (p p = 0.014, respectively). HCM patients with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on CMRI had steeper QTe/RR slopes compared to HCM patients without LGE and control subjects (p = 0.044 and p = 0.001, respectively). LGE was an independent predictor of QTe/RR slope (p = 0.023, B = 0.043). Conclusion Dynamics of ventricular repolarization in HCM are affected by hypertrophy and fibrosis. LGE may confer an independent effect on QT dynamics which may increase the arrhythmogenic potential in HCM.
  • Deneau, Mark R.; Mack, Cara; Abdou, Reham; Amin, Mansi; Amir, Achiya; Auth, Marcus; Bazerbachi, Fateh; Broderick, Anne Marie; Chan, Albert; DiGuglielmo, Matthew; El-Matary, Wale; El-Youssef, Mounif; Ferrari, Federica; Furuya, Katryn N.; Gottrand, Frederic; Gupta, Nitika; Homan, Matjaz; Jensen, M. K.; Kamath, Binita M.; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Konidari, Anastasia; Koot, Bart; Iorio, Raffaele; Martinez, Mercedes; Mohan, Parvathi; Palle, Sirish; Papadopoulou, Alexandra; Ricciuto, Amanda; Saubermann, Lawrence; Sathya, Pushpa; Shteyer, Eyal; Smolka, Vratislav; Tanaka, Atsushi; Valentino, Pamela L.; Varier, Raghu; Venkat, Veena; Vitola, Bernadette; Vos, Miriam B.; Woynarowski, Marek; Yap, Jason; Miloh, Tamir (2018)
    Adverse clinical events in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) happen too slowly to capture during clinical trials. Surrogate endpoints are needed, but no such validated endpoints exist for children with PSC. We evaluated the association between gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) reduction and long-term outcomes in pediatric PSC patients. We evaluated GGT normalization (<50 IU/L) at 1 year among a multicenter cohort of children with PSC who did or did not receive treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). We compared rates of event-free survival (no portal hypertensive or biliary complications, chola ngiocarcinoma, liver transplantation, or liver-related death) at 5 years. Of the 287 children, mean age of 11.4 years old, UDCA was used in 81% at a mean dose of 17 mg/kg/day. Treated and untreated groups had similar GGT at diagnosis (314 versus 300, P = not significant[NS]). The mean GGT was reduced at 1 year in both groups, with lower values seen in treated (versus untreated) patients (99 versus 175, P = 0.002), but 5-year event-free survival was similar (74% versus 77%, P = NS). In patients with GGT normalization (versus no normalization) by 1 year, regardless of UDCA treatment status, 5-year eventfree survival was better (91% versus 67%, P <0.001). Similarly, larger reduction in GGT over 1 year (>75% versus <25% reduction) was also associated with improved outcome (5-year event-free survival 88% versus 61%, P = 0.005). Conclusion: A GGT <50 and/or GGT reduction of > 75% by 1 year after PSC diagnosis predicts favorable 5-year outcomes in children. GGT has promise as a potential surrogate endpoint in future clinical trials for pediatric PSC.
  • Ahlin, Cecilia; Lundgren, Claudia; Embretsen-Varro, Elin; Jirstrom, Karin; Blomqvist, Carl; Fjallskog, M. -L. (2017)
    Cyclin D1 has a central role in cell cycle control and is an important component of estrogen regulation of cell cycle progression. We have previously shown that high cyclin D expression is related to aggressive features of ER-positive but not ER-negative breast cancer. The aims of the present study were to validate this differential ER-related effect and furthermore explore the relationship between cyclin D overexpression and CCND1 gene amplification status in a node-negative breast cancer case-control study. Immunohistochemical nuclear expression of cyclin D1 (n = 364) and amplification of the gene CCND1 by fluorescent in situ hybridization (n = 255) was performed on tissue microarray sections from patients with T1-2N0M0 breast cancer. Patients given adjuvant chemotherapy were excluded. The primary event was defined as breast cancer death. Breast cancer-specific survival was analyzed in univariate and multivariable models using conditional logistic regression. Expression of cyclin D1 above the median (61.7%) in ER breast cancer was associated with an increased risk for breast cancer death (OR 3.2 95% CI 1.5-6.8) also when adjusted for tumor size and grade (OR 3.1). No significant prognostic impact of cyclin D1 expression was found among ER-negative cases. Cyclin D1 overexpression was significantly associated to high expression of the proliferation markers cyclins A (rho 0.19, p = 0.006) and B (rho 0.18, p = 0.003) in ER-positive tumors, but not in ER-negative cases. There was a significant association between CCND1 amplification and cyclin D1 expression (p = 0.003), but CCND1 amplification was not statistically significantly prognostic (HR 1.4, 95% CI 0.4-4.4). We confirmed our previous observation that high cyclin D1 expression is associated to high proliferation and a threefold higher risk of death from breast cancer in ER-positive breast cancer.
  • CardShock Investigators; Jäntti, Toni; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Parissis, John; Javanainen, Tuija; Tolppanen, Heli; Jurkko, Raija; Hongisto, Mari; Kataja, Anu; Lassus, Johan; Jurkko, Raija; Jarvinen, Kristiina; Nieminen, Tuomo (2019)
    Introduction The prevalence of hypoalbuminemia, early changes of plasma albumin (P-Alb) levels, and their effects on mortality in cardiogenic shock are unknown. Materials and methods P-Alb was measured from serial blood samples in 178 patients from a prospective multinational study on cardiogenic shock. The association of hypoalbuminemia with clinical characteristics and course of hospital stay including treatment and procedures was assessed. The primary outcome was all-cause 90-day mortality. Results Hypoalbuminemia (P-Alb < 34g/L) was very frequent (75%) at baseline in patients with cardiogenic shock. Patients with hypoalbuminemia had higher mortality than patients with normal albumin levels (48% vs. 23%, p = 0.004). Odds ratio for death at 90 days was 2.4 [95% CI 1.5–4.1] per 10 g/L decrease in baseline P-Alb. The association with increased mortality remained independent in regression models adjusted for clinical risk scores developed for cardiogenic shock (CardShock score adjusted odds ratio 2.0 [95% CI 1.1–3.8], IABP-SHOCK II score adjusted odds ratio 2.5 [95%CI 1.2–5.0]) and variables associated with hypoalbuminemia at baseline (adjusted odds ratio 2.9 [95%CI 1.2–7.1]). In serial measurements, albumin levels decreased at a similar rate between 0h and 72h in both survivors and nonsurvivors (ΔP-Alb -4.6 g/L vs. 5.4 g/L, p = 0.5). While the decrease was higher for patients with normal P-Alb at baseline (p<0.001 compared to patients with hypoalbuminemia at baseline), the rate of albumin decrease was not associated with outcome. Conclusions Hypoalbuminemia was a frequent finding early in cardiogenic shock, and P-Alb levels decreased during hospital stay. Low P-Alb at baseline was associated with mortality independently of other previously described risk factors. Thus, plasma albumin measurement should be part of the initial evaluation in patients with cardiogenic shock. Trial registration NCT01374867 at
  • Ollila, Laura; Heliö, Tiina; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Jalanko, Mikko; Kaartinen, Maija; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kärkkäinen, Satu; Jurkko, Raija; Reissell, Eeva; Palojoki, Eeva; Piirilä, Päivi (2017)
    BackgroundLMNA mutations are an important cause of cardiomyopathy often leading to cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure and even heart transplantation. An increasing number of asymptomatic mutation carriers are identified, as family members of the index patients are screened. Our aim was to study the disease progression in asymptomatic LMNA mutation carriers and in patients with symptomatic cardiolaminopathy by repeated spiroergometric testing in a prospective clinical follow-up study. Methods and ResultsWe studied 26 LMNA mutation carriers once a year during 5years up to 6 times by spiroergometry, clinical assessment, laboratory tests and echocardiography. The 23 control subjects underwent clinical assessment and spiroergometry once. Twelve of the mutation carriers were asymptomatic, and 14 had some clinical manifestations of the mutation ranging from clinically relevant rhythm disturbances to DCM and heart failure. Compared to controls, the symptomatic carriers showed a higher slope of the ventilatory equivalent for CO2 (VE/VCO2 slope) and a lower fraction of end-tidal CO2 (FetCO(2)). The asymptomatic mutation carriers also showed an increased ventilatory response to exercise during the follow-up as indicated by increased VE/VCO2 slope and decreased FetCO(2). ConclusionsThe study suggests that an increased ventilatory response during exercise might reveal a preclinical manifestation of DCM in LMNA mutation carriers.
  • Kilmartin, Darren; O'Loughlin, Mark; Andreu, Xavier; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Bianchi, Simonetta; Chmielik, Ewa; Cserni, Gabor; Figueiredo, Paulo; Floris, Giuseppe; Foschini, Maria Pia; Kovacs, Aniko; Heikkilä, Päivi; Kulka, Janina; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Liepniece-Karele, Inta; Marchio, Caterina; Provenzano, Elena; Regitnig, Peter; Reiner, Angelika; Ryska, Ales; Sapino, Anna; Stovgaard, Elisabeth Specht; Quinn, Cecily; Zolota, Vasiliki; Webber, Mark; Roshan, Davood; Glynn, Sharon A.; Callagy, Grace (2021)
    Simple Summary The stromal tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (sTILs) within a tumour are a strong predictor of outcome for patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, the assessment of sTILs is subject to variation and needs to be standardized in order for it to be used more widely as a biomarker. The aim of this study was to determine the level of consistency that can be achieved when an internet-based scoring aid is used to assist with evaluation of sTILs. Twenty-three breast pathologists across Europe scored sTILs in 49 cases of TNBC taken from a routine diagnostic practice using this aid. The consistency of scoring sTILs was good. However, variation in the distribution of sTILs within the tumour resulted in discordance between pathologists scoring cases, particularly as it caused variability in the selection of regions of the tumour to score. More rigorous training of pathologists is needed for standardization of sTILs assessment, which may potentially be improved using automated approaches. Stromal tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (sTILs) are a strong prognostic marker in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Consistency scoring sTILs is good and was excellent when an internet-based scoring aid developed by the TIL-WG was used to score cases in a reproducibility study. This study aimed to evaluate the reproducibility of sTILs assessment using this scoring aid in cases from routine practice and to explore the potential of the tool to overcome variability in scoring. Twenty-three breast pathologists scored sTILs in digitized slides of 49 TNBC biopsies using the scoring aid. Subsequently, fields of view (FOV) from each case were selected by one pathologist and scored by the group using the tool. Inter-observer agreement was good for absolute sTILs (ICC 0.634, 95% CI 0.539-0.735, p < 0.001) but was poor to fair using binary cutpoints. sTILs heterogeneity was the main contributor to disagreement. When pathologists scored the same FOV from each case, inter-observer agreement was excellent for absolute sTILs (ICC 0.798, 95% CI 0.727-0.864, p < 0.001) and good for the 20% (ICC 0.657, 95% CI 0.561-0.756, p < 0.001) and 40% (ICC 0.644, 95% CI 0.546-0.745, p < 0.001) cutpoints. However, there was a wide range of scores for many cases. Reproducibility scoring sTILs is good when the scoring aid is used. Heterogeneity is the main contributor to variance and will need to be overcome for analytic validity to be achieved.
  • Eskelund, Christian Winther; Albertsson-Lindblad, Alexandra; Kolstad, Arne; Laurell, Anna; Räty, Riikka; Pedersen, Lone Bredo; Geisler, Christian Hartmann; Jerkeman, Mats; Gronbaek, Kirsten (2018)