Browsing by Subject "PROLIFERATUM"

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  • Wang, Aimei; Islam, Md Nahidul; Johansen, Anders; Haapalainen, Minna; Latvala, Satu; Edelenbos, Merete (2019)
    Diseases develop during the storage of onions. To minimize losses, new methods are needed to identify diseased bulbs early in storage. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the respiration rate, weight loss, and the dry matter content were investigated for 1-7 weeks post inoculation of bulbs with water (control) and two strains (Fox006 or Fox260) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae. Photos, multispectral image analysis, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed no infection in the control onions, weak pathogenic infection in Fox006-onions, and strong pathogenic infection in Fox260-onions at week 7 post inoculation. Infected bulbs exhibited increased respiration rate, increased VOC emission rate, and increased weight loss. The control and Fox006-onions did not respond to inoculation and had similar reaction pattern. Forty-three different VOCs were measured, of which 17 compounds had sulfur in their chemical structure. 1-Propanethiol, methyl propyl sulfide, and styrene were emitted in high concentrations and were positively correlated with the extent of infection (r = 0.82 - 0.89). Therefore, these compounds were the most promising volatile markers of Fusarium basal rot infection. For the first time, we show that the extent of fungal infection determined by real-time PCR in onion bulbs is related with VOC emission.
  • Latvala, S.; Haapalainen, M.; Kivijarvi, P.; Suojala-Ahlfors, T.; Iivonen, S.; Hannukkala, A. (2020)
    Fusarium basal rot is a worldwide disease problem in onions, and causes substantial losses in onion production, both during the growing season and in the storage. To minimize the post-harvest losses, a protocol for screening of latent infections with pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strains from harvested onions was developed. This protocol is based on a dual PCR test with primers specific for the fungal species and new SIX3 primers specific for the onion-pathogenic F. oxysporum strains. A pooled sample containing pieces from 50 harvested symptomless onions was prepared for the dual PCR using microwave disruption of the filamentous Fusarium fungi and Whatman FTA(TM) filter paper matrix technology, or as a reference protocol, by extracting DNA with a commercial kit. The two sample preparation protocols gave consistent results with the tested onion samples. Detection limit of the dual PCR protocol was 100 pg of F. oxysporum DNA, in a mixture with onion DNA, when the FTA card was applied. The new protocol reported here is simple and sensitive enough for routine testing, enabling the detection of latent infections in harvest lots even at the infection levels under 10%. Significance and Impact of the Study Fusarium basal rot causes serious problems in onion production. To minimize post-harvest losses, a simple protocol based on FTA(TM) technology and a dual PCR test with Fusarium oxysporum species-specific and pathogenicity-specific primers was developed. By testing pooled onion samples using this method, latent infections with F. oxysporum can be screened from a representative sample of the harvest. This screening method could be a useful tool to manage the post-harvest losses caused by latent infections with F. oxysporum and, with modification of the PCR protocol, with other Fusarium species pathogenic to onion.