Browsing by Subject "PROLINE"

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  • Safronov, Omid; Kreuzwieser, Juergen; Haberer, Georg; Alyousif, Mohamed S.; Schulze, Waltraud; Al-Harbi, Naif; Arab, Leila; Ache, Peter; Stempfl, Thomas; Kruse, Joerg; Mayer, Klaus X.; Hedrich, Rainer; Rennenberg, Heinz; Salojarvi, Jarkko; Kangasjarvi, Jaakko (2017)
    Plants adapt to the environment by either long-term genome evolution or by acclimatization processes where the cellular processes and metabolism of the plant are adjusted within the existing potential in the genome. Here we studied the adaptation strategies in date palm, Phoenix dactylifera, under mild heat, drought and combined heat and drought by transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling. In transcriptomics data, combined heat and drought resembled heat response, whereas in metabolomics data it was more similar to drought. In both conditions, soluble carbohydrates, such as fucose, and glucose derivatives, were increased, suggesting a switch to carbohydrate metabolism and cell wall biogenesis. This result is consistent with the evidence from transcriptomics and cis-motif analysis. In addition, transcriptomics data showed transcriptional activation of genes related to reactive oxygen species in all three conditions (drought, heat, and combined heat and drought), suggesting increased activity of enzymatic antioxidant systems in cytosol, chloroplast and peroxisome. Finally, the genes that were differentially expressed in heat and combined heat and drought stresses were significantly enriched for circadian and diurnal rhythm motifs, suggesting new stress avoidance strategies.
  • Marzabani, Rezvan; Rezadoost, Hassan; Choopanian, Peyman; Kolahdooz, Sima; Mozafari, Nikoo; Mirzaie, Mehdi; Karimi, Mehrdad; Nieminen, Anni; Jafari, Mohieddin (2021)
    Introduction Vitiligo pathogenesis is complicated, and several possibilities were suggested. However, it is well-known that the metabolism of pigments plays a significant role in the pathogenicity of the disease. Objectives We explored the role of amino acids in vitiligo using targeted metabolomics. Methods The amino acid profile was studied in plasma using liquid chromatography. First, 22 amino acids were derivatized and precisely determined. Next, the concentrations of the amino acids and the molar ratios were calculated in 31 patients and 34 healthy individuals. Results The differential concentrations of amino acids were analyzed and eight amino acids, i.e., cysteine, arginine, lysine, ornithine, proline, glutamic acid, histidine, and glycine were observed differentially. The ratios of cysteine, glutamic acid, and proline increased significantly in Vitiligo patients, whereas arginine, lysine, ornithine, glycine, and histidine decreased significantly compared to healthy individuals. Considering the percentage of skin area, we also showed that glutamic acid significantly has a higher amount in patients with less than 25% involvement compared to others. Finally, cysteine and lysine are considered promising candidates for diagnosing and developing the disorder with high accuracy (0.96). Conclusion The findings are consistent with the previously illustrated mechanism of Vitiligo, such as production deficiency in melanin and an increase in immune activity and oxidative stress. Furthermore, new evidence was provided by using amino acids profile toward the pathogenicity of the disorder.
  • Kilpeläinen, Tommi P.; Hellinen, Laura; Vrijdag, Johannes; Yan, Xu; Svarcbahs, Reinis; Vellonen, Kati-Sisko; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Huttunen, Henri; Urtti, Arto; Wallen, Erik A. A.; Myohanen, Timo T. (2020)
    Previous studies have shown that prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) negatively regulates autophagy and increases the aggregation of alpha-synuclein (alpha Syn), linking it to the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. Our earlier results have revealed that the potent small molecular PREP inhibitor KYP-2047 is able to increase autophagy and decrease dimerization of alpha Syn but other PREP inhibitors have not been systematically studied for these two protein-protein interaction mediated biological functions of PREP. In this study, we characterized these effects for 12 known PREP inhibitors with IC50-values ranging from 0.2 nM to 1010 nM. We used protein-fragment complementation assay (PCA) to assess alpha Syn dimerization and Western Blot of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B II (LC3B-II) and a GFP-LC3-RFP expressing cell line to study autophagy. In addition, we tested selected compounds in a cell-free alpha Syn aggregation assay, native gel electrophoresis, and determined the compound concentration inside the cell by LC-MS. We found that inhibition of the proteolytic activity of PREP did not predict decreased alpha Syn dimerization or increased autophagy, and we also confirmed that this result did not simply reflect concentration differences of the compounds inside the cell. Thus, PREP ligands regulate the effect of PREP on autophagy and alpha Syn aggregation through a conformational stabilization of the enzyme that is not equivalent to inhibiting its proteolytic activity.