Browsing by Subject "PROMOTER"

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  • Aminoff, Anna; Ledmyr, Helena; Thulin, Petra; Lundell, Kerstin; Nunez, Leyla; Strandhagen, Elisabeth; Murphy, Charlotte; Lidberg, Ulf; Westerbacka, Jukka; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Liska, Jan; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Gafvels, Mats; Mannila, Maria Nastase; Hamsten, Anders; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Thelle, Dag; Eriksson, Per; Boren, Jan; Ehrenborg, Ewa (2010)
  • Hepojoki, Jussi; Hepojoki, Satu; Smura, Teemu; Szirovicza, Leonora; Dervas, Eva; Prahauser, Barbara; Nufer, Lisbeth; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Vapalahti, Olli; Kipar, Anja; Hetzel, Udo (2018)
    The family Arenaviridae comprises three genera, Mammarenavirus, Reptarenavirus and the most recently added Hartmanivirus. Arenaviruses have a bisegmented genome with ambisense coding strategy. For mammarenaviruses and reptarenaviruses the L segment encodes the Z protein (ZP) and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and the S segment encodes the glycoprotein precursor and the nucleoprotein. Herein we report the full length genome and characterization of Haartman Institute snake virus-1 (HISV-1), the putative type species of hartmaniviruses. The L segment of HISV-1 lacks an open-reading frame for ZP, and our analysis of purified HISV-1 particles by SDS-PAGE and electron microscopy further support the lack of ZP. Since we originally identified HISV-1 in co-infection with a reptarenavirus, one could hypothesize that co-infecting reptarenavirus provides the ZP to complement HISV-1. However, we observed that co-infection does not markedly affect the amount of hartmanivirus or reptarenavirus RNA released from infected cells in vitro, indicating that HISV-1 does not benefit from reptarenavirus ZP. Furthermore, we succeeded in generating a pure HISV-1 isolate showing the virus to replicate without ZP. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural studies demonstrate that, unlike reptarenaviruses, HISV-1 does not produce the intracellular inclusion bodies typical for the reptarenavirus-induced boid inclusion body disease (BIBD). While we observed HISV-1 to be slightly cytopathic for cultured boid cells, the histological and immunohistological investigation of HISV-positive snakes showed no evidence of a pathological effect. The histological analyses also revealed that hartmaniviruses, unlike reptarenaviruses, have a limited tissue tropism. By nucleic acid sequencing, de novo genome assembly, and phylogenetic analyses we identified additional four hartmanivirus species. Finally, we screened 71 individuals from a collection of snakes with BIBD by RT-PCR and found 44 to carry hartmaniviruses. These findings suggest that harmaniviruses are common in captive snake populations, but their relevance and pathogenic potential needs yet to be revealed.
  • Savilammi, Tiina; Papakostas, Spiros; Leder, Erica H.; Vollestad, L. Asbjorn; Debes, Paul V.; Primmer, Craig R. (2021)
    Temperature is a key environmental parameter affecting both the phenotypes and distributions of organisms, particularly ectotherms. Rapid organismal responses to thermal environmental changes have been described for several ectotherms; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms often remain unclear. Here, we studied whole genome cytosine methylation patterns of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) embryos from five populations with contemporary adaptations of early life history traits at either 'colder' or 'warmer' spawning grounds. We reared fish embryos in a common garden experiment using two temperatures that resembled the 'colder' and 'warmer' conditions of the natal natural environments. Genome-wide methylation patterns were similar in populations originating from colder thermal origin subpopulations, whereas single nucleotide polymorphisms uncovered from the same data identified strong population structure among isolated populations, but limited structure among interconnected populations. This was surprising because the previously studied gene expression response among populations was mostly plastic, and mainly influenced by the developmental temperature. These findings support the hypothesis of the magnified role of epigenetic mechanisms in modulating plasticity. The abundance of consistently changing methylation loci between two warmer-to-colder thermal origin population pairs suggests that local adaptation has shaped the observed methylation patterns. The dynamic nature of the methylomes was further highlighted by genome-wide and site-specific plastic responses. Our findings support both the presence of a plastic response in a subset of CpG loci, and the evolutionary role of methylation divergence between populations adapting to contrasting thermal environments.
  • Glubb, Dylan M.; Maranian, Mel J.; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Pooley, Karen A.; Meyer, Kerstin B.; Kar, Siddhartha; Carlebur, Saskia; O'Reilly, Martin; Betts, Joshua A.; Hillman, Kristine M.; Kaufmann, Susanne; Beesley, Jonathan; Canisius, Sander; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Tsimiklis, Helen; Apicella, Carmel; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Hogervorst, Frans B.; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Fasching, Peter A.; Ruebner, Matthias; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Yang, Rongxi; Surowy, Harald; Guenel, Pascal; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; GENICA Network; kConFab Investigators; Norwegian Breast Canc Study (2015)
  • Hoekstra, Menno; Ren, Baoyan; Laurila, Pirkka-Pekka; Hildebrand, Reeni B.; Soronen, Jarkko; Frodermann, Vanessa; Li, Zhuang; Boon, Mariette R.; Geerling, Janine J.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Jauhiainen, Matti; Van Eck, Miranda (2021)
    Total body upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF1) deficiency in mice is associated with brown adipose tissue activation and a marked protection against the development of obesity and atherosclerotic lesions. Functional expression of USF1 has also been detected in monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. In the current study we therefore tested whether selective hematopoietic USF1 deficiency can also beneficially impact the development of atherosclerosis. For this purpose, LDL receptor knockout mice were transplanted with bone marrow from USF1 knockout mice or their wild-type littermate controls and subsequently fed a Western-type diet for 20 weeks to stimulate atherosclerotic lesion development. Strikingly, absence of USF1 function in bone marrow-derived cells was associated with exacerbated blood leukocyte (+ 100%; P < 0.01) and peritoneal leukocyte (+ 50%; P < 0.05) lipid loading and an increased atherosclerosis susceptibility (+ 31%; P < 0.05). These effects could be attributed to aggravated hyperlipidemia, i.e. higher plasma free cholesterol (+ 33%; P < 0.001) and cholesteryl esters (+ 39%; P < 0.001), and the development of hepatosteatosis. In conclusion, we have shown that hematopoietic USF1 deficiency is associated with an increased atherosclerosis susceptibility in LDL receptor knockout mice. These findings argue against a contribution of macrophage-specific USF1 deficiency to the previously described beneficial effect of total body USF1 deficiency on atherosclerosis susceptibility in mice.
  • Boonk, Stephanie E.; Zoutman, Willem H.; Putter, Hein; Ram-Wolff, Caroline; Felcht, Moritz; Klemke, Claus-Detlev; Ranki, Annamari; Quaglino, Pietro; Whittaker, Sean; Bagot, Martine; Willemze, Rein; Vermeer, Maarten H. (2017)
  • Kausar, Mehran; Mäkitie, Riikka E.; Toiviainen-Salo, Sanna; Ignatius, Jaakko; Anees, Mariam; Mäkitie, Outi (2019)
    Pathogenic sequence variants in the solute carrier family 26 member 2 (SLC26A2) gene result in lethal (achondrogenesis Ib and atelosteogenesis II) and non-lethal (diastrophic dysplasia and recessive multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, rMED) chondrodysplasias. We report on two new patients with rMED and very rare compound heterozygous mutation combinations in non-consanguineous families. Patient I presented in childhood with waddling gait and joint stiffness. Radiographs showed epiphyseal changes, bilateral coxa plana-deformity and knee valgus deformity, for which he underwent surgeries. At present 33 years his height is 165 cm. Patient II presented with cleft palate, small jaw, short limbs, underdeveloped thumbs and on radiographs, cervical kyphosis with an underdeveloped C4. He also developed severe scoliosis but has grown at -2.9 SD curve. Molecular analysis revealed that patient I is heterozygous for two known pathogenic variants in SLC26A2, a splice site variant c.-26+2T > C and a missense variant c.1957T > A (p.Cys653Ser), while patient II is compound heterozygous for missense variants c.835C > T (p.Arg279Trp) and c.1535C > A (p.Thr512Lys). These patients further elucidate the variability of the phenotypic and genetic presentations of rMED.
  • Avican, Kemal; Aldahdooh, Jehad; Togninalli, Matteo; Mahmud, A. K. M. Firoj; Tang, Jing; Borgwardt, Karsten M.; Rhen, Mikael; Fällman, Maria (2021)
    Bacterial processes necessary for adaption to stressful host environments are potential targets for new antimicrobials. Here, we report large-scale transcriptomic analyses of 32 human bacterial pathogens grown under 11 stress conditions mimicking human host environments. The potential relevance of the in vitro stress conditions and responses is supported by comparisons with available in vivo transcriptomes of clinically important pathogens. Calculation of a probability score enables comparative cross-microbial analyses of the stress responses, revealing common and unique regulatory responses to different stresses, as well as overlapping processes participating in different stress responses. We identify conserved and species-specific 'universal stress responders', that is, genes showing altered expression in multiple stress conditions. Non-coding RNAs are involved in a substantial proportion of the responses. The data are collected in a freely available, interactive online resource (PATHOgenex). Bacterial stress responses are potential targets for new antimicrobials. Here, Avican et al. present global transcriptomes for 32 bacterial pathogens grown under 11 stress conditions, and identify common and unique regulatory responses, as well as processes participating in different stress responses.
  • Szirovicza, Leonora; Hetzel, Udo; Kipar, Anja; Hepojoki, Jussi (2022)
    Human hepatitis D virus (HDV) depends on hepatitis B virus co-infection and its glycoproteins for infectious particle formation. HDV was the sole known deltavirus for decades and believed to be a human-only pathogen. However, since 2018, several groups reported finding HDV-like agents from various hosts but without co-infecting hepadnaviruses. In vitro systems enabling helper virus-independent replication are key for studying the newly discovered deltaviruses. Others and we have successfully used constructs containing multimers of the deltavirus genome for the replication of various deltaviruses via transfection in cell culture. Here, we report the establishment of deltavirus infectious clones with 1.2x genome inserts bearing two copies of the genomic and antigenomic ribozymes. We used Swiss snake colony virus 1 as the model to compare the ability of the previously reported "2x genome" and the "1.2x genome" infectious clones to initiate replication in cell culture. Using immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR, immuno- and northern blotting, we found the 2x and 1.2x genome clones to similarly initiate deltavirus replication in vitro and both induced a persistent infection of snake cells. The 1.2x genome constructs enable easier introduction of modifications required for studying deltavirus replication and cellular interactions.
  • Seppälä, Hanna; Virtanen, Elina; Saarela, Mika; Laine, Pia; Paulin, Lars; Mannonen, Laura; Auvinen, Petri; Auvinen, Eeva (2017)
    Background. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a fatal disease caused by reactivation of JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) in immunosuppressed individuals and lytic infection by neurotropic JCPyV in glial cells. The exact content of neurotropic mutations within individual JCPyV strains has not been studied to our knowledge. Methods. We exploited the capacity of single-molecule real-time sequencing technology to determine the sequence of complete JCPyV genomes in single reads. The method was used to precisely characterize individual neurotropic JCPyV strains of 3 patients with PML without the bias caused by assembly of short sequence reads. Results. In the cerebrospinal fluid sample of a 73-year-old woman with rapid PML onset, 3 distinct JCPyV populations could be identified. All viral populations were characterized by rearrangements within the noncoding regulatory region (NCCR) and 1 point mutation, S267L in the VP1 gene, suggestive of neurotropic strains. One patient with PML had a single neurotropic strain with rearranged NCCR, and 1 patient had a single strain with small NCCR alterations. Conclusions. We report here, for the first time, full characterization of individual neurotropic JCPyV strains in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with PML. It remains to be established whether PML pathogenesis is driven by one or several neurotropic strains in an individual.
  • Wei, Ting; Najmi, Saman M.; Liu, Hester; Peltonen, Karita; Kucerova, Alena; Schneider, David A.; Laiho, Marikki (2018)
    Summary Inhibition of RNA polymerase I (Pol I) is a promising strategy for modern cancer therapy. BMH-21 is a first-in-class small molecule that inhibits Pol I transcription and induces degradation of the enzyme, but how this exceptional response is enforced is not known. Here, we define key elements requisite for the response. We show that Pol I preinitiation factors and polymerase subunits (e.g., RPA135) are required for BMH-21-mediated degradation of RPA194. We further find that Pol I inhibition and induced degradation by BMH-21 are conserved in yeast. Genetic analyses demonstrate that mutations that induce transcription elongation defects in Pol I result in hypersensitivity to BMH-21. Using a fully reconstituted Pol I transcription assay, we show that BMH-21 directly impairs transcription elongation by Pol I, resulting in long-lived polymerase pausing. These studies define a conserved regulatory checkpoint that monitors Pol I transcription and is activated by therapeutic intervention.
  • Szirovicza, Leonora; Hetzel, Udo; Kipar, Anja; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Vapalahti, Olli; Hepojoki, Jussi (2020)
    Satellite viruses, most commonly found in plants, rely on helper viruses to complete their replication cycle. The only known example of a human satellite virus is the hepatitis D virus (HDV), and it is generally thought to require hepatitis B virus (HBV) to form infectious particlee03250-19s. Until 2018, HDV was the sole representative of the genus Deltavirus and was thought to have evolved in humans, the only known HDV host. The subsequent identification of HDV-like agents in birds, snakes, fish, amphibians, and invertebrates indicated that the evolutionary history of deltaviruses is likely much longer than previously hypothesized. Interestingly, none of the HDV-like agents were found in coinfection with an HBV-like agent, suggesting that these viruses use different helper virus(es). Here we show, using snake deltavirus (SDeV), that HBV and hepadnaviruses represent only one example of helper viruses for deltaviruses. We cloned the SDeV genome into a mammalian expression plasmid, and by transfection could initiate SDeV replication in cultured snake and mammalian cell lines. By superinfecting persistently SDeV-infected cells with reptarenaviruses and hartmaniviruses, or by transfecting their surface proteins, we could induce production of infectious SDeV particles. Our findings indicate that deltaviruses can likely use a multitude of helper viruses or even viral glycoproteins to form infectious particles. This suggests that persistent infections, such as those caused by arenaviruses and orthohantaviruses used in this study, and recurrent infections would be beneficial for the spread of deltaviruses. It seems plausible that further human or animal disease associations with deltavirus infections will be identified in the future.IMPORTANCE Deltaviruses need a coinfecting enveloped virus to produce infectious particles necessary for transmission to a new host. Hepatitis D virus (HDV), the only known deltavirus until 2018, has been found only in humans, and its coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is linked with fulminant hepatitis. The recent discovery of deltaviruses without a coinfecting HBV-like agent in several different taxa suggested that deltaviruses could employ coinfection by other enveloped viruses to complete their life cycle. In this report, we show that snake deltavirus (SDeV) efficiently utilizes coinfecting reptarena- and hartmaniviruses to form infectious particles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cells expressing the envelope proteins of arenaviruses and orthohantaviruses produce infectious SDeV particles. As the envelope proteins are responsible for binding and infecting new host cells, our findings indicate that deltaviruses are likely not restricted in their tissue tropism, implying that they could be linked to animal or human diseases other than hepatitis.
  • Heikkinen, Niko; Keskivali, Laura; Eskelinen, Patrik; Reinikainen, Matti; Putkonen, Matti (2021)
    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to prepare a thin alumina layer on Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Co-Pt-Si/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst was overcoated with 15-40 cycles of Al2O3 deposited from trimethylaluminum (TMA) and water vapor, followed by thermal annealing. The resulting tailored Fischer-Tropsch catalyst with 35 cycle ALD overcoating had increased activity compared to unmodified catalyst. The increase in activity was achieved without significant loss of selectivity towards heavier hydrocarbons. Altered catalyst properties were assumed to result from cobalt particle stabilization by ALD alumina overcoating and nanoscale porosity of the overcoating. In addition to optimal thickness of the overcoat, thermal annealing was an essential part of preparing ALD overcoated catalyst.