Browsing by Subject "PROMOTES"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 25
  • Sundqvist, Benjamin; Kilpinen, Sami; Böhling, Tom; Koljonen, Virve; Sihto, Harri (2022)
    Background: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but highly aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin with a poor prognosis. Improving the prognosis of MCC by means of targeted therapies requires further understanding of the mechanisms that drive tumor progression. In this study, we aimed to identify the genes, processes, and pathways that play the most crucial roles in determining MCC outcomes. Methods: We investigated transcriptomes generated by RNA sequencing of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 102 MCC patients and identified the genes that were upregulated among survivors and in patients who died from MCC. We subsequently cross-referenced these genes with online databases to investigate the functions and pathways they represent. We further investigated differential gene expression based on viral status in patients who died from MCC. Results: We found several novel genes associated with MCC-specific survival. Genes upregulated in patients who died from MCC were most notably associated with angiogenesis and the PI3K-Akt and MAPK pathways; their expression predominantly had no association with viral status in patients who died from MCC. Genes upregulated among survivors were largely associated with antigen presentation and immune response. Conclusion: This outcome-based discrepancy in gene expression suggests that these pathways and processes likely play crucial roles in determining MCC outcomes.
  • Sinha, Snehadri; Narjus-Sterba, Matilda; Tuomainen, Katja; Kaur, Sippy; Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta; Salo, Tuula; Mannerström, Bettina; Al-Samadi, Ahmed (2020)
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are commonly isolated from bone marrow and adipose tissue. Depending on the tissue of origin, MSCs have different characteristics and physiological effects. In various cancer studies, MSCs have been found to have either tumor-promoting or tumor-inhibiting action. This study investigated the effect of adipose tissue-MSCs (AT-MSCs) and bone marrow-MSCs (BM-MSCs) on global long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) methylation, the expression level of microenvironment remodeling genes and cell proliferation, migration and invasion of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). Additionally, we studied the effect of human tongue squamous carcinoma (HSC-3)-conditioned media on LINE-1 methylation and the expression of microenvironment remodeling genes in AT-MSCs and BM-MSCs. Conditioned media from HSC-3 or MSCs did not affect LINE-1 methylation level in either cancer cells or MSCs, respectively. In HSC-3 cells, no effect of MSCs-conditioned media was detected on the expression ofICAM1, ITGA3orMMP1. On the other hand, HSC-3-conditioned media upregulatedICAM1andMMP1expression in both types of MSCs. Co-cultures of AT-MSCs with HSC-3 did not induce proliferation, migration or invasion of the cancer cells. In conclusion, AT-MSCs, unlike BM-MSCs, seem not to participate in oral cancer progression.
  • Rademakers, Timo; van der Vorst, Emiel P. C.; Daissormont, Isabelle T. M. N.; Otten, Jeroen J. T.; Theodorou, Kosta; Theelen, Thomas L.; Gijbels, Marion; Anisimov, Andrey; Nurmi, Harri; Lindeman, Jan H. N.; Schober, Andreas; Heeneman, Sylvia; Alitalo, Kari; Biessen, Erik A. L. (2017)
    During plaque progression, inflammatory cells progressively accumulate in the adventitia, paralleled by an increased presence of leaky vasa vasorum. We here show that next to vasa vasorum, also the adventitial lymphatic capillary bed is expanding during plaque development in humans and mouse models of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we investigated the role of lymphatics in atherosclerosis progression. Dissection of plaque draining lymph node and lymphatic vessel in atherosclerotic ApoE(-/-)mice aggravated plaque formation, which was accompanied by increased intimal and adventitial CD3(+) T cell numbers. Likewise, inhibition of VEGF-C/D dependent lymphangiogenesis by AAV aided gene transfer of hVEGFR3-Ig fusion protein resulted in CD3(+) T cell enrichment in plaque intima and adventitia. hVEGFR3-Ig gene transfer did not compromise adventitial lymphatic density, pointing to VEGF-C/D independent lymphangiogenesis. We were able to identify the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis, which has previously been shown to indirectly activate VEGFR3, as a likely pathway, in that its focal silencing attenuated lymphangiogenesis and augmented T cell presence. Taken together, our study not only shows profound, partly CXCL12/CXCR4 mediated, expansion of lymph capillaries in the adventitia of atherosclerotic plaque in humans and mice, but also is the first to attribute an important role of lymphatics in plaque T cell accumulation and development.
  • Kindler, Oliver; Pulkkinen, Otto; Cherstvy, Andrey G.; Metzler, Ralf (2019)
    Quorum-sensing bacteria in a growing colony of cells send out signalling molecules (so-called "autoinducers") and themselves sense the autoinducer concentration in their vicinity. Once-due to increased local cell density inside a "cluster" of the growing colony-the concentration of autoinducers exceeds a threshold value, cells in this clusters get "induced" into a communal, multi-cell biofilm-forming mode in a cluster-wide burst event. We analyse quantitatively the influence of spatial disorder, the local heterogeneity of the spatial distribution of cells in the colony, and additional physical parameters such as the autoinducer signal range on the induction dynamics of the cell colony. Spatial inhomogeneity with higher local cell concentrations in clusters leads to earlier but more localised induction events, while homogeneous distributions lead to comparatively delayed but more concerted induction of the cell colony, and, thus, a behaviour close to the mean-field dynamics. We quantify the induction dynamics with quantifiers such as the time series of induction events and burst sizes, the grouping into induction families, and the mean autoinducer concentration levels. Consequences for different scenarios of biofilm growth are discussed, providing possible cues for biofilm control in both health care and biotechnology.
  • Gonzalez, Marta Lopez; Oosterhoff, Dinja; Lindenberg, Jelle J.; Milenova, Ioanna; Lougheed, Sinead M.; Martianez, Tania; Dekker, Henk; Quixabeira, Dafne Carolina Alves; Hangalapura, Basav; Joore, Jos; Piersma, Sander R.; Cervera-Carrascon, Victor; Santos, Joao Manuel; Scheper, Rik J.; Verheul, Henk M. W.; Jimenez, Connie R.; Van De Ven, Rieneke; Hemminki, Akseli; Van Beusechem, Victor W.; De Gruijl, Tanja D. (2019)
    In patients with cancer, the functionality of Dendritic Cells (DC) is hampered by high levels of tumor-derived suppressive cytokines, which interfere with DC development and maturation. Poor DC development can limit the efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade and in vivo vaccination approaches. Interference in intracellular signaling cascades downstream from the receptors of major tumor-associated suppressive cytokines like IL-10 and IL-6, might improve DC development and activation, and thus enhance immunotherapy efficacy. We performed exploratory functional screens on arrays consisting of >1000 human kinase peptide substrates to identify pathways involved in DC development and its inhibition by IL-10 or IL-6. The resulting alterations in phosphorylation of the kinome substrate profile pointed to glycogen-synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3 beta) as a pivotal kinase in both DC development and suppression. GSK3 beta inhibition blocked human DC differentiation in vitro, which was accompanied by decreased levels of IL-12p70 secretion, and a reduced capacity for T cell priming. More importantly, adenoviral transduction of monocytes with a constitutively active form of GSK3 beta induced resistance to the suppressive effects of IL-10 and melanoma-derived supernatants alike, resulting in improved DC development, accompanied by up-regulation of co-stimulatory markers, an increase in CD83 expression levels in mature DC, and diminished release of IL-10. Moreover, adenovirus-mediated intratumoral manipulation of this pathway in an in vivo melanoma model resulted in DC activation and recruitment, and in improved immune surveillance and tumor control. We propose the induction of constitutive GSK3 beta activity as a novel therapeutic means to bolster DC functionality in the tumor microenvironment.
  • Martikainen, K.; Sironen, A.; Uimari, P. (2018)
    Inbreeding increases homozygosity, which in turn increases the frequency of harmful recessive alleles, resulting in inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression on fertility reduces the profitability of dairy farming by decreasing the lifetime milk production of cows and by increasing insemination and veterinary costs. Continuous homozygous segments, called runs of homozygosity (ROH), are currently considered to provide an effective measure of genomic inbreeding. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of increased intrachromosomal homozygosity for female fertility in the Finnish Ayrshire population using ROH and haplotype analysis. Genotypes were obtained from 13,712 females with the Illumina BovineLD v.2 BeadChip low-density panel (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) and imputed to 50K density. After quality control, 40,554 single nucleotide polymorphisms remained for the analysis. Phenotypic data consisted of records for nonreturn rate, intervals from first to last insemination (IFL), and intervals from calving to first insemination. The raw phenotypic values were preadjusted for systematic effects before statistical analyses. The ROH-based inbreeding coefficients (F-ROH) were used as covariats in the mixed model equation to estimate the association between inbreeding and inbreeding depression on female fertility. First, we estimated the effect of increased chromosomal F-ROH. We detected significant inbreeding depression on IFL. Based on our results, a 10% increase in F-ROH on chromosomes 2, 18, and 22 were associated with IFL of heifers lengthening by 1.6, 0.9, and 0.7 d, respectively. Similarly, a 10% increase in F-ROH on chromosome 15 was associated with IFL of second-parity cows increasing by 2.3 d. Next, we located the regions within the chromosomes showing inbreeding depression. Our analysis revealed regions near the beginning of chromosome 2 and toward the ends of chromosomes 15, 18, and 22 that were associated with inbreeding depression on IFL. Last, we performed a haplotype analysis for the detected regions. The most promising haplotypes of each region were associated with IFL of heifers increasing by 4.4, 3.2, and 4.1 d on chromosomes 2, 18, and 22, respectively. The haplotype on chromosome 15 associated with IFL of second-parity cows increasing by 7.6 d. Overall, the breeding program requires inbreeding control, as increased genomic inbreeding in our study was associated with reduced reproductive ability in Finnish Ayrshire cattle.
  • Brownlie, Demi; Scharenberg, Marlena; Mold, Jeff E.; Hard, Joanna; Kekäläinen, Eliisa; Buggert, Marcus; Nguyen, Son; Wilson, Jennifer N.; Al-Ameri, Mamdoh; Ljunggren, Hans-Gustaf; Marquardt, Nicole; Michaelsson, Jakob (2021)
    Human adaptive-like "memory" CD56(dim)CD16(+) natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood from cytomegalovirus-seropositive individuals have been extensively investigated in recent years and are currently explored as a treatment strategy for hematological cancers. However, treatment of solid tumors remains limited due to insufficient NK cell tumor infiltration, and it is unknown whether large expansions of adaptive-like NK cells that are equipped for tissue residency and tumor homing exist in peripheral tissues. Here, we show that human lung and blood contains adaptive-like CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells with hallmarks of tissue residency, including expression of CD49a. Expansions of adaptive-like lung tissue-resident NK (trNK) cells were found to be present independently of adaptive-like CD56(dim)CD16(+) NK cells and to be hyperresponsive toward target cells. Together, our data demonstrate that phenotypically, functionally, and developmentally distinct subsets of adaptive-like NK cells exist in human lung and blood. Given their tissue-related character and hyperresponsiveness, human lung adaptive-like trNK cells might represent a suitable alternative for therapies targeting solid tumors.
  • Flamini, Sara; Sergeev, Philipp; Viana de Barros, Zenobio; Mello, Tommaso; Biagioli, Michele; Paglialunga, Musetta; Fiorucci, Chiara; Prikazchikova, Tatiana; Pagano, Stefano; Gagliardi, Andrea; Riccardi, Carlo; Zatsepin, Timofei; Migliorati, Graziella; Bereshchenko, Oxana; Bruscoli, Stefano (2021)
    Liver fibrosis (LF) is a dangerous clinical condition with no available treatment. Inflammation plays a critical role in LF progression. Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ, encoded in mice by the Tsc22d3 gene) mimics many of the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids, but its role in LF has not been directly addressed. Here, we found that GILZ deficiency in mice was associated with elevated CCL2 production and pro-inflammatory leukocyte infiltration at the early LF stage, resulting in enhanced LF development. RNA interference-mediated in vivo silencing of the CCL2 receptor CCR2 abolished the increased leukocyte recruitment and the associated hepatic stellate cell activation in the livers of GILZ knockout mice. To highlight the clinical relevance of these findings, we found that TSC22D3 mRNA expression was significantly downregulated and was inversely correlated with that of CCL2 in the liver samples of patients with LF. Altogether, these data demonstrate a protective role of GILZ in LF and uncover the mechanism, which can be targeted therapeutically. Therefore, modulating GILZ expression and its downstream targets represents a novel avenue for pharmacological intervention for treating LF and possibly other liver inflammatory disorders.
  • Ilmakunnas, M.; Turunen, A. J.; Lindgren, L.; Salmela, K. T.; Kyllönen, L. E.; Andersson, S.; Petäjä, J.; Pesonen, E. J. (2019)
    Background. Inflammation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis are tightly linked together. Reperfusion after transient ischemia activates both neutrophils, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. Experimental data suggest that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) regulates renal neutrophil influx in kidney ischemia and reperfusion injury. Methods. In 30 patients undergoing kidney transplantation, we measured renal neutrophil sequestration and tPA release from blood samples drawn from the supplying artery and renal vein early after reperfusion. tPA antigen levels were measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. For each parameter, transrenal difference (Delta) was calculated by subtracting the value of the arterial sample (ingoing blood) from the value of the venous sample (outgoing blood). Results. Positive transrenal gradients of tPA antigen occurred at 1 minute [Delta = 14 (3-46) ng/mL, P <.01] and 5 minutes [Delta = 5 (-3 to 27) ng/mL, P <.01] after reperfusion. At 5 minutes after reperfusion, a negative transrenal gradient of neutrophils was observed [Delta = -0.17 (-1.45 to 0.24) x 10E9 cells/L, P <.001]. At 1 minute after reperfusion, neutrophil sequestration into the kidney (ie, negative transrenal neutrophil count) correlated significantly with tPA release from the kidney (ie, positive transrenal tPA concentration), (R = -0.513 and P = .006). Conclusions. The findings suggest a proinflammatory role for tPA in ischemia and reperfusion injury in human kidney transplantation.
  • Almahmoudi, Rabeia; Salem, Abdelhakim; Murshid, Sakhr; Dourado, Mauricio Rocha; Apu, Ehsanul Hoque; Salo, Tuula; Al-Samadi, Ahmed (2019)
    We recently showed that extracellular interleukin-17F (IL-17F) correlates with better disease-specific survival in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) patients. However, the underlying mechanisms of such effect remain obscure. Here, we used qRT-PCR to assess the expression of IL-17F and its receptors (IL-17RA and IL-17RC) in two OTSCC cell lines (HSC-3 and SCC-25) and in normal human oral keratinocytes (HOKs). IL-17F effects on cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were studied using a live-imaging IncuCyte system, and a Caspase-3/7 reagent was used for testing apoptosis. 3D tumor spheroids were utilized to assess the impact of IL-17F on invasion with or without cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Tube-formation assays were used to examine the effects of IL-17F on angiogenesis using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). OTSCC cells express low levels of IL-17F, IL-17RA, and IL-17RC mRNA compared with HOKs. IL-17F inhibited cell proliferation and random migration of highly invasive HSC-3 cells. CAFs promoted OTSCC invasion in tumor spheroids, whereas IL-17F eliminated such effect. IL-17F suppressed HUVEC tube formation in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, we suggest that IL-17F counteracts the pro-tumorigenic activity in OTSCC. Due to its downregulation in tumor cells and inhibitory activity in in vitro cancer models, targeting IL-17F or its regulatory pathways could lead to promising immunotherapeutic strategies against OTSCC.
  • Quixabeira, Dafne C. A.; Cervera-Carrascon, Victor; Santos, Joao M.; Clubb, James H. A.; Kudling, Tatiana V.; Basnet, Saru; Heiniö, Camilla; Grönberg-Vähä-Koskela, Susanna; Anttila, Marjukka; Havunen, Riikka; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli (2022)
    Intratumoral immunotherapies are entering clinical use but concerns remain regarding their effects on non-injected tumors. Here, we studied the impact of local treatment with an adenovirus coding for TNFa and IL-2 on systemic antitumor response in animals receiving aPD-1 (anti-programmed cell death protein 1) therapy. Using bilateral murine melanoma models, we tested systemic tumor response to combined therapy with anti-PD-1 and an adenovirus coding for TNFa and IL-2 ("virus"). Virus was given intratumorally (to one of the two tumors only) and aPD-1 monoclonal antibody systemically. We evaluated both tumors' response to treatment, overall survival, metastasis development, and immunological mechanisms involved with response. Consistent tumor control was observed in both injected and non-injected tumors, including complete response in all treated animals receiving aPD-1+ virus therapy. Mechanistically, virus injections enabled potent effector lymphocyte response locally, with systemic effects in non-injected tumors facilitated by aPD-1 treatment. Moreover, adenovirus therapy demonstrated immunological memory formation. Virus therapy was effective in preventing metastasis development. Local treatment with TNFa and IL-2 coding adenovirus enhanced systemic response to aPD-1 therapy, by re-shaping the microenvironment of both injected and non-injected tumors. Therefore, our pre-clinical data support the rationale for a trial utilizing a combination of aPD-1 plus virus for the treatment of human cancer.
  • Ruohtula, Terhi; de Goffau, Marcus C.; Nieminen, Janne K.; Honkanen, Jarno; Siljander, Heli; Hämäläinen, Anu-Maaria; Peet, Aleksandr; Tillmann, Vallo; Ilonen, Jorma; Niemelä, Onni; Welling, Gjalt W.; Knip, Mikael; Harmsen, Hermie J.; Vaarala, Outi (2019)
    Recent studies suggest that the cross-talk between the gut microbiota and human immune system during the first year of life is an important regulator of the later development of atopic diseases. We explored the changes in the gut microbiota, blood regulatory T cells, and atopic sensitization in a birth-cohort of Estonian and Finnish children followed from 3 to 36 months of age. We describe here an infant Treg phenotype characterized by high Treg frequency, the maturation of Treg population characterized by a decrease in their frequency accompanied with an increase in the highly activated Treg cells. These changes in Treg population associated first with the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium longum followed by increasing colonization with butyrate producing bacteria. High bifidobacterial abundance in the neonatal microbiota appeared to be protective, while colonization with Bacteroides and E. coli was associated with later risk of allergy. Estonian children with lower risk of IgE mediated allergic diseases than Finnish children showed an earlier maturation of the gut microbiota, detected as earlier switch to an increasing abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria, combined with an earlier maturation of Treg cell phenotype and total IgE production. The children with established allergic diseases by age 3 showed a decreased abundance of butyrate producing Faecalibacterium. These results suggest that as well as the maintenance of a bifidobacterial dominated gut microbiota is important during the first weeks of life, the overtake by butyrate producing bacteria seems to be a beneficial shift, which should not be postponed.
  • Normann, Lisa Svartdal; Aure, Miriam Ragle; Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Haugen, Mads Haugland; Hongisto, Vesa; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Maelandsmo, Gunhild Mari; Sahlberg, Kristine Kleivi (2021)
    HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer patients that do not respond to targeted treatment have a poor prognosis. The effects of targeted treatment on endogenous microRNA (miRNA) expression levels are unclear. We report that responsive HER2+breast cancer cell lines had a higher number of miRNAs with altered expression after treatment with trastuzumab and lapatinib compared to poorly responsive cell lines. To evaluate whether miRNAs can sensitize HER2+cells to treatment, we performed a high-throughput screen of 1626 miRNA mimics and inhibitors in combination with trastuzumab and lapatinib in HER2+breast cancer cells. We identified eight miRNA mimics sensitizing cells to targeted treatment, miR-101-5p, mir-518a-5p, miR-19b-2-5p, miR-1237-3p, miR-29a-3p, miR-29c-3p, miR-106a-5p, and miR-744-3p. A higher expression of miR-101-5p predicted better prognosis in patients with HER2+breast cancer (OS: p=0.039; BCSS: p=0.012), supporting the tumor-suppressing role of this miRNA. In conclusion, we have identified miRNAs that sensitize HER2+breast cancer cells to targeted therapy. This indicates the potential of combining targeted drugs with miRNAs to improve current treatments for HER2+breast cancers.
  • Mingardi, Jessica; La Via, Luca; Tornese, Paolo; Carini, Giulia; Trontti, Kalevi; Seguini, Mara; Tardito, Daniela; Bono, Federica; Fiorentini, Chiara; Elia, Leonardo; Hovatta, Iiris; Popoli, Maurizio; Musazzi, Laura; Barbon, Alessandro (2021)
    Converging clinical and preclinical evidence demonstrates that depressive phenotypes are associated with synaptic dysfunction and dendritic simplification in cortico-limbic glutamatergic areas. On the other hand, the rapid antidepressant effect of acute ketamine is consistently reported to occur together with the rescue of dendritic atrophy and reduction of spine number induced by chronic stress in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of animal models of depression. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying these morphological alterations remain largely unknown. Here, we found that miR-9-5p levels were selectively reduced in the hippocampus of rats vulnerable to Chronic Mild Stress (CMS), while acute subanesthetic ketamine restored its levels to basal condition in just 24h; miR-9-5p expression inversely correlated with the anhedonic phenotype. A decrease of miR-9-5p was reproduced in an in vitro model of stress, based on primary hippocampal neurons incubated with the stress hormone corticosterone. In both CMS animals and primary neurons, decreased miR-9-5p levels were associated with dendritic simplification, while treatment with ketamine completely rescued the changes. In vitro modulation of miR-9-5p expression showed a direct role of miR-9-5p in regulating dendritic length and spine density in mature primary hippocampal neurons. Among the putative target genes tested, Rest and Sirt1 were validated as biological targets in primary neuronal cultures. Moreover, in line with miR-9-5p changes, REST protein expression levels were remarkably increased in both CMS vulnerable animals and corticosterone-treated neurons, while ketamine completely abolished this alteration. Finally, the shortening of dendritic length in corticosterone-treated neurons was shown to be partly rescued by miR-9-5p overexpression and dependent on REST protein expression. Overall, our data unveiled the functional role of miR-9-5p in the remodeling of dendritic arbor induced by stress/corticosterone in vulnerable animals and its rescue by acute antidepressant treatment with ketamine.
  • Long, Maeve; McWilliams, Thomas G. (2020)
    Autophagy refers to an essential mechanism that evolved to sustain eukaryotic homeostasis and metabolism during instances of nutrient deprivation. During autophagy, intracellular cargo is encapsulated and delivered to the lysosome for elimination. Loss of basal autophagy in vivo negatively impacts cellular proteostasis, metabolism and tissue integrity. Accordingly, many drug development strategies are focused on modulating autophagic capacity in various pathophysiological states, from cancer to neurodegenerative disease. The role of autophagy in cancer is particularly complicated, as either augmenting or attenuating this process can have variable outcomes on cellular survival, proliferation and transformation. This complexity is compounded by the emergence of several selective autophagy pathways, which act to eliminate damaged or superfluous cellular components in a targeted fashion. The advent of sensitive tools to monitor autophagy pathways in vivo holds promise to clarify their importance in cancer pathophysiology. In this review, we provide an overview of autophagy in cancer biology and outline how the development of tools to study autophagy in vivo could enhance our understanding of its function for translational benefit.
  • Salo, Veijo T.; Ikonen, Elina (2019)
    The formation of neutral lipid filled and phospholipid monolayer engulfed lipid droplets (LDs) from the bilayer of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an active area of investigation. This process harnesses the biophysical properties of the lipids involved and necessitates cooperation of protein machineries in both organelle membranes. Increasing evidence suggests that once formed, LDs keep close contact to the mother organelle and that this may be achieved via several, morphologically distinct and potentially functionally specialized connections. These may help LDs to dynamically respond to changes in lipid metabolic status sensed by the ER. In this review, we will discuss recent progress in understanding how LDs interact with the ER.
  • Niinivirta, Aino; Salo, Tuula; Åström, Pirjo; Juurikka, Krista; Risteli, Maija (2022)
    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and novel prognostic factors are reported with increasing numbers. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses on cumulative research data are crucial in estimating the true prognostic value of proposed factors. Dysadherin (FXYD Domain Containing Ion Transport Regulator 5; FXYD5) is a cell membrane glycoprotein that modulates Na+, K+-ATPase activity and cell-cell adhesion. It is abundantly expressed in a variety of cancer cells, but only in a limited number of normal cells and its levels are increased in many different tumor types. The expression or level of dysadherin has been suggested as an independent predictor for metastasis and poor prognosis by number of studies, yet we lack a definitive answer. In this study, we systematically evaluated the prognostic value of dysadherin in cancer and summarized the current knowledge on the subject. PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and relevant clinical trial and preprint databases were searched for relevant publications and PRISMA and REMARK guidelines were applied in the process. After a careful review, a total of 23 original research articles were included. In each study, dysadherin was pointed as a marker for poor prognosis. Meta-analyses revealed 3- and 1.5-fold increases in the risk of death (fixed effects HR 3.08, 95% CI 1.88-5.06, RR 1.47, 95% CI 1.06-2.05 on overall survival, respectively) for patients with high (> 50%) tumoral FXYD5 level. In many studies, a connection between dysadherin expression or level and metastatic behavior of the cancer as well as inverse correlation with E-cadherin level were reported. Thus, we conclude that dysadherin might be a useful prognostic biomarker in the assessment of disease survival of patients with solid tumors.
  • Combot, Yoann; Salo, Veijo T.; Chadeuf, Gilliane; Holttä, Maarit; Ven, Katharina; Pulli, Ilari; Ducheix, Simon; Pecqueur, Claire; Renoult, Ophelie; Lak, Behnam; Li, Shiqian; Karhinen, Leena; Belevich, Ilya; Le May, Cedric; Rieusset, Jennifer; Le Lay, Soazig; Croyal, Mikael; Tayeb, Karim Si; Vihinen, Helena; Jokitalo, Eija; Tornquist, Kid; Vigouroux, Corinne; Cariou, Bertrand; Magre, Jocelyne; Larhlimi, Abdelhalim; Ikonen, Elina; Prieur, Xavier (2022)
    Deficiency of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein seipin results in generalized lipodystrophy by incompletely understood mechanisms. Here, we report mitochondrial abnormalities in seipin-deficient patient cells. A subset of seipin is enriched at ER-mitochondria contact sites (MAMs) in human and mouse cells and localizes in the vicinity of calcium regulators SERCA2, IP3R, and VDAC. Seipin association with MAM calcium regulators is stimulated by fasting-like stimuli, while seipin association with lipid droplets is promoted by lipid loading. Acute seipin removal does not alter ER calcium stores but leads to defective mitochondrial calcium import accompanied by a widespread reduction in Krebs cycle metabolites and ATP levels. In mice, inducible seipin deletion leads to mitochondrial dysfunctions preceding the development of metabolic complications. Together, these data suggest that seipin controls mitochondrial energy metabolism by regulating mitochondrial calcium influx at MAMs. In seipin-deficient adipose tissue, reduced ATP production compromises adipocyte properties, contributing to lipodystrophy pathogenesis.
  • Saito, Kan; Michon, Frederic; Yamada, Aya; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Satoko; Fukumoto, Emiko; Yoshizaki, Keigo; Nakamura, Takashi; Arakaki, Makiko; Chiba, Yuta; Ishikawa, Masaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Thesleff, Irma; Fukumoto, Satoshi (2020)
    The transcription factor Sox21 is expressed in the epithelium of developing teeth. The present study aimed to determine the role of Sox21 in tooth development. We found that disruption of Sox21 caused severe enamel hypoplasia, regional osteoporosis, and ectopic hair formation in the gingiva in Sox21 knockout incisors. Differentiation markers were lost in ameloblasts, which formed hair follicles expressing hair keratins. Molecular analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing indicated that Sox21 regulated Anapc10, which recognizes substrates for ubiquitination-mediated degradation, and determined dental-epithelial versus hair follicle cell fate. Disruption of either Sox21 or Anapc10 induced Smad3 expression, accelerated TGF-beta 1-induced promotion of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and resulted in E-cadherin degradation via Skp2. We conclude that Sox21 disruption in the dental epithelium leads to the formation of a unique microenvironment promoting hair formation and that Sox21 controls dental epithelial differentiation and enamel formation by inhibiting EMT via Anapc10.
  • Rooda, Ilmatar; Hensen, Kati; Kaselt, Birgitta; Kasvandik, Sergo; Pook, Martin; Kurg, Ants; Salumets, Andres; Velthut-Meikas, Agne (2020)
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known post-transcriptional regulators of various biological processes including ovarian follicle development. We have previously identified miRNAs from human preovulatory ovarian granulosa cells that are expressed from the intronic regions of two key genes in normal follicular development: FSH receptor (FSHR) and CYP19A1, the latter encoding the aromatase enzyme. The present study aims to identify the target genes regulated by these miRNAs: hsa-miR-548ba and hsa-miR-7973, respectively. The miRNAs of interest were transfected into KGN cell line and the gene expression changes were analyzed by Affymetrix microarray. Potential miRNA-regulated genes were further filtered by bioinformatic target prediction algorithms and validated for direct miRNA:mRNA binding by luciferase reporter assay. LIFR, PTEN, NEO1 and SP110 were confirmed as targets for hsa-miR-548ba. Hsa-miR-7973 target genes ADAM19, PXDN and FMNL3 also passed all verification steps. Additionally, the expression pattern of the miRNAs was studied in human primary cumulus granulosa cell culture in relation to the expression of their host genes and FSH stimulation. Based on our findings we propose the involvement of hsa-miR-548ba in the regulation of follicle growth and activation via LIFR and PTEN. Hsa-miR-7973 may be implicated in the modulation of extracellular matrix and cell-cell interactions by regulating the expression of its identified targets.