Browsing by Subject "PROSPECTIVE COHORT"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 40
  • Siikamäki, Heli; Kivela, Pia; Fotopoulos, Mikael; Kantele, Anu (2017)
    Background: Although infections represent the most common health problem of travellers abroad, data on morbidity and incidences of various infections are scarce. Method: Data on infections of Finnish travellers during 2010-2012 were retrieved from the database of SOS International, an assistance organization covering 95% of Finns requiring aid abroad. The study included 30,086 cases. For incidence calculation, the data were linked to the numbers of Finns visiting these regions during the same period as recorded by the Official Statistics of Finland. Results: The incidence of infections was particularly high in Africa, southern Europe plus the eastern Mediterranean, and Asia plus Oceania. The most frequent diagnoses were acute gastroenteritis (38.0%) and respiratory-tract infections (RTI) (34.5%), followed by infections of the ear (12.6%), skin or subcutaneous tissue (5.1%), urogenital tract (4.2%), eye (3.1%), and systemic febrile infections (2.2%). Vaccinepreventable diseases (VPD) accounted for 0.8% of cases, with varicella as most (49%) and influenza as second-most (27%) common. Conclusions: Incidence of infections was higher in southern than in eastern and western Europe. Gastroenteritis and RTI proved the most frequent diagnoses, whereas systemic febrile infections were uncommon. Despite pre-travel immunizations, VPDs still occurred; pre-travel consultation should cover both varicella and influenza. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kouvonen, A.; Vahtera, J.; Pentti, J.; Korhonen, M. J.; Oksanen, T.; Salo, P.; Virtanen, M.; Kivimaki, M. (2016)
    Background. Adverse effects of antidepressants are most common at the beginning of the treatment, but possible also later. We examined the association between antidepressant use and work-related injuries taking into account the duration of antidepressant use. Method. Antidepressant use and work-related injuries between 2000 and 2011 were measured among 66 238 employees (mean age 43.8 years, 80% female) using linkage to national records (the Finnish Public Sector study). We analysed data using time-dependent modelling with individuals as their own controls (self-controlled case-series design). Results. In 2238 individuals who had used antidepressants and had a work-related injury during a mean follow-up of 7.8 years, no increase in the risk of injury was observed in the beginning of antidepressant treatment. However, an increased injury risk was seen after 3 months of treatment (rate ratio, compared with no recent antidepressant use, 1.27, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.48). This was also the case among those who had used only selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (n = 714; rate ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.83). Conclusions. Antidepressant use was not associated with an increased risk of work-related injury at the beginning of treatment. Post-hoc analyses of antidepressant trials are needed to determine whether long-term use of antidepressants increases the risk of work-related injury.
  • Premenopausal Breast Canc Collabor (2018)
    IMPORTANCE The association between increasing body mass index (BMI; calculated as wei ght in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and risk of breast cancer is unique in cancer epidemiology in that a crossover effect exists, with risk reduction before and risk increase after menopause. The inverse association with premenopausal breast cancer risk is poorly characterized but might be important in the understanding of breast cancer causation. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of BMI with premenopausal breast cancer risk, in particular by age at BMI, attained age, risk factors for breast cancer, and tumor characteristics. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This multicenter analysis used pooled individual-level data from 758 592 premenopausal women from 19 prospective cohorts to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of premenopausal breast cancer in association with BMI from ages 18 through 54 years using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Median follow-up was 9.3 years (interquartile range, 4.9-13.5 years) per participant, with 13 082 incident cases of breast cancer. Participants were recruited from January 1,1963, through December 31, 2013, and data were analyzed from September 1.2013, through December 31, 2017. EXPOSURES Body mass index at ages 18 to 24, 25 to 34,35 to 44, and 45 to 54 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Invasive or in situ premenopausal breast cancer. RESULTS Among the 758 592 premenopausal women (median age, 40.6 years; interquartile range, 35.2-45.5 years) included in the analysis, inverse linear associations of BMI with breast cancer risk were found that were stronger for BMI at ages 18 to 24 years (HR per 5 kg/m(2) [5.0-U] difference, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.80) than for BMI at ages 45 to 54 years (HR per 5.0-U difference, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.86-0.91). The inverse associations were observed even among nonoverweight women. There was a 4.2-fold risk gradient between the highest and lowest BMI categories (BMI >= 35.0 vs CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The results of this study suggest that increased adiposity is associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer at a greater magnitude than previously shown and across the entire distribution of BMI. The strongest associations of risk were observed for BMI in early adulthood. Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying these associations could have important preventive potential.
  • Merikanto, Ilona; Lahti, Tuuli; Seitsalo, Seppo; Kronholm, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Peltonen, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki; Partonen, Timo (2014)
    Earlier studies have revealed that the more the preference to schedule daily activities towards the evening hours is, the higher the odds for a range of health hazards are. Therefore, we wanted to analyze, whether the behavioral trait of morningness-eveningness is associated with articular and spinal diseases or those with musculoskeletal disorders. Participants (n=6089), as part of the National FINRISK 2007 Study, were derived from the general population, aged 25 to 74 years, living in Finland. Chronotype was assessed based on six items from the original Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Information about risk factors and the diagnoses of articular and spinal diseases were based on the self-reported information. Our results suggest that Evening-types have higher odds for articular and spinal diseases as compared with Morning-types, and this risk is heightened especially regarding spinal disease and backache (odds ratios of 1.8 to 2.1, and 1.6 to 1.8, respectively) and remains significant after controlling for the sex, age, education, civil status, physical activity, alcohol use, and smoking, and additionally for the body-mass index, insufficient sleep, or depressive symptoms.
  • Leppänen, Mari; Parkkari, Jari; Vasankari, Tommi; Äyrämo, Sami; Kulmala, Juha-Pekka; Krosshaug, Tron; Kannus, Pekka; Pasanen, Kati (2021)
    Background: Studies investigating biomechanical risk factors for knee injuries in sport-specific tasks are needed. Purpose: To investigate the association between change of direction (COD) biomechanics in a 180-degree pivot turn and knee injury risk among youth team sport players. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A total of 258 female and male basketball and floorball players (age range, 12-21 years) participated in the baseline COD test and follow-up. Complete data were obtained from 489 player-legs. Injuries, practice, and game exposure were registered for 12 months. The COD test consisted of a quick ball pass before and after a high-speed 180-degree pivot turn on the force plates. The following variables were analyzed: peak vertical ground-reaction force (N/kg); peak trunk lateral flexion angle (degree); peak knee flexion angle (degree); peak knee valgus angle (degree); peak knee flexion moment (N.m/kg); peak knee abduction moment (N.m/kg); and peak knee internal and external rotation moments (N.m/kg). Legs were analyzed separately and the mean of 3 trials was used in the analysis. Main outcome measure was a new acute noncontact knee injury. Results: A total of 18 new noncontact knee injuries were registered (0.3 injuries/1000 hours of exposure). Female players sustained 14 knee injuries and male players 4. A higher rate of knee injuries was observed in female players compared with male players (incidence rate ratio, 6.2; 95% CI, 2.1-21.7). Of all knee injuries, 8 were anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, all in female players. Female players displayed significantly larger peak knee valgus angles compared with male players (mean for female and male players, respectively: 13.9 degrees +/- 9.4 degrees and 2.0 degrees +/- 8.5 degrees). No significant associations between biomechanical variables and knee injury risk were found. Conclusion: Female players were at increased risk of knee and ACL injury compared with male players. Female players performed the 180-degree pivot turn with significantly larger knee valgus compared with male players. However, none of the investigated variables was associated with knee injury risk in youth basketball and floorball players.
  • Landais, Edwige; Moskal, Aurelie; Mullee, Amy; Nicolas, Genevieve; Gunter, Marc J.; Huybrechts, Inge; Overvad, Kim; Roswall, Nina; Affret, Aurelie; Fagherazzi, Guy; Mahamat-Saleh, Yahya; Katzke, Verena; Kuehn, Tilman; La Vecchia, Carlo; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Saieva, Calogero; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Sieri, Sabina; Braaten, Tonje; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Garcia, Jose Ramon; Jakszyn, Paula; Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel; Brunkwall, Louise; Huseinovic, Ena; Nilsson, Lena; Wallstroem, Peter; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Peeters, Petra H.; Aune, Dagfinn; Key, Tim; Lentjes, Marleen; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia; Freisling, Heinz (2018)
    Background: Coffee and tea are among the most commonly consumed nonalcoholic beverages worldwide, but methodological differences in assessing intake often hamper comparisons across populations. We aimed to (i) describe coffee and tea intakes and (ii) assess their contribution to intakes of selected nutrients in adults across 10 European countries. Method: Between 1995 and 2000, a standardized 24-h dietary recall was conducted among 36,018 men and women from 27 European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study centres. Adjusted arithmetic means of intakes were estimated in grams (=volume) per day by sex and centre. Means of intake across centres were compared by sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. Results: In women, the mean daily intake of coffee ranged from 94 g/day (similar to 0.6 cups) in Greece to 781 g/day (similar to 4.4 cups) in Aarhus (Denmark), and tea from 14 g/day (similar to 0.1 cups) in Navarra (Spain) to 788 g/day (similar to 4.3 cups) in the UK general population. Similar geographical patterns for mean daily intakes of both coffee and tea were observed in men. Current smokers as compared with those who reported never smoking tended to drink on average up to 500 g/day more coffee and tea combined, but with substantial variation across centres. Other individuals' characteristics such as educational attainment or age were less predictive. In all centres, coffee and tea contributed to less than 10% of the energy intake. The greatest contribution to total sugar intakes was observed in Southern European centres (up to similar to 20%). Conclusion: Coffee and tea intake and their contribution to energy and sugar intake differed greatly among European adults. Variation in consumption was mostly driven by geographical region.
  • Paloneva, Juha; Koskela, Sanna; Kautiainen, Hannu; Vanhala, Mauno; Kiviranta, Ilkka (2013)
  • Virtanen, Marianna; Elovainio, Marko; Josefsson, Kim; Batty, G. David; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika (2017)
    Objective To examine coronary heart disease (CHD) and its risk factors as predictors of long-term trajectories of psychological distress from midlife to old age. Methods In the Whitehall II cohort study, 6890 participants (4814 men, 2076 women; mean age 49.5 years) had up to seven repeat assessments of psychological distress over 21 years (mean follow-up 19 years). CHD and its risk factors (lifestyle-related risk factors, diabetes, hypertension and cholesterol) were assessed at baseline. Group-based trajectory modelling was used to identify clusters of individuals with a similar pattern of psychological distress over time. Results We identified four trajectories of psychological distress over the follow-up: 'persistently low (69% of the participants), 'persistently intermediate' (13%), 'intermediate to low' (12%) and 'persistently high' (7%). The corresponding proportions were 60%, 16%, 13% and 11% among participants with CHD; 63%, 15%, 12% and 10% among smokers and 63%, 16%, 12% and 10% among obese participants. In multivariable adjusted multinomial regression analyses comparing other trajectories to persistently low trajectory, prevalent CHD was associated with intermediate to low (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.68) and persistently high (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.16 to 3.19) trajectories. Smoking (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.64; OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.04) and obesity (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.70; OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.01) were associated with persistently intermediate and persistently high trajectories, respectively. Conclusion CHD, smoking and obesity may have a role in the development of long-lasting psychological distress from midlife to old age.
  • Oksanen, Tuula; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S. V.; Kim, Daniel; Shirai, Kokoro; Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Salo, Paula; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimaki, Mika (2013)
  • Cenzato, Marco; Boccardi, Edoardo; Beghi, Ettore; Vajkoczy, Peter; Szikora, Istvan; Motti, Enrico; Regli, Luca; Raabe, Andreas; Eliava, Shalva; Gruber, Andreas; Meling, Torstein R.; Niemela, Mika; Pasqualin, Alberto; Golanov, Andrey; Karlsson, Bengt; Kemeny, Andras; Liscak, Roman; Lippitz, Bodo; Radatz, Matthias; La Camera, Alessandro; Chapot, Rene; Islak, Civan; Spelle, Laurent; Debernardi, Alberto; Agostoni, Elio; Revay, Martina; Morgan, Michael K. (2017)
    In December of 2016, a Consensus Conference on unruptured AVM treatment, involving 24 members of the three European societies dealing with the treatment of cerebral AVMs (EANS, ESMINT, and EGKS) was held in Milan, Italy. The panel made the following statements and general recommendations: (1) Brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a complex disease associated with potentially severe natural history; (2) The results of a randomized trial (ARUBA) cannot be applied equally for all unruptured brain arteriovenous malformation (uBAVM) and for all treatment modalities; (3) Considering the multiple treatment modalities available, patients with uBAVMs should be evaluated by an interdisciplinary neurovascular team consisting of neurosurgeons, neurointerventionalists, radiosurgeons, and neurologists experienced in the diagnosis and treatment of brain AVM; (4) Balancing the risk of hemorrhage and the associated restrictions of everyday activities related to untreated unruptured AVMs against the risk of treatment, there are sufficient indications to treat unruptured AVMs grade 1 and 2 (Spetzler-Martin); (5) There may be indications for treating patients with higher grades, based on a case-to-case consensus decision of the experienced team; (6) If treatment is indicated, the primary strategy should be defined by the multidisciplinary team prior to the beginning of the treatment and should aim at complete eradication of the uBAVM; (7) After having considered the pros and cons of a randomized trial vs. a registry, the panel proposed a prospective European Multidisciplinary Registry.
  • Wesolowska, Karolina; Elovainio, Marko; Hintsa, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Pitkänen, Niina; Lipsanen, Jari; Tukiainen, Janne; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa (2017)
    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been associated with depressive symptoms, but the causal direction of this association and the underlying mechanisms, such as increased glucose levels, remain unclear. We used instrumental-variable regression with a genetic instrument (Mendelian randomization) to examine a causal role of increased glucose concentrations in the development of depressive symptoms. Data were from the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (n = 1217). Depressive symptoms were assessed in 2012 using a modified Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-I). Fasting glucose was measured concurrently with depressive symptoms. A genetic risk score for fasting glucose (with 35 single nucleotide polymorphisms) was used as an instrumental variable for glucose. Glucose was not associated with depressive symptoms in the standard linear regression (B = -0.04, 95% CI [-0.12, 0.04], p = .34), but the instrumental-variable regression showed an inverse association between glucose and depressive symptoms (B = -0.43, 95% CI [-0.79, -0.07], p = .020). The difference between the estimates of standard linear regression and instrumental-variable regression was significant (p = .026) Our results suggest that the association between T2D and depressive symptoms is unlikely to be caused by increased glucose concentrations. It seems possible that T2D might be linked to depressive symptoms due to low glucose levels.
  • Shiri, Rahman; Hiilamo, Aapo; Pietilainen, Olli; Mänty, Minna; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lallukka, Tea (2020)
    Background: We determined whether favourable changes in physical workload and environmental factors reduce sickness absence (SA) days using observational cohort data as a pseudo-experiment. Methods: The data from the Finnish Helsinki Health Study included three cohorts of employees of the City of Helsinki [2000/2002-07 (N=2927), 2007-12 (N=1686) and 2012-17 (N=1118), altogether 5731 observations]. First, we estimated the propensity score of favourable changes (reduction in exposures) in physical workload and environmental factors during each 5-year follow-up period on the baseline survey characteristics using logistic regression. Second, we created and stabilized inverse probability of treatment weights for each participant using the propensity scores. Lastly, we used generalized linear model and fitted negative binomial regression models for over-dispersed count data to estimate whether the favourable changes decrease the risk of short-term (1-3 days), intermediate-term (414 days) and long-term (>14 days) SA using employer's register data. Results: During a 5-year follow-up, 11% of the participants had favourable changes in physical workload factors, 13% in environmental factors and 8% in both factors. The incidence of short-term, intermediate-term and long-term SA were lower in employees with favourable workplace changes compared with those without such changes. The reductions were largest for longterm SA. Reporting favourable changes in both workload and environmental factors reduced the number of SA days by 41% within 1 year after the changes and by 32% within 2 years after the changes. Conclusion: This pseudo-experimental study suggests that improving physical working conditions reduces SA.
  • Guo, Yan; Andersen, Shaneda Warren; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Milne, Roger L.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Dunning, Allison; Bojesen, Stig E.; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Benitez, Javier; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Bonanni, Bernardo; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Bruening, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Casey, Graham; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Czene, Kamila; Devilee, Peter; Doerk, Thilo; Dumont, Martine; Fasching, Peter A.; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Fostira, Florentia; Gammon, Marilie; Giles, Graham G.; Guenel, Pascal; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hamann, Ute; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hopper, John L.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jasmine, Farzana; Jenkins, Mark; John, Esther M.; Johnson, Nichola; Jones, Michael E.; Kabisch, Maria; Kibriya, Muhammad; Knight, Julia A.; Koppert, Linetta B.; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, Eunjung; Li, Jingmei; Lindblom, Annika; Luben, Robert; Lubinski, Jan; Malone, Kathi E.; Mannermaa, Arto; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; McLean, Catriona; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Meindl, Alfons; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Olson, Janet E.; Perez, Jose I. A.; Perkins, Barbara; Peterlongo, Paolo; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Pylkas, Katri; Rudolph, Anja; Santella, Regina; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Southey, Melissa C.; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Toland, Amanda E.; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Therese; Ursin, Giske; Van Der Luijt, Rob B.; Verhoef, Senno; Whittemore, Alice S.; Winqvist, Robert; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Shilin; Hall, Per; Simard, Jacques; Kraft, Peter; Pharoah, Paul; Hunter, David; Easton, Douglas F.; Zheng, Wei (2016)
    Background Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or environmental factors. Methods We applied Mendelian randomization to evaluate the association between BMI and risk of breast cancer occurrence using data from two large breast cancer consortia. We created a weighted BMI genetic score comprising 84 BMI-associated genetic variants to predicted BMI. We evaluated genetically predicted BMI in association with breast cancer risk using individual-level data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) (cases = 46,325, controls = 42,482). We further evaluated the association between genetically predicted BMI and breast cancer risk using summary statistics from 16,003 cases and 41,335 controls from the Discovery, Biology, and Risk of Inherited Variants in Breast Cancer (DRIVE) Project. Because most studies measured BMI after cancer diagnosis, we could not conduct a parallel analysis to adequately evaluate the association of measured BMI with breast cancer risk prospectively. Results In the BCAC data, genetically predicted BMI was found to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] = 0.65 per 5 kg/m(2) increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56-0.75, p = 3.32 x 10(-10)). The associations were similar for both premenopausal (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.31-0.62, p = 9.91x10(-8)) and postmenopausal breast cancer (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.46-0.71, p = 1.88x10(-8)). This association was replicated in the data from the DRIVE consortium (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.84, p = 1.64 x 10(-7)). Single marker analyses identified 17 of the 84 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in association with breast cancer risk at p <0.05; for 16 of them, the allele associated with elevated BMI was associated with reduced breast cancer risk. Conclusions BMI predicted by genome-wide association studies (GWAS)-identified variants is inversely associated with the risk of both pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer. The reduced risk of postmenopausal breast cancer associated with genetically predicted BMI observed in this study differs from the positive association reported from studies using measured adult BMI. Understanding the reasons for this discrepancy may reveal insights into the complex relationship of genetic determinants of body weight in the etiology of breast cancer.
  • Zhou, Ang; Taylor, Amy E.; Karhunen, Ville; Zhan, Yiqiang; Rovio, Suvi P.; Lahti, Jari; Sjögren, Per; Byberg, Liisa; Lyall, Donald M.; Auvinen, Juha; Lehtimaki, Terho; Kahonen, Mika; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Perala, Mia Maria; Michaelsson, Karl; Mahajan, Anubha; Lind, Lars; Power, Chris; Eriksson, Johan G.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Hagg, Sara; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Veijola, Juha; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Munafo, Marcus R.; Ingelsson, Erik; Llewellyn, David J.; Hypponen, Elina (2018)
    Coffee's long-term effect on cognitive function remains unclear with studies suggesting both benefits and adverse effects. We used Mendelian randomization to investigate the causal relationship between habitual coffee consumption and cognitive function in mid-to later life. This included up to 415,530 participants and 300,760 coffee drinkers from 10 meta-analysed European ancestry cohorts. In each cohort, composite cognitive scores that capture global cognition and memory were computed using available tests. A genetic score derived using CYP1A1/2 (rs2472297) and AHR (rs6968865) was chosen as a proxy for habitual coffee consumption. Null associations were observed when examining the associations of the genetic score with global and memory cognition (beta = -0.0007, 95% C.I. -0.009 to 0.008, P = 0.87; beta = -0.001, 95% C.I. -0.005 to 0.002, P = 0.51, respectively), with high consistency between studies (P-heterogeneity > 0.4 for both). Domain specific analyses using available cognitive measures in the UK Biobank also did not support effects by habitual coffee intake for reaction time, pairs matching, reasoning or prospective memory (P >= 0.05 for all). Despite the power to detect very small effects, our meta-analysis provided no evidence for causal long-term effects of habitual coffee consumption on global cognition or memory.
  • Akesson, Agneta; Andersen, Lene F.; Kristjansdottir, Asa G.; Roos, Eva; Trolle, Ellen; Voutilainen, Eeva; Wirfalt, Elisabet (2013)
  • Meinilä, Jelena; Valkama, Anita; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Rono, Kristiina; Lindstrom, Jaana; Kautiainen, Hannu; Eriksson, Johan G.; Erkkola, Maijaliisa (2017)
    The aim was to analyse whether changes in the Healthy Food Intake Index (HFII) during pregnancy are related to gestational diabetes (GDM) risk. The 251 pregnant women participating had a pre-pregnancy BMI >= 30 kg/m(2) and/or a history of GDM. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy for assessment of GDM. A normal OGTT result at first trimester was an inclusion criterion for the study. FFQ collected at first and second trimesters served for calculating the HFII. A higher HFII score reflects higher adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) (score range 0-17). Statistical methods included Student's t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Fisher's exact test and linear and logistic regression analyses. The mean HFII at first trimester was 10.1 (95 % CI 9.7, 10.4) points, and the mean change from the first to the second trimester was 0.35 (95 % CI 0.09, 0.62) points. The range of the HFII changes varied from -7 to 7. The odds for GDM decreased with higher HFII change (adjusted OR 0.83 per one unit increase in HFII; 95 % CI 0.69, 0.99; P=0.043). In the analysis of the association between HFII-sub-indices and GDM, odds for GDM decreased with higher HFII-Fat change (fat percentage of milk and cheese, type of spread and cooking fats) but it was not significant in a fully adjusted model (P=0.058). Dietary changes towards the NNR during pregnancy seem to be related to a lower risk for GDM.
  • Virtanen, Marianna; Elovainio, Marko (2018)
    Modern work life is characterized by constant change, reorganizations, and requirements of efficiency, which make the distribution of resources and obligations, as well as justice in decisionmaking, highly important. In the work life context, it is a question not only of distributing resources and obligations, but also of the procedures and rules that guide the decisionmaking in the organization. Studies of these rules and procedures have provided the basis for a new line of research that evaluates leadership and social relationships in working communities; that is, distributive, procedural, and relational justice. This review follows the development of research on organizational justice from its origins in early social and motivational psychological theories to its establishment as a major line of research in modern work and organizational psychology. The adverse consequences of injustice include poor team climate, reduced productivity and well-being, and work-related illnesses.
  • Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Lallukka, Tea; Nyberg, Solja T.; Alfredsson, Lars; Batty, G. David; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Ferrie, Jane E.; Heikkila, Katriina; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Lahelma, Eero; Nielsen, Martin L.; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H.; Pentti, Jaana; Rahkonen, Ossi; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Schupp, Jurgen; Shipley, Martin J.; Siegrist, Johannes; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Suominen, Sakari B.; Theorell, Tores; Vahtera, Jussi; Wagner, Gert G.; Wang, Jian Li; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimaki, Mika (2018)
    Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published prospective cohort studies and included available cohorts with unpublished individual-participant data. We used a random-effects meta-analysis to calculate summary estimates across studies. Results We identified ten published cohort studies and included unpublished individual-participant data from 18 studies. In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working >= 55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1-5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I-2 = 45.1%, P=0.004). A strong association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.01), a weaker association in Europe (1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.22), and no association in North America (0.97, 95% CI 0.70-1.34) or Australia (0.95, 95% CI 0.70-1.29). Differences by other characteristics were small. Conclusions This observational evidence suggests a moderate association between long working hours and onset of depressive symptoms in Asia and a small association in Europe.
  • Lötsch, J.; Sipilä, R.; Dimova, Rozita; Kalso, E. (2018)
    Background: Prevention of persistent pain after breast cancer surgery, via early identification of patients at high risk, is a clinical need. Psychological factors are among the most consistently proposed predictive parameters for the development of persistent pain. However, repeated use of long psychological questionnaires in this context may be exhaustive for a patient and inconvenient in everyday clinical practice. Methods: Supervised machine learning was used to create a short form of questionnaires that would provide the same predictive performance of pain persistence as the full questionnaires in a cohort of 1000 women followed up for 3 yr after breast cancer surgery. Machine-learned predictors were first trained with the full-item set of Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), Spielberger's StateeTrait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the StateeTrait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI-2). Subsequently, features were selected from the questionnaires to create predictors having a reduced set of items. Results: A combined seven-item set of 10% of the original psychological questions from STAI and BDI, provided the same predictive performance parameters as the full questionnaires for the development of persistent postsurgical pain. The seven-item version offers a shorter and at least as accurate identification of women in whom pain persistence is unlikely (almost 95% negative predictive value). Conclusions: Using a data-driven machine-learning approach, a short list of seven items from BDI and STAI is proposed as a basis for a predictive tool for the persistence of pain after breast cancer surgery.
  • Lahelma, Eero; Pietilainen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahti, Jouni; Lallukka, Tea (2016)
    Background: Mental symptoms are prevalent among populations, but their associations with premature mortality are inadequately understood. We examined whether mental symptoms contribute to cause-specific mortality among midlife employees, while considering key covariates. Methods: Baseline mail survey data from 2000-02 included employees, aged 40-60, of the City of Helsinki, Finland ( n = 8960, 80 % women, response rate 67 %). Mental symptoms were measured by the General Health Questionnaire 12-item version ( GHQ-12) and the Short Form 36 mental component summary ( MCS). Covariates included sex, marital status, social support, health behaviours, occupational social class and limiting long-standing illness. Causes of death by the end of 2013 were obtained from Statistics Finland ( n = 242) and linked individually to survey data pending consent ( n = 6605). Hazard ratios ( HR) and 95 % confidence intervals ( 95 % CI) were calculated using Cox regression analysis. Results: For all-cause mortality, only MCS showed a weak association before adjustments. For natural mortality, no associations were found. For unnatural mortality ( n = 21), there was a sex adjusted association with GHQ ( HR = 1.96, 95 % CI = 1.45-2.64) and MCS ( 2.30, 95 % CI = 1.72-3.08). Among unnatural causes of death suicidal mortality ( n = 11) was associated with both GHQ ( 2.20, 95 % CI = 1.47-3.29) and MCS ( 2.68, 95 % CI = 1.80-3.99). Of the covariates limiting long-standing illness modestly attenuated the associations. Conclusions: Two established measures of mental symptoms, i.e. GHQ-12 and SF-36 MCS, were both associated with subsequent unnatural, i.e. accidental and violent, as well as suicidal mortality. No associations were found for natural mortality due to diseases. These findings need to be corroborated in further populations. Supporting mental health through workplace measures may help counteract subsequent suicidal and other unnatural mortality among midlife employees.