Browsing by Subject "PROSTATE"

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  • Kokkonen, Kristiina; Tasmuth, Tiina; Lehto, Juho T.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Elme, Anneli; Jaaskelainen, Anna-Stina; Saarto, Tiina (2019)
    Background/Aim: To observe changes in symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) over 7 years among cancer patients at different stages of the disease. Patients and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study at the Helsinki University Hospital Cancer Center, was carried out in 2006 and repeated in 2013. All participants filled in the EORTC-QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Results: Altogether, 581 patients responded (49% in 2006 and 54% in 2013). The disease was local in 51% and advanced in 49% of patients. The HRQoL was significantly lower, except for emotional and cognitive functions, and the symptom burden more severe in advanced cancer. The most prevalent symptoms were fatigue (93% and 85%; moderate/severe 22% and 9%), pain (65% and 47%; moderate/severe 16% and 5%), and insomnia (64% and 60%; moderate/severe 20 and 21%), respectively. No changes in HRQoL or symptoms were found at 7 years. Conclusion: There is a need for early integrated palliative care to improve HRQoL during cancer treatments.
  • Hallamies, Sanna; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Poikonen-Saksela, Paula; Jekunen, Antti; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Auvinen, Paivi; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Mattson, Johanna; Nevanlinna, Heli (2017)
    Background: Several susceptibility genes have been established for female breast cancer, of which mutations in BRCA1 and especially in BRCA2 are also known risk factors for male breast cancer (MBC). The role of other breast cancer genes in MBC is less well understood. Methods: In this study, we have genotyped 68 MBC patients for the known breast or ovarian cancer associated mutations in the Finnish population in CHEK2, PALB2, RAD51C, RAD51D, and FANCM genes. Results: CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation was found in 4 patients (5.9%), which is significantly more frequent than in the control population (OR: 4.47, 95% CI 1.51-13.18, p = 0.019). Four CHEK2 I157T variants were also detected, but the frequency did not significantly differ from population controls (p = 0.781). No RAD51C, RAD51D, PALB2, or FANCM mutations were found. Conclusions: These data suggest that the CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation is associated with an increased risk for MBC in the Finnish population.
  • PRACTICAL Consortium; Bouras, Emmanouil; Karhunen, Ville; Gill, Dipender; Ahola-Olli, Ari; Mannikko, Minna; Auvinen, Juha; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Salomaa, Veikko; Raitakari, Olli; Salmi, Marko; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K. (2022)
    Background Epidemiological and experimental evidence has linked chronic inflammation to cancer aetiology. It is unclear whether associations for specific inflammatory biomarkers are causal or due to bias. In order to examine whether altered genetically predicted concentration of circulating cytokines are associated with cancer development, we performed a two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis. Methods Up to 31,112 individuals of European descent were included in genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses of 47 circulating cytokines. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated with the cytokines, located in or close to their coding gene (cis), were used as instrumental variables. Inverse-variance weighted MR was used as the primary analysis, and the MR assumptions were evaluated in sensitivity and colocalization analyses and a false discovery rate (FDR) correction for multiple comparisons was applied. Corresponding germline GWAS summary data for five cancer outcomes (breast, endometrial, lung, ovarian, and prostate), and their subtypes were selected from the largest cancer-specific GWASs available (cases ranging from 12,906 for endometrial to 133,384 for breast cancer). Results There was evidence of inverse associations of macrophage migration inhibitory factor with breast cancer (OR per SD = 0.88, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.94), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist with endometrial cancer (0.86, 0.80 to 0.93), interleukin-18 with lung cancer (0.87, 0.81 to 0.93), and beta-chemokine-RANTES with ovarian cancer (0.70, 0.57 to 0.85) and positive associations of monokine induced by gamma interferon with endometrial cancer (3.73, 1.86 to 7.47) and cutaneous T-cell attracting chemokine with lung cancer (1.51, 1.22 to 1.87). These associations were similar in sensitivity analyses and supported in colocalization analyses. Conclusions Our study adds to current knowledge on the role of specific inflammatory biomarker pathways in cancer aetiology. Further validation is needed to assess the potential of these cytokines as pharmacological or lifestyle targets for cancer prevention.
  • Roine, Eija; Farkkila, Niilo; Sintonen, Harri; Taari, Kimmo; Roine, Risto P.; Saarto, Tiina (2019)
    Background/Aim: This cross-sectional study estimated direct cancer-related health care, productivity and informal care costs for a six-month period for different states of breast cancer (BC). Patients and Methods: A total of 827 BC patients answered a questionnaire enquiring about informal care, work capacity, and demographic factors. Direct health care resource use and productivity costs were obtained from registries. Mutually exclusive groups were formed based on disease state and time from diagnosis: primary treatment (first six months after diagnosis), rehabilitation (>six months after diagnosis), remission (>1.5 years after diagnosis), and metastatic. Results: Mean total costs were: primary treatment (sic)22,876, rehabilitation (sic)3,456, remission (sic)1,728, and metastatic (sic)24,320. Mean direct health care costs were: primary treatment (sic)11,798, rehabilitation (sic)2,398, remission (sic)1,147, and metastatic (sic)13,923. Mean productivity costs varied between 18-39% and indirect costs (productivity and informal care costs) between 31-48% of the total costs. Conclusion: Direct medical costs were highest, but indirect costs constituted up to half of the total costs and are essential when estimating the total cost burden, as many patients are of working age.
  • Berta, Davide G.; Kuisma, Heli; Välimäki, Niko; Räisänen, Maritta; Jäntti, Maija; Pasanen, Annukka; Karhu, Auli; Kaukomaa, Jaana; Taira, Aurora; Cajuso, Tatiana; Nieminen, Sanna; Penttinen, Rosa-Maria; Ahonen, Saija; Lehtonen, Rainer; Mehine, Miika; Vahteristo, Pia; Jalkanen, Jyrki; Sahu, Biswajyoti; Ravantti, Janne; Mäkinen, Netta; Rajamäki, Kristiina; Palin, Kimmo; Taipale, Jussi; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Bützow, Ralf; Kaasinen, Eevi; Aaltonen, Lauri A. (2021)
    One in four women suffers from uterine leiomyomas (ULs)-benign tumours of the uterine wall, also known as uterine fibroids-at some point in premenopausal life. ULs can cause excessive bleeding, pain and infertility(1), and are a common cause of hysterectomy(2). They emerge through at least three distinct genetic drivers: mutations in MED12 or FH, or genomic rearrangement of HMGA2(3). Here we created genome-wide datasets, using DNA, RNA, assay for transposase-accessible chromatin (ATAC), chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and HiC chromatin immunoprecipitation (HiChIP) sequencing of primary tissues to profoundly understand the genesis of UL. We identified somatic mutations in genes encoding six members of the SRCAP histone-loading complex(4), and found that germline mutations in the SRCAP members YEATS4 and ZNHIT1 predispose women to UL. Tumours bearing these mutations showed defective deposition of the histone variant H2A.Z. In ULs, H2A.Z occupancy correlated positively with chromatin accessibility and gene expression, and negatively with DNA methylation, but these correlations were weak in tumours bearing SRCAP complex mutations. In these tumours, open chromatin emerged at transcription start sites where H2A.Z was lost, which was associated with upregulation of genes. Furthermore, YEATS4 defects were associated with abnormal upregulation of bivalent embryonic stem cell genes, as previously shown in mice(5). Our work describes a potential mechanism of tumorigenesis-epigenetic instability caused by deficient H2A.Z deposition-and suggests that ULs arise through an aberrant differentiation program driven by deranged chromatin, emanating from a small number of mutually exclusive driver mutations.
  • NBCS Collaborators; ABCTB Investigators; Liu, Jingjing; van der Smissen, Wendy J. C. Prager; Collee, J. Margriet; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli (2020)
    In breast cancer, high levels of homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) have been associated with disease progression of ER-positive breast cancer patients and resistance to tamoxifen treatment. Since HOXB13 p.G84E is a prostate cancer risk allele, we evaluated the association between HOXB13 germline mutations and breast cancer risk in a previous study consisting of 3,270 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 2,327 controls from the Netherlands. Although both recurrent HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C were not associated with breast cancer risk, the risk estimation for p.R217C was not very precise. To provide more conclusive evidence regarding the role of HOXB13 in breast cancer susceptibility, we here evaluated the association between HOXB13 mutations and increased breast cancer risk within 81 studies of the international Breast Cancer Association Consortium containing 68,521 invasive breast cancer patients and 54,865 controls. Both HOXB13 p.G84E and p.R217C did not associate with the development of breast cancer in European women, neither in the overall analysis (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = 0.859-1.246, P = 0.718 and OR = 0.798, 95% CI = 0.482-1.322, P = 0.381 respectively), nor in specific high-risk subgroups or breast cancer subtypes. Thus, although involved in breast cancer progression, HOXB13 is not a material breast cancer susceptibility gene.
  • Hollestelle, Antoinette; van der Baan, Frederieke H.; Berchuck, Andrew; Johnatty, Sharon E.; Aben, Katja K.; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Alducci, Elisa; Andrulis, Irene L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Apicella, Carmel; Arndt, Volker; Arnold, Norbert; Arun, Banu K.; Arver, Brita; Ashworth, Alan; Baglietto, Laura; Balleine, Rosemary; Bandera, Elisa V.; Barrowdale, Daniel; Bean, Yukie T.; Beckmann, Lars; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Benitez, Javier; Berger, Andreas; Berger, Raanan; Beuselinck, Benoit; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Bojesen, Anders; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brand, Judith S.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Brinton, Louise; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bruinsma, Fiona; Brunet, Joan; Bruning, Thomas; Butzow, Ralf; Leminen, Arto; Muranen, Taru A.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Ovarian Canc Assoc Consortium; Breast Canc Assoc Consortium; Consortium Modifiers BRCA1 & BRCA2; Australian Ovarian Canc Study Grp; Breast Cancer Family Register; EMBRACE; GEMO Study Collaborators; GENICA Network; HEBON; kConFab Investigators; SWE-BRCA (2016)
    Objective. Clinical genetic testing is commercially available for rs61764370, an inherited variant residing in a KRAS 3' UTR microRNA binding site, based on suggested associations with increased ovarian and breast cancer risk as well as with survival time. However, prior studies, emphasizing particular subgroups, were relatively small. Therefore, we comprehensively evaluated ovarian and breast cancer risks as well as clinical outcome associated with rs61764370. Methods. Centralized genotyping and analysis were performed for 140,012 women enrolled in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (15,357 ovarian cancer patients; 30,816 controls), the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (33,530 breast cancer patients; 37,640 controls), and the Consortium of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (14,765 BRCA1 and 7904 BRCA2 mutation carriers). Results. We found no association with risk of ovarian cancer (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.94-1.04, p = 0.74) or breast cancer (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.94-1.01, p = 0.19) and results were consistent among mutation carriers (BRCA1, ovarian cancer HR = 1.09, 95% CI 0.97-1.23, p = 0.14, breast cancer HR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.97-1.12, p = 0.27; BRCA2, ovarian cancer HR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.71-1.13, p = 034, breast cancer HR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.94-1.19, p = 0.35). Null results were also obtained for associations with overall survival following ovarian cancer (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.83-1.07, p = 0.38), breast cancer (HR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.87-1.06, p = 0.38), and all other previously-reported associations. Conclusions. rs61764370 is not associated with risk of ovarian or breast cancer nor with clinical outcome for patients with these cancers. Therefore, genotyping this variant has no clinical utility related to the prediction or management of these cancers. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Harvey, Chinonye E.; Milne, Roger L.; Pottinger, Camille A.; Vachon, Celine M.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Johansson, Mattias; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Winn, Deborah M. (2018)
    Cohort studies have been central to the establishment of the known causes of cancer. To dissect cancer etiology in more detail-for instance, for personalized risk prediction and prevention, assessment of risks of subtypes of cancer, and assessment of small elevations in risk-there is a need for analyses of far larger cohort datasets than available in individual existing studies. To address these challenges, the NCI Cohort Consortium was founded in 2001. It brings together 58 cancer epidemiology cohorts from 20 countries to undertake large-scale pooling research. The cohorts in aggregate include over nine million study participants, with biospecimens available for about two million of these. Research in the Consortium is undertaken by >40 working groups focused on specific cancer sites, exposures, or other research areas. More than 180 publications have resulted from the Consortium, mainly on genetic and other cancer epidemiology, with high citation rates. This article describes the foundation of the Consortium; its structure, governance, and methods of working; the participating cohorts; publications; and opportunities. The Consortium welcomes newmembers with cancer-oriented cohorts of 10,000 or more participants and an interest in collaborative research. (C) 2018 AACR.