Browsing by Subject "PROTECTION"

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  • Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Schulz, Christina-Alexandra; Waage, Johannes; Skaaby, Tea; Sandholm, Niina; van Zuydam, Natalie; Charmet, Romain; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Almgren, Peter; Thuesen, Betina H.; Bedin, Mathilda; Brandslund, Ivan; Christensen, Cramer K.; Linneberg, Allan; Ahlqvist, Emma; Groop, Per-Henrik; Hadjadj, Samy; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Jorgensen, Marit E.; Grarup, Niels; Pedersen, Oluf; Simons, Matias; Groop, Leif; Orho-Melander, Marju; McCarthy, Mark I.; Melander, Olle; Rossing, Peter; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Hansen, Torben (2019)
    Aims/hypothesisIdentifying rare coding variants associated with albuminuria may open new avenues for preventing chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, which are highly prevalent in individuals with diabetes. Efforts to identify genetic susceptibility variants for albuminuria have so far been limited, with the majority of studies focusing on common variants.MethodsWe performed an exome-wide association study to identify coding variants in a two-stage (discovery and replication) approach. Data from 33,985 individuals of European ancestry (15,872 with and 18,113 without diabetes) and 2605 Greenlanders were included.ResultsWe identified a rare (minor allele frequency [MAF]: 0.8%) missense (A1690V) variant in CUBN (rs141640975, =0.27, p=1.3x10(-11)) associated with albuminuria as a continuous measure in the combined European meta-analysis. The presence of each rare allele of the variant was associated with a 6.4% increase in albuminuria. The rare CUBN variant had an effect that was three times stronger in individuals with type 2 diabetes compared with those without (p(interaction)=7.0x10(-4), with diabetes=0.69, without diabetes=0.20) in the discovery meta-analysis. Gene-aggregate tests based on rare and common variants identified three additional genes associated with albuminuria (HES1, CDC73 and GRM5) after multiple testing correction (p(Bonferroni)
  • Malm, Maria; Hyoty, Heikki; Knip, Mikael; Vesikari, Timo; Blazevic, Vesna (2019)
    Most of the research effort to understand protective immunity against norovirus (NoV) has focused on humoral immunity, whereas immunity against another major pediatric enteric virus, rotavirus (RV), has been studied more thoroughly. The aim of this study was to investigate development of cell-mediated immunity to NoV in early childhood. Immune responses to NoV GI.3 and GII. 4 virus-like particles and RV VP6 were determined in longitudinal blood samples of 10 healthy children from three months to four years of age. Serum IgG antibodies were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and production of interferon-gamma by peripheral blood T cells was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. NoV-specific T cells were detected in eight of 10 children by the age of four, with some individual variation. T cell responses to NoV GII.4 were higher than those to GI.3, but these responses were generally lower than responses to RV VP6. In contrast to NoV-specific antibodies, T cell responses were transient in nature. No correlation between cell-mediated and antibody responses was observed. NoV exposure induces vigorous T cell responses in children under five years of age, similar to RV. A role of T cells in protection from NoV infection in early childhood warrants further investigation.
  • Santangeli, Andrea; Arroyo, Beatriz; Millon, Alexandre; Bretagnolle, Vincent (2015)
    Modern farming practices threaten wildlife in different ways, and failure to identify the complexity of multiple threats acting in synergy may result in ineffective management. To protect ground-nesting birds in farmland, monitoring and mitigating impacts of mechanical harvesting is crucial. Here, we use 6years of data from a nationwide volunteer-based monitoring scheme of the Montagu's harrier, a ground-nesting raptor, in French farmlands. We assess the effectiveness of alternative nest protection measures and map their potential benefit to the species. We show that unprotected nests in cultivated land are strongly negatively affected by harvesting and thus require active management. Further, we show that protection from harvesting alone (e.g. by leaving a small unharvested buffer around the nest) is impaired by post-harvest predation at nests that become highly conspicuous after harvest. Measures that simultaneously protect from harvesting and predation (by adding a fence around the nest) significantly enhance nest productivity. The map of expected gain from nest protection in relation to available volunteers' workforce pinpoints large areas of high expected gain from nest protection that are not matched by equally high workforce availability. This mismatch suggests that the impact of nest protection can be further improved by increasing volunteer efforts in key areas where they are low relative to the expected gain they could have.Synthesis and applications. This study shows that synergistic interplay of multiple factors (e.g. mechanical harvesting and predation) may completely undermine the success of well-intentioned conservation efforts. However, identifying areas where the greatest expected gains can be achieved relative to effort expended can minimize the risk of wasted volunteer actions. Overall, this study underscores the importance of citizen science for collecting large-scale data useful for producing science and ultimately informs large-scale evidence-based conservation actions within an adaptive management framework. This study shows that synergistic interplay of multiple factors (e.g. mechanical harvesting and predation) may completely undermine the success of well-intentioned conservation efforts. However, identifying areas where the greatest expected gains can be achieved relative to effort expended can minimize the risk of wasted volunteer actions. Overall, this study underscores the importance of citizen science for collecting large-scale data useful for producing science and ultimately informs large-scale evidence-based conservation actions within an adaptive management framework.
  • Vesikari, Timo; Virta, Miia; Heinonen, Seppo; Eymin, Cécile; Lavis, Nathalie; Chabanon, Anne Laure; Gresset-Bourgeois, Viviane (2020)
    ABSTRACTVaccination against influenza during pregnancy provides direct protection to pregnant women and indirect protection to their infants. Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV3s) are safe and effective during pregnancy, but quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV4s) have not been evaluated in pregnant women and their infants. Here, we report the results of a randomized phase IV study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of IIV4 vs. IIV3 in pregnant women. Participants aged ≥18 years at weeks 20 to 32 of gestation were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive a single dose of IIV4 (n = 230) or IIV3 (n = 116). Between baseline and 21 days after vaccination, hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody titers increased in both groups by similar magnitudes for the two influenza A strains and single B strain common to IIV4 and IIV3. For the additional B strain in IIV4, HAI titers were higher in IIV4 recipients than IIV3 recipients (post-/pre-vaccination geometric mean titer ratio, 6.3 [95% CI: 5.1 ? 7.7] vs. 3.4 [95% CI: 2.7 ? 4.3]). At delivery, in both groups, HAI antibody titers for all strains were 1.5 ? 1.9-fold higher in umbilical cord blood than in maternal blood, confirming active transplacental antibody transfer. Rates of solicited and unsolicited vaccine-related adverse events in mothers were similar between the two groups. Live births were reported for all participants and there were no vaccine-related adverse events in newborns. These results suggest IIV4 is as safe and immunogenic as IIV3 in pregnant women, and that maternal immunization with IIV4 should protect newborns against influenza via passively acquired antibodies.
  • Fuchs, Siiri-Anna; Sundström, Liselotte; Bos, Nick; Stucki, Dimitri; Freitak, Dalial (2018)
    Parental immune experience can enhance offspring defence mechanisms towards prevalent pathogens in the surrounding environment. This process of inherited resistance from one generation to another is known as trans-generational immune priming (TGIP) in invertebrates. In sedentary and dense insect societies, such as ant colonies, TGIP can influence colony survival and fitness upon pathogen outbreaks. However, TGIP appears to depend on species and environmental stressors and therefore can vary in intensity, as well as in the molecular mechanisms leading to resistance. Here, we stimulated the immune system of queens of the ant Formica fusca (LINNAEUS, 1758) by wounding or injecting dead conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (BALS.-CRIV.) VUILL. (1912). The offspring were subsequently infected with B. bassiana, and the effect of this priming on survival was evaluated. Furthermore, we investigated whether immune challenge of the mother queen induces changes in the expression of immunity-related genes in queens themselves and their brood. We combined this information with measurements of offspring size and number. Larvae produced by untreated queens had a significantly higher mortality after infection with B. bassiana, whereas those produced by immune-primed queens survived no worse than unexposed ones. Adult worker offspring from sham-control mothers showed a protective effect of queen treatment, consistent with transgenerational immune priming. Thus, the effects of queen priming appear to manifest themselves slightly differently in larval and adult offspring. No differences were detected in offspring number or size, but immune gene expression levels showed changes, both in queens and their offspring.
  • Andersen, Heidi; Ilmarinen, Pinja; Honkamäki, Jasmin; Tuomisto, E. Leena; Hisinger-Mölkänen, Hanna; Backman, Helena; Lundbäck, Bo; Rönmark, Eva; Lehtimäki, Lauri; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Piirilä, Päivi; Kankaanranta, Hannu (2021)
    Purpose: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, and factors associated with different asthma phenotypes are poorly understood. Given the higher prevalence of farming exposure and late diagnosis of asthma in more rural Western Finland as compared with the capital of Helsinki, we investigated the relationship between childhood farming environment and age at asthma diagnosis. Methods: A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out with subjects aged 2069 years in Western Finland. The response rate was 52.5%. We included 3864 participants, 416 of whom had physician-diagnosed asthma at a known age and with data on the childhood environment. The main finding was confirmed in a similar sample from Helsinki. Participants were classified as follows with respect to asthma diagnosis: early diagnosis (011 years), intermediate diagnosis (12-39 years), and late diagnosis (40-69 years). Results: The prevalence of asthma was similar both without and with childhood exposure to a farming environment (11.7% vs 11.3%). Allergic rhinitis, family history of asthma, exsmoker, occupational exposure, and BMI >= 30 kg/m(2) were associated with a higher likelihood of asthma. Childhood exposure to a farming environment did not increase the odds of having asthma (aOR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.87-1.40). It did increase the odds of late diagnosis (aOR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.12-4.69), but the odds were lower for early (aOR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.30-0.80) and intermediate diagnosis of asthma (aOR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.47-1.18). Conclusion: Odds were lower for early diagnosis of asthma and higher for late diagnosis of asthma in a childhood farming environment. This suggests a new hypothesis concerning the etiology of asthma when it is diagnosed late.
  • Di Minin, Enrico; Soutullo, Alvaro; Bartesaghi, Lucia; Rios, Mariana; Szephegyi, Maria Nube; Moilanen, Atte (2017)
    Gaps in research exist for country-wide analyses to identify areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services to help reach Aichi Target 11 in developing countries. Here we provide a spatial conservation prioritization approach that ranks landowners for maximizing the representation of biodiversity features and ecosystem services, while exploring the trade-offs with agricultural and commercial forestry production and land cost, using Uruguay as a case study. Specifically, we explored four policy scenarios, ranging from a business as usual scenario where only biodiversity and ecosystem services were included in the analysis to a potentially unsustainable scenario where expansion of alternative land uses and economic development would be given higher priority over biodiversity and ecosystem services. At the 17% land target proposed for conservation, the representation levels for biodiversity and ecosystem services were, on average, higher under the business as usual scenario. However, a small addition to the proposed target (from 17 to 20%) allowed to meet same representation levels for biodiversity and ecosystem services, while decreasing conflict with agricultural and commercial forestry production and opportunity costs to local landowners. Under the unsustainable scenario, a striking 41% addition to the conservation target (from 17 to 58%) was needed to meet same representation levels for threatened ecosystems and ecosystem services, which are crucial to sustain human well-being. Our results highlight that more realistic and potentially higher conservation targets, than politically set targets, can be achieved at the country level when sustainable development needs are also accounted for. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Paloniemi, Riikka; Hujala, Teppo; Rantala, Salla; Harlio, Kirsi Annika; Salomaa, Anna Alina; Primmer, Eeva; Pynnönen, Sari; Arponen, Anni Katri Ilona (2018)
    Improving the effectiveness of voluntary biodiversity policies requires developing trans-disciplinary conservation plans that consider social constraints to achieving ecological objectives. We integrated data on landowners' willingness to participate in voluntary conservation efforts with ecological data on conservation values in a spatial prioritization, and found that doing so considerably reduced the loss in conservation value caused by landowners' reluctance to participate. We learned that conducting prioritization with stakeholder input gained through dialogue during field visits could be beneficial for increasing the legitimacy of conservation plans with stakeholders. Thus, in addition to developing a methodology for using data on stakeholder perceptions of conservation in spatial prioritization, our study suggests that engaging landowners and other stakeholders in the conservation prioritization process will improve the success of conservation plans.
  • Zumbach, Jelena; Brubacher, Sonja P. P.; Davis, Frank; de Ruiter, Corine; Ireland, Jane L. L.; McNamara, Kathleen; October, Martta; Saini, Michael; Volbert, Renate; Laajasalo, Taina (2022)
    Little knowledge exists on how evaluators in child custody and child maltreatment cases are informed by guidelines, the kinds of qualifications required and the types of training provided in different countries. The purpose of this paper is to provide an international preliminary comparison on how child custody and child maltreatment risk assessments are conducted in selected Western countries, and how the assessments are informed by best practice guidelines. Another aim is to increase knowledge on how the guidelines and best-practice standards could be developed further to reflect recent research findings. A total number of 18 guidelines were included in the analyses: four from Canada, five from the United States, three from the United Kingdom, three from the Netherlands, two from Finland, and one from Germany. We conducted a content analysis of the included guidelines in the database, focusing on how the guidelines address the best interest of the child criteria, guidelines for conducting the assessments, considerations for evaluative criteria, and specific guidance for conducting specific assessment procedures (e.g., interviews and observations). Findings show that the qualifications of and training provided to evaluators in child custody and child maltreatment risk evaluations are largely heterogeneous across the countries represented. Guidelines differ in whether and how they highlight the importance of evidence-based practices and scientifically validated assessment measures. Implications are drawn from the review and contextualized by international expert authors in the fields of forensic psychology, and family law. After the content analysis, discussion sessions within the expert group were held. The authors provide both commentaries and suggestions to improve the development of standard methods for conducting both child custody and child maltreatment risk evaluations and to consider a more transparent and judicious use of social science research to guide methods and the recommendations offered within these assessments.
  • Kerchev, Pavel; Waszczak, Cezary; Lewandowska, Aleksandra; Willems, Patrick; Shapiguzov, Alexey; Li, Zhen; Alseekh, Saleh; Muhlenbock, Per; Hoeberichts, Frank A.; Huang, Jingjing; Van der Kelen, Katrien; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Fernie, Alisdair R.; De Smet, Riet; Van de Peer, Yves; Messens, Joris; Van Breusegem, Frank (2016)
    The genes coding for the core metabolic enzymes of the photorespiratory pathway that allows plants with C3-type photosynthesis to survive in an oxygen-rich atmosphere, have been largely discovered in genetic screens aimed to isolate mutants that are unviable under ambient air. As an exception, glycolate oxidase (GOX) mutants with a photorespiratory phenotype have not been described yet in C3 species. Using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants lacking the peroxisomal CATALASE2 (cat2-2) that display stunted growth and cell death lesions under ambient air, we isolated a second-site loss-of-function mutation in GLYCOLATE OXIDASE1 (GOX1) that attenuated the photorespiratory phenotype of cat2-2. Interestingly, knocking out the nearly identical GOX2 in the cat2-2 background did not affect the photorespiratory phenotype, indicating that GOX1 and GOX2 play distinct metabolic roles. We further investigated their individual functions in single gox1-1 and gox2-1 mutants and revealed that their phenotypes can be modulated by environmental conditions that increase the metabolic flux through the photorespiratory pathway. High light negatively affected the photosynthetic performance and growth of both gox1-1 and gox2-1 mutants, but the negative consequences of severe photorespiration were more pronounced in the absence of GOX1, which was accompanied with lesser ability to process glycolate. Taken together, our results point toward divergent functions of the two photorespiratory GOX isoforms in Arabidopsis and contribute to a better understanding of the photorespiratory pathway.
  • Lappi, Pauli (2021)
    The formation and allocation of an emission quota are analyzed in a common agency framework with two stages. First, the principals lobby for the size of the aggregate quota. Second, the principals lobby for the individual slices of the quota. It is shown that the slices are allocated such that the marginal profits of the principals are equalized and that the size of the aggregate quota is either set at the efficient level characterized by the Samuelson's rule for public goods or distorted from that level. When the quota is distorted from the efficient level it is set such that the aggregate marginal profit is less than the marginal damage, resulting in an overallocation of individual and aggregate quotas. However, efficient level of the quota is obtained in a reasonable special case in which countries take the role of the principals. The results are extended to cover tradable emission permits.
  • Duplouy, Anne; Nair, Abhilash; Nyman, Toshka; van Nouhuys, Saskya (2021)
    Population bottlenecks associated with founder events strongly impact the establishment and genetic makeup of populations. In addition to their genotype, founding individuals also bring along symbionts that can manipulate the phenotype of their host, affecting the host population establishment, dynamics and evolution. Thus, to understand introduction, invasion, and spread, we should identify the roles played by accompanying symbionts. In 1991, the parasitoid wasp, Hyposoter horticola, and its associated hyperparasitoid were accidentally introduced from the main Åland islands, Finland, to an isolated island in the archipelago, along with their host, the Glanville fritillary butterfly. Though the receiving island was unoccupied, the butterfly was present on some of the small islands in the vicinity. The three species have persisted as small populations ever since. A strain of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia has an intermediate prevalence in the H. horticola across the main Åland population. The infection increases susceptibility of the parasitoid to hyperparasitism. We investigated the establishment and spread of the parasitoid, along with patterns of prevalence of its symbiont using 323 specimens collected between 1992 and 2013, from five localities across Åland, including the source and introduced populations. Using 14 microsatellites and one mitochondrial marker, we suggest that the relatively diverse founding population and occasional migration between islands might have facilitated the persistence of all isolated populations, despite multiple local population crashes. We also show local near-fixation of Wolbachia, where the hyperparasitoid is absent, and selection against infected wasp genotypes is relaxed.
  • Merimi, I.; Bitari, A.; Kaddouri, Y.; Rezki, N.; Mohamed, M.; Touzani, R.; Hammouti, B. (2022)
    Metal corrosion and the prospects of inhibiting this process have received much interest from society and scientific research. The annual global cost of corrosion is $2.5 trillion, equivalent to roughly 3.4% of the world's gross domestic product. Implementing corrosion prevention best practices could result in global savings of 15-35% of that cost. Numerous studies were documented and dedicated on the triazole nucleus based compounds as fascinating corrosion inhibitors of various metals in hostile media. Their unique electronic structure possessing conjugated pi and unshared pairs of electrons on the nitrogen atoms facilitates their adsorption on metal surfaces. Thus, physical and chemical interactions between the active centers of triazoles and d-orbitals of metallic materials occur to form a film on the surface. The nature of inhibitor activity is disclosed through polarization studies (cathodic, anodic or mixed-type). The range of various substituents on the triazole ring offers a vast array of inhibitory effects. temperature and inhibitor concentration effects must also be regarded when evaluating the corrosion activation and adsorption parameters supported further by the quantum chemical parameters such as DFT and molecular dynamics simulations. In this review, we looked through several instances of the use of distinct substituted triazole nucleus based compounds as significant corrosion inhibitors for different metals in various aggressive media.
  • Sarkanen, Tomi; Alakuijala, Anniina; Julkunen, Ilkka; Partinen, Markku (2018)
    After the connection between AS03-adjuvanted pandemic H1N1 vaccine Pandemrix and narcolepsy was recognized in 2010, research on narcolepsy has been more intensive than ever before. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with current concepts and recent findings on the Pandemrix-associated narcolepsy. After the Pandemrix vaccination campaign in 2009-2010, the risk of narcolepsy was increased 5- to 14-fold in children and adolescents and 2- to 7-fold in adults. According to observational studies, the risk of narcolepsy was elevated for 2 years after the Pandemrix vaccination. Some confounding factors and potential diagnostic biases may influence the observed narcolepsy risk in some studies, but it is unlikely that they would explain the clearly increased incidence in all the countries where Pandemrix was used. An increased risk of narcolepsy after natural H1N1 infection was reported from China, where pandemic influenza vaccination was not used. There is more and more evidence that narcolepsy is an autoimmune disease. All Pandemrix-associated narcolepsy cases have been positive for HLA class II DQB1*06:02 and novel predisposing genetic factors directly linking to the immune system have been identified. Even though recent studies have identified autoantibodies against multiple neuronal structures and other host proteins and peptides, no specific autoantigens that would explain the disease mechanism in narcolepsy have been identified thus far. There was a marked increase in the incidence of narcolepsy after Pandemrix vaccination, especially in adolescents, but also in young adults and younger children. All vaccine-related cases were of narcolepsy type 1 characterized by hypocretin deficiency in the central nervous system. The disease phenotype and the severity of symptoms varied considerably in children and adolescents suffering from Pandemrix-associated narcolepsy, but they were indistinguishable from the symptoms of idiopathic narcolepsy. Narcolepsy type 1 is most likely an autoimmune disease, but the mechanisms have remained elusive.
  • Ollila, Hanna M. (2020)
    Type-1 narcolepsy is a severe neurological disorder with distinct characteristic of loss of hypocretin neurotransmitter. Genetic analysis in type-1 narcolepsy have revealed a unique signal pointing toward autoimmune, rather than psychiatric origin. While type-1 narcolepsy has been intensively studied, the other subtypes of hypersomnolence, narcolepsy, and hypersomnia are less thoroughly understood. This review summarizes the latest breakthroughs in the field in narcolepsy. The goal of this article is to help the reader to understand better the risk from genetic factors and their interplay with immune, genetic, and epidemiological aspects in narcolepsy.
  • Mätlik, Kert; Anttila, Jenni E.; Kuan-Yin, Tseng; Smolander, Olli-Pekka; Pakarinen, Emmi; Lehtonen, Leevi; Abo-Ramadan, Usama; Lindholm, Päivi; Zheng, Congjun; Harvey, Brandon; Arumäe, Urmas; Lindahl, Maria; Airavaara, Mikko (2018)
    Stroke is the most common cause of adult disability in developed countries, largely because spontaneous recovery is often incomplete, and no pharmacological means to hasten the recovery exist. It was recently shown that mesencephalic astrocyte–derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) induces alternative or M2 activation of immune cells after retinal damage in both fruit fly and mouse and mediates retinal repair. Therefore, we set out to study whether poststroke MANF administration would enhance brain tissue repair and affect behavioral recovery of rats after cerebral ischemic injury. We used the distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAo) model of ischemia-reperfusion injury and administered MANF either as a recombinant protein or via adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector. We discovered that, when MANF was administered to the peri-infarct region 2 or 3 days after stroke, it promoted functional recovery of the animals without affecting the lesion volume. Further, AAV7-MANF treatment transiently increased the number of phagocytic macrophages in the subcortical peri-infarct regions. In addition, the analysis of knockout mice revealed the neuroprotective effects of endogenous MANF against ischemic injury, although endogenous MANF had no effect on immune cell–related gene expression. The beneficial effect of MANF treatment on the reversal of stroke-induced behavioral deficits implies that MANF-based therapies could be used for the repair of brain tissue after stroke.
  • Pekkarinen, Antti; Siiskonen, Teemu; Lehtinen, Maaret; Savolainen, Sauli; Kortesniemi, Mika (2019)
    Background Radiation worker categorization and exposure monitoring practices must be proportional to the current working environment. Purpose To analyze exposure data of Finnish radiological workers and to estimate the magnitude and frequency of their potential occupational radiation exposure, and to propose appropriate radiation worker categorization. Material and Methods Estimates of the probabilities of annual effective doses exceeding certain levels were obtained by calculating the survival function of a lognormal probability density function (PDF) fitted in the measured occupational exposure data. Results The estimated probabilities of exceeding annual effective dose limits of 1 mSv, 6 mSv, and 20 mSv were in the order of 1:200, 1:10,000, and 1:500,000 per person, respectively. Conclusion It is very unlikely that the Category B annual effective dose limit of 6 mSv could even potentially be exceeded using modern equipment and appropriate working methods. Therefore, in terms of estimated effective dose, workers in diagnostic and interventional radiology could be placed into Category B in Finland. Current national personal monitoring practice could be replaced or supplemented using active personal dosimeters, which offer more effective means for optimizing working methods.
  • Mero, Sointu; Timonen, Suvi; Lääveri, Tinja; Lofberg, Sandra; Kirveskari, Juha; Ursing, Johan; Rombo, Lars; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Kantele, Anu (2021)
    Background Childhood diarrhoea, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low-income regions, remains scarcely studied in many countries, such as Guinea-Bissau. Stool sample drying enables later qPCR analyses of pathogens without concern about electricity shortages. Methods Dried stool samples of children under five years treated at the Bandim Health Centre in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau were screened by qPCR for nine enteric bacteria, five viruses, and four parasites. The findings of children having and not having diarrhoea were compared in age groups 0-11 and 12-59 months. Results Of the 429 children- 228 with and 201 without diarrhoea- 96.9% and 93.5% had bacterial, 62.7% and 44.3% viral, and 52.6% and 48.3% parasitic pathogen findings, respectively. Enteroaggregarive Escherichia coli (EAEC; 60.5% versus 66.7%), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC; 61.4% versus 62.7%), Campylobacter (53.2% versus 51.8%), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC; 54.4% versus 44.3%) were the most common bacterial pathogens. Diarrhoea was associated with enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC)/Shigella (63.3%), astrovirus (75.0%), norovirus GII (72.6%) and Cryptosporidium (71.2%). The only pathogen associated with severe diarrhoea was EIEC/Shigella (p Conclusions Stool pathogens proved common among all the children regardless of them having diarrhoea or not. Author summary Diarrhoeal diseases rank second as cause of childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries, yet prospective cohort studies in children with and without diarrhea covering the large variety of diarrhoeal pathogens are limited. While some studies have been conducted among Guinea-Bissauan children, many of them were from the 1990s, when the coverage of the various pathogens was less extensive and the diagnostic methods less sensitive than the modern qPCR methods. We conducted an observational study with a large cohort and covered concomitantly the various bacterial, viral and parasitic agents, and analyzed their associations with the presence/absence of diarrhoeal symptoms and age groups. Importantly, the assay performed well with dried stool samples and, therefore, appears applicable for epidemiological studies in resource-poor regions. A pathogen finding was recorded for almost all (98%) children: bacteria in 97%, viruses in 59% and parasites in 51%. Ongoing diarrhoea was associated with findings of enteroninvasive Escherichia coli/Shigella, astrovirus, norovirus GII and Cryptosporidium. Differences were seen between age groups, infants and young children. The only pathogen associated with severe diarrhoea was enteroninvasive Escherichia coli/Shigella.
  • O'Flynn, Joseph; Kotimaa, Juha; Faber-Krol, Ria; Koekkoek, Karin; Klar-Mohamad, Ngaisah; Koudijs, Angela; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J.; Stover, Cordula; Daha, Mohamed R.; van Kooten, Cees (2018)
    Properdin is the only known positive regulator of complement activation by stabilizing the alternative pathway convertase through C3 binding, thus prolonging its half-life. Recent in vitro studies suggest that properdin may act as a specific pattern recognition molecule. To better understand the role of properdin in vivo, we used an experimental model of acute anti-glomerular basement membrane disease with wild-type, C3-and properdin knockout mice. The model exhibited severe proteinuria, acute neutrophil infiltration and activation, classical and alternative pathway activation, and progressive glomerular deposition of properdin, C3 and C9. Although the acute renal injury was likely due to acute neutrophil activation, we found properdin deposition in C3-knockout mice that was not associated with IgG. Thus, properdin may deposit in injured tissues in vivo independent of its main ligand C3.
  • Santos, Juan Serna; Uusi-Simola, Jouni; Kaasalainen, Touko; Aho, Pekka; Venermo, Maarit (2020)
    Objective: To quantify the effects of different imaging settings on radiation exposure to the operator and surgical team in a hybrid operating room (OR). Methods: Measurements to determine scatter radiation in different imaging and geometry settings using an anthropomorphic phantom were performed in a hybrid OR equipped with a robotic C arm interventional angiography system (Artis Zeego; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). The radiation dose (RD) was measured with seven calibrated Philips DoseAware active electronic dosimeters and a Raysafe Xi survey detector, which were placed at different locations in the hybrid OR. The evaluated set ups included low dose, medium dose, and high dose fluoroscopy for abdomen; fluoroscopy fade; roadmap; and digital subtraction angiography (DSA), all using 20 s exposures. The effect of magnification, tube angulation, field size, source to skin distance, and RADPAD protection shields were assessed. Finally RD during cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was obtained. Results: In the operator position the initial settings with low dose fluoroscopy caused a RD of 1.03 mu Gy. The use of fluorofade did not increase the radiation dose (1.02 mu Gy), whereas the roadmap increased it threefold (2.84 mu Gy). The RD with "normal fluoro" was 4.13 mu Gy and increased to 6.44 mu Gy when high dose fluoroscopy mode was used. Magnification or field size varying from 42 cm to 11 cm led the RD to change from 0.86 mu Gy to 2.10 mu Gy. Decreasing the field of view to 25% of the initial size halved the RD (0.48 mu Gy). The RDs for the left anterior oblique 30 degrees and right anterior oblique 30 degrees were 3.26 mu Gy and 1.63 mu Gy, respectively. DSA increased the cumulative dose 33 fold but the RADPAD shield decreased the DSA RD to 4.92 mu Gy. The RD for CBCT was 47.2 mu Gy. Conclusion: Radiation exposure to operator and personnel can be significantly reduced during hybrid procedures with proper radiation protection and dose optimisation. A set of six behavioural rules were established.