Browsing by Subject "PROTECTION"

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  • Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Schulz, Christina-Alexandra; Waage, Johannes; Skaaby, Tea; Sandholm, Niina; van Zuydam, Natalie; Charmet, Romain; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Almgren, Peter; Thuesen, Betina H.; Bedin, Mathilda; Brandslund, Ivan; Christensen, Cramer K.; Linneberg, Allan; Ahlqvist, Emma; Groop, Per-Henrik; Hadjadj, Samy; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Jorgensen, Marit E.; Grarup, Niels; Pedersen, Oluf; Simons, Matias; Groop, Leif; Orho-Melander, Marju; McCarthy, Mark I.; Melander, Olle; Rossing, Peter; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Hansen, Torben (2019)
    Aims/hypothesisIdentifying rare coding variants associated with albuminuria may open new avenues for preventing chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, which are highly prevalent in individuals with diabetes. Efforts to identify genetic susceptibility variants for albuminuria have so far been limited, with the majority of studies focusing on common variants.MethodsWe performed an exome-wide association study to identify coding variants in a two-stage (discovery and replication) approach. Data from 33,985 individuals of European ancestry (15,872 with and 18,113 without diabetes) and 2605 Greenlanders were included.ResultsWe identified a rare (minor allele frequency [MAF]: 0.8%) missense (A1690V) variant in CUBN (rs141640975, =0.27, p=1.3x10(-11)) associated with albuminuria as a continuous measure in the combined European meta-analysis. The presence of each rare allele of the variant was associated with a 6.4% increase in albuminuria. The rare CUBN variant had an effect that was three times stronger in individuals with type 2 diabetes compared with those without (p(interaction)=7.0x10(-4), with diabetes=0.69, without diabetes=0.20) in the discovery meta-analysis. Gene-aggregate tests based on rare and common variants identified three additional genes associated with albuminuria (HES1, CDC73 and GRM5) after multiple testing correction (p(Bonferroni)
  • Malm, Maria; Hyoty, Heikki; Knip, Mikael; Vesikari, Timo; Blazevic, Vesna (2019)
    Most of the research effort to understand protective immunity against norovirus (NoV) has focused on humoral immunity, whereas immunity against another major pediatric enteric virus, rotavirus (RV), has been studied more thoroughly. The aim of this study was to investigate development of cell-mediated immunity to NoV in early childhood. Immune responses to NoV GI.3 and GII. 4 virus-like particles and RV VP6 were determined in longitudinal blood samples of 10 healthy children from three months to four years of age. Serum IgG antibodies were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and production of interferon-gamma by peripheral blood T cells was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. NoV-specific T cells were detected in eight of 10 children by the age of four, with some individual variation. T cell responses to NoV GII.4 were higher than those to GI.3, but these responses were generally lower than responses to RV VP6. In contrast to NoV-specific antibodies, T cell responses were transient in nature. No correlation between cell-mediated and antibody responses was observed. NoV exposure induces vigorous T cell responses in children under five years of age, similar to RV. A role of T cells in protection from NoV infection in early childhood warrants further investigation.
  • Santangeli, Andrea; Arroyo, Beatriz; Millon, Alexandre; Bretagnolle, Vincent (2015)
    Modern farming practices threaten wildlife in different ways, and failure to identify the complexity of multiple threats acting in synergy may result in ineffective management. To protect ground-nesting birds in farmland, monitoring and mitigating impacts of mechanical harvesting is crucial. Here, we use 6years of data from a nationwide volunteer-based monitoring scheme of the Montagu's harrier, a ground-nesting raptor, in French farmlands. We assess the effectiveness of alternative nest protection measures and map their potential benefit to the species. We show that unprotected nests in cultivated land are strongly negatively affected by harvesting and thus require active management. Further, we show that protection from harvesting alone (e.g. by leaving a small unharvested buffer around the nest) is impaired by post-harvest predation at nests that become highly conspicuous after harvest. Measures that simultaneously protect from harvesting and predation (by adding a fence around the nest) significantly enhance nest productivity. The map of expected gain from nest protection in relation to available volunteers' workforce pinpoints large areas of high expected gain from nest protection that are not matched by equally high workforce availability. This mismatch suggests that the impact of nest protection can be further improved by increasing volunteer efforts in key areas where they are low relative to the expected gain they could have.Synthesis and applications. This study shows that synergistic interplay of multiple factors (e.g. mechanical harvesting and predation) may completely undermine the success of well-intentioned conservation efforts. However, identifying areas where the greatest expected gains can be achieved relative to effort expended can minimize the risk of wasted volunteer actions. Overall, this study underscores the importance of citizen science for collecting large-scale data useful for producing science and ultimately informs large-scale evidence-based conservation actions within an adaptive management framework. This study shows that synergistic interplay of multiple factors (e.g. mechanical harvesting and predation) may completely undermine the success of well-intentioned conservation efforts. However, identifying areas where the greatest expected gains can be achieved relative to effort expended can minimize the risk of wasted volunteer actions. Overall, this study underscores the importance of citizen science for collecting large-scale data useful for producing science and ultimately informs large-scale evidence-based conservation actions within an adaptive management framework.
  • Vesikari, Timo; Virta, Miia; Heinonen, Seppo; Eymin, Cécile; Lavis, Nathalie; Chabanon, Anne Laure; Gresset-Bourgeois, Viviane (2019)
    ABSTRACTVaccination against influenza during pregnancy provides direct protection to pregnant women and indirect protection to their infants. Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV3s) are safe and effective during pregnancy, but quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV4s) have not been evaluated in pregnant women and their infants. Here, we report the results of a randomized phase IV study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of IIV4 vs. IIV3 in pregnant women. Participants aged ≥18 years at weeks 20 to 32 of gestation were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive a single dose of IIV4 (n = 230) or IIV3 (n = 116). Between baseline and 21 days after vaccination, hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody titers increased in both groups by similar magnitudes for the two influenza A strains and single B strain common to IIV4 and IIV3. For the additional B strain in IIV4, HAI titers were higher in IIV4 recipients than IIV3 recipients (post-/pre-vaccination geometric mean titer ratio, 6.3 [95% CI: 5.1 ? 7.7] vs. 3.4 [95% CI: 2.7 ? 4.3]). At delivery, in both groups, HAI antibody titers for all strains were 1.5 ? 1.9-fold higher in umbilical cord blood than in maternal blood, confirming active transplacental antibody transfer. Rates of solicited and unsolicited vaccine-related adverse events in mothers were similar between the two groups. Live births were reported for all participants and there were no vaccine-related adverse events in newborns. These results suggest IIV4 is as safe and immunogenic as IIV3 in pregnant women, and that maternal immunization with IIV4 should protect newborns against influenza via passively acquired antibodies.
  • Fuchs, Siiri-Anna; Sundström, Liselotte; Bos, Nick; Stucki, Dimitri; Freitak, Dalial (2018)
    Parental immune experience can enhance offspring defence mechanisms towards prevalent pathogens in the surrounding environment. This process of inherited resistance from one generation to another is known as trans-generational immune priming (TGIP) in invertebrates. In sedentary and dense insect societies, such as ant colonies, TGIP can influence colony survival and fitness upon pathogen outbreaks. However, TGIP appears to depend on species and environmental stressors and therefore can vary in intensity, as well as in the molecular mechanisms leading to resistance. Here, we stimulated the immune system of queens of the ant Formica fusca (LINNAEUS, 1758) by wounding or injecting dead conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (BALS.-CRIV.) VUILL. (1912). The offspring were subsequently infected with B. bassiana, and the effect of this priming on survival was evaluated. Furthermore, we investigated whether immune challenge of the mother queen induces changes in the expression of immunity-related genes in queens themselves and their brood. We combined this information with measurements of offspring size and number. Larvae produced by untreated queens had a significantly higher mortality after infection with B. bassiana, whereas those produced by immune-primed queens survived no worse than unexposed ones. Adult worker offspring from sham-control mothers showed a protective effect of queen treatment, consistent with transgenerational immune priming. Thus, the effects of queen priming appear to manifest themselves slightly differently in larval and adult offspring. No differences were detected in offspring number or size, but immune gene expression levels showed changes, both in queens and their offspring.
  • Di Minin, Enrico; Soutullo, Alvaro; Bartesaghi, Lucia; Rios, Mariana; Szephegyi, Maria Nube; Moilanen, Atte (2017)
    Gaps in research exist for country-wide analyses to identify areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services to help reach Aichi Target 11 in developing countries. Here we provide a spatial conservation prioritization approach that ranks landowners for maximizing the representation of biodiversity features and ecosystem services, while exploring the trade-offs with agricultural and commercial forestry production and land cost, using Uruguay as a case study. Specifically, we explored four policy scenarios, ranging from a business as usual scenario where only biodiversity and ecosystem services were included in the analysis to a potentially unsustainable scenario where expansion of alternative land uses and economic development would be given higher priority over biodiversity and ecosystem services. At the 17% land target proposed for conservation, the representation levels for biodiversity and ecosystem services were, on average, higher under the business as usual scenario. However, a small addition to the proposed target (from 17 to 20%) allowed to meet same representation levels for biodiversity and ecosystem services, while decreasing conflict with agricultural and commercial forestry production and opportunity costs to local landowners. Under the unsustainable scenario, a striking 41% addition to the conservation target (from 17 to 58%) was needed to meet same representation levels for threatened ecosystems and ecosystem services, which are crucial to sustain human well-being. Our results highlight that more realistic and potentially higher conservation targets, than politically set targets, can be achieved at the country level when sustainable development needs are also accounted for. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Paloniemi, Riikka; Hujala, Teppo; Rantala, Salla; Harlio, Kirsi Annika; Salomaa, Anna Alina; Primmer, Eeva; Pynnönen, Sari; Arponen, Anni Katri Ilona (2018)
    Improving the effectiveness of voluntary biodiversity policies requires developing trans-disciplinary conservation plans that consider social constraints to achieving ecological objectives. We integrated data on landowners' willingness to participate in voluntary conservation efforts with ecological data on conservation values in a spatial prioritization, and found that doing so considerably reduced the loss in conservation value caused by landowners' reluctance to participate. We learned that conducting prioritization with stakeholder input gained through dialogue during field visits could be beneficial for increasing the legitimacy of conservation plans with stakeholders. Thus, in addition to developing a methodology for using data on stakeholder perceptions of conservation in spatial prioritization, our study suggests that engaging landowners and other stakeholders in the conservation prioritization process will improve the success of conservation plans.
  • Kerchev, Pavel; Waszczak, Cezary; Lewandowska, Aleksandra; Willems, Patrick; Shapiguzov, Alexey; Li, Zhen; Alseekh, Saleh; Muhlenbock, Per; Hoeberichts, Frank A.; Huang, Jingjing; Van der Kelen, Katrien; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Fernie, Alisdair R.; De Smet, Riet; Van de Peer, Yves; Messens, Joris; Van Breusegem, Frank (2016)
    The genes coding for the core metabolic enzymes of the photorespiratory pathway that allows plants with C3-type photosynthesis to survive in an oxygen-rich atmosphere, have been largely discovered in genetic screens aimed to isolate mutants that are unviable under ambient air. As an exception, glycolate oxidase (GOX) mutants with a photorespiratory phenotype have not been described yet in C3 species. Using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants lacking the peroxisomal CATALASE2 (cat2-2) that display stunted growth and cell death lesions under ambient air, we isolated a second-site loss-of-function mutation in GLYCOLATE OXIDASE1 (GOX1) that attenuated the photorespiratory phenotype of cat2-2. Interestingly, knocking out the nearly identical GOX2 in the cat2-2 background did not affect the photorespiratory phenotype, indicating that GOX1 and GOX2 play distinct metabolic roles. We further investigated their individual functions in single gox1-1 and gox2-1 mutants and revealed that their phenotypes can be modulated by environmental conditions that increase the metabolic flux through the photorespiratory pathway. High light negatively affected the photosynthetic performance and growth of both gox1-1 and gox2-1 mutants, but the negative consequences of severe photorespiration were more pronounced in the absence of GOX1, which was accompanied with lesser ability to process glycolate. Taken together, our results point toward divergent functions of the two photorespiratory GOX isoforms in Arabidopsis and contribute to a better understanding of the photorespiratory pathway.
  • Duplouy, Anne; Nair, Abhilash; Nyman, Toshka; van Nouhuys, Saskya (2021)
    Population bottlenecks associated with founder events strongly impact the establishment and genetic makeup of populations. In addition to their genotype, founding individuals also bring along parasites, as well as symbionts that can manipulate the phenotype of their host, affecting the host population establishment, dynamics and evolution. Thus, to understand introduction, invasion, and spread, we should identify the roles played by accompanying symbionts. In 1991, the parasitoid wasp, Hyposoter horticola, and its associated hyperparasitoid were accidentally introduced from the main angstrom land islands, Finland, to an isolated island in the archipelago, along with their host, the Glanville fritillary butterfly. Though the receiving island was unoccupied, the butterfly was present on some of the small islands in the vicinity. The three introduced species have persisted locally ever since. A strain of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia has an intermediate prevalence in the parasitoid H. horticola across the main angstrom land population. The infection increases its susceptibility of to hyperparasitism. We investigated the establishment and spread of the parasitoid, along with patterns of prevalence of its symbiont using 323 specimens collected between 1992 and 2013, from five localities across angstrom land, including the source and introduced populations. Using 14 microsatellites and one mitochondrial marker, we suggest that the relatively diverse founding population and occasional migration between islands might have facilitated the persistence of all isolated populations, despite multiple local population crashes. We also show that where the hyperparasitoid is absent, and thus selection against infected wasp genotypes is relaxed, there is near-fixation of Wolbachia.
  • Sarkanen, Tomi; Alakuijala, Anniina; Julkunen, Ilkka; Partinen, Markku (2018)
    After the connection between AS03-adjuvanted pandemic H1N1 vaccine Pandemrix and narcolepsy was recognized in 2010, research on narcolepsy has been more intensive than ever before. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with current concepts and recent findings on the Pandemrix-associated narcolepsy. After the Pandemrix vaccination campaign in 2009-2010, the risk of narcolepsy was increased 5- to 14-fold in children and adolescents and 2- to 7-fold in adults. According to observational studies, the risk of narcolepsy was elevated for 2 years after the Pandemrix vaccination. Some confounding factors and potential diagnostic biases may influence the observed narcolepsy risk in some studies, but it is unlikely that they would explain the clearly increased incidence in all the countries where Pandemrix was used. An increased risk of narcolepsy after natural H1N1 infection was reported from China, where pandemic influenza vaccination was not used. There is more and more evidence that narcolepsy is an autoimmune disease. All Pandemrix-associated narcolepsy cases have been positive for HLA class II DQB1*06:02 and novel predisposing genetic factors directly linking to the immune system have been identified. Even though recent studies have identified autoantibodies against multiple neuronal structures and other host proteins and peptides, no specific autoantigens that would explain the disease mechanism in narcolepsy have been identified thus far. There was a marked increase in the incidence of narcolepsy after Pandemrix vaccination, especially in adolescents, but also in young adults and younger children. All vaccine-related cases were of narcolepsy type 1 characterized by hypocretin deficiency in the central nervous system. The disease phenotype and the severity of symptoms varied considerably in children and adolescents suffering from Pandemrix-associated narcolepsy, but they were indistinguishable from the symptoms of idiopathic narcolepsy. Narcolepsy type 1 is most likely an autoimmune disease, but the mechanisms have remained elusive.
  • Ollila, Hanna M. (2020)
    Type-1 narcolepsy is a severe neurological disorder with distinct characteristic of loss of hypocretin neurotransmitter. Genetic analysis in type-1 narcolepsy have revealed a unique signal pointing toward autoimmune, rather than psychiatric origin. While type-1 narcolepsy has been intensively studied, the other subtypes of hypersomnolence, narcolepsy, and hypersomnia are less thoroughly understood. This review summarizes the latest breakthroughs in the field in narcolepsy. The goal of this article is to help the reader to understand better the risk from genetic factors and their interplay with immune, genetic, and epidemiological aspects in narcolepsy.
  • Mätlik, Kert; Anttila, Jenni E.; Kuan-Yin, Tseng; Smolander, Olli-Pekka; Pakarinen, Emmi; Lehtonen, Leevi; Abo-Ramadan, Usama; Lindholm, Päivi; Zheng, Congjun; Harvey, Brandon; Arumäe, Urmas; Lindahl, Maria; Airavaara, Mikko (2018)
    Stroke is the most common cause of adult disability in developed countries, largely because spontaneous recovery is often incomplete, and no pharmacological means to hasten the recovery exist. It was recently shown that mesencephalic astrocyte–derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) induces alternative or M2 activation of immune cells after retinal damage in both fruit fly and mouse and mediates retinal repair. Therefore, we set out to study whether poststroke MANF administration would enhance brain tissue repair and affect behavioral recovery of rats after cerebral ischemic injury. We used the distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAo) model of ischemia-reperfusion injury and administered MANF either as a recombinant protein or via adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector. We discovered that, when MANF was administered to the peri-infarct region 2 or 3 days after stroke, it promoted functional recovery of the animals without affecting the lesion volume. Further, AAV7-MANF treatment transiently increased the number of phagocytic macrophages in the subcortical peri-infarct regions. In addition, the analysis of knockout mice revealed the neuroprotective effects of endogenous MANF against ischemic injury, although endogenous MANF had no effect on immune cell–related gene expression. The beneficial effect of MANF treatment on the reversal of stroke-induced behavioral deficits implies that MANF-based therapies could be used for the repair of brain tissue after stroke.
  • Pekkarinen, Antti; Siiskonen, Teemu; Lehtinen, Maaret; Savolainen, Sauli; Kortesniemi, Mika (2019)
    Background Radiation worker categorization and exposure monitoring practices must be proportional to the current working environment. Purpose To analyze exposure data of Finnish radiological workers and to estimate the magnitude and frequency of their potential occupational radiation exposure, and to propose appropriate radiation worker categorization. Material and Methods Estimates of the probabilities of annual effective doses exceeding certain levels were obtained by calculating the survival function of a lognormal probability density function (PDF) fitted in the measured occupational exposure data. Results The estimated probabilities of exceeding annual effective dose limits of 1 mSv, 6 mSv, and 20 mSv were in the order of 1:200, 1:10,000, and 1:500,000 per person, respectively. Conclusion It is very unlikely that the Category B annual effective dose limit of 6 mSv could even potentially be exceeded using modern equipment and appropriate working methods. Therefore, in terms of estimated effective dose, workers in diagnostic and interventional radiology could be placed into Category B in Finland. Current national personal monitoring practice could be replaced or supplemented using active personal dosimeters, which offer more effective means for optimizing working methods.
  • O'Flynn, Joseph; Kotimaa, Juha; Faber-Krol, Ria; Koekkoek, Karin; Klar-Mohamad, Ngaisah; Koudijs, Angela; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J.; Stover, Cordula; Daha, Mohamed R.; van Kooten, Cees (2018)
    Properdin is the only known positive regulator of complement activation by stabilizing the alternative pathway convertase through C3 binding, thus prolonging its half-life. Recent in vitro studies suggest that properdin may act as a specific pattern recognition molecule. To better understand the role of properdin in vivo, we used an experimental model of acute anti-glomerular basement membrane disease with wild-type, C3-and properdin knockout mice. The model exhibited severe proteinuria, acute neutrophil infiltration and activation, classical and alternative pathway activation, and progressive glomerular deposition of properdin, C3 and C9. Although the acute renal injury was likely due to acute neutrophil activation, we found properdin deposition in C3-knockout mice that was not associated with IgG. Thus, properdin may deposit in injured tissues in vivo independent of its main ligand C3.
  • Santos, Juan Serna; Uusi-Simola, Jouni; Kaasalainen, Touko; Aho, Pekka; Venermo, Maarit (2020)
    Objective: To quantify the effects of different imaging settings on radiation exposure to the operator and surgical team in a hybrid operating room (OR). Methods: Measurements to determine scatter radiation in different imaging and geometry settings using an anthropomorphic phantom were performed in a hybrid OR equipped with a robotic C arm interventional angiography system (Artis Zeego; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). The radiation dose (RD) was measured with seven calibrated Philips DoseAware active electronic dosimeters and a Raysafe Xi survey detector, which were placed at different locations in the hybrid OR. The evaluated set ups included low dose, medium dose, and high dose fluoroscopy for abdomen; fluoroscopy fade; roadmap; and digital subtraction angiography (DSA), all using 20 s exposures. The effect of magnification, tube angulation, field size, source to skin distance, and RADPAD protection shields were assessed. Finally RD during cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was obtained. Results: In the operator position the initial settings with low dose fluoroscopy caused a RD of 1.03 mu Gy. The use of fluorofade did not increase the radiation dose (1.02 mu Gy), whereas the roadmap increased it threefold (2.84 mu Gy). The RD with "normal fluoro" was 4.13 mu Gy and increased to 6.44 mu Gy when high dose fluoroscopy mode was used. Magnification or field size varying from 42 cm to 11 cm led the RD to change from 0.86 mu Gy to 2.10 mu Gy. Decreasing the field of view to 25% of the initial size halved the RD (0.48 mu Gy). The RDs for the left anterior oblique 30 degrees and right anterior oblique 30 degrees were 3.26 mu Gy and 1.63 mu Gy, respectively. DSA increased the cumulative dose 33 fold but the RADPAD shield decreased the DSA RD to 4.92 mu Gy. The RD for CBCT was 47.2 mu Gy. Conclusion: Radiation exposure to operator and personnel can be significantly reduced during hybrid procedures with proper radiation protection and dose optimisation. A set of six behavioural rules were established.
  • Lilley, Thomas M.; Prokkola, Jenni M.; Blomberg, Anna S.; Paterson, Steve; Johnson, Joseph S.; Turner, Gregory G.; Bartonička, Tomáš; Bachorec, Erik; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Field, Kenneth A. (2019)
    Resistance and tolerance allow organisms to cope with potentially life-threatening pathogens. Recently introduced pathogens initially induce resistance responses, but natural selection favors the development of tolerance, allowing for a commensal relationship to evolve. Mycosis by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, causing white-nose syndrome (WNS) in Nearctic hibernating bats, has resulted in population declines since 2006. The pathogen, which spread from Europe, has infected species of Palearctic Myotis for a longer period. We compared ecologically relevant responses to the fungal infection in the susceptible Nearctic M. lucifugus and less susceptible Palearctic M. myotis, to uncover factors contributing to survival differences in the two species. Samples were collected from euthermic bats during arousal from hibernation, a naturally occurring phenomenon, during which transcriptional responses are activated. We compared the whole-transcriptome responses in wild bats infected with P. destructans hibernating in their natural habitat. Our results show dramatically different local transcriptional responses to the pathogen between uninfected and infected samples from the two species. Whereas we found 1526 significantly upregulated or downregulated transcripts in infected M. lucifugus, only one transcript was downregulated in M. myotis. The upregulated response pathways in M. lucifugus include immune cell activation and migration, and inflammatory pathways, indicative of an unsuccessful attempt to resist the infection. In contrast, M. myotis appears to tolerate P. destructans infection by not activating a transcriptional response. These host-microbe interactions determine pathology, contributing to WNS susceptibility, or commensalism, promoting tolerance to fungal colonization during hibernation that favors survival.
  • Bhattarai, Niina; Korhonen, Eveliina; Toppila, Maija; Koskela, Ali; Kaarniranta, Kai; Mysore, Yashavanthi; Kauppinen, Anu (2020)
    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells maintain homeostasis at the retina and they are under continuous oxidative stress. Cigarette smoke is a prominent environmental risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which further increases the oxidant load in retinal tissues. In this study, we measured oxidative stress and inflammatory markers upon cigarette smoke-derived hydroquinone exposure on human ARPE-19 cells. In addition, we studied the effects of commercial Resvega product on hydroquinone-induced oxidative stress. Previously, it was observed that Resvega induces autophagy during impaired protein clearance in ARPE-19 cells, for which it has the potential to alleviate pro-inflammatory pathways. Cell viability was determined while using the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, and the cytokine levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were measured using the 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (H2DCFDA) probe. Hydroquinone compromised the cell viability and increased ROS production in ARPE-19 cells. Resvega significantly improved cell viability upon hydroquinone exposure and reduced the release of interleukin (IL)-8 and monocytic chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 from RPE cells. Resvega, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (APDC) alleviated hydroquinone-induced ROS production in RPE cells. Collectively, our results indicate that hydroquinone induces cytotoxicity and increases oxidative stress through NADPH oxidase activity in RPE cells, and resveratrol-containing Resvega products prevent those adverse effects.
  • Salomaa, Anna; Paloniemi, Riikka; Ekroos, Ari (2018)
    Peatlands that are close to a natural state are rich in biodiversity and are significant carbon storages. Simultaneously, peat resources are of interest to industry, which leads to competing interests and tensions regarding the use and management of peatlands. In this case study, we studied knowledge-management interactions through the development of participation and the resulting representation of nature (how nature was described), as well as the proposed and implemented conservation policy instruments. We focused on the years 2009-2015, when peatland management was intensively debated in Finland. We did an interpretative policy analysis using policy documents (Peatland Strategy; Government Resolution; Proposal for Conservation Programme) and environmental legislation as central data. Our results show how the representation of nature reflected the purpose of the documents and consensus of participants' values. The representation of nature changed from skewed use of ecosystem services to detailed ecological knowledge. However, simultaneously, political power changed and the planned supplementation programme for peatland conservation was not implemented. The Environment Protection Act was reformulated so that it prohibited the use of the most valuable peatlands. Landowners did not have the chance to fully participate in the policy process. Overall, the conservation policy instruments changed to emphasize voluntariness but without an adequate budget to ensure sufficient conservation.
  • Garmestani, Ahjond; Craig, Robin K.; Gilissen, Herman Kasper; McDonald, Jan; Soininen, Niko; van Doorn-Hoekveld, Willemijn; van Rijswick, Helena F. M. W. (2019)
    Around the globe, coastal communities are increasingly coping with changing environmental conditions as a result of climate change and ocean acidification, including sea level rise, more severe storms, and decreasing natural resources and ecosystem services. A natural adaptation response is to engineer the coast in a perilous and often doomed attempt to preserve the status quo. In the long term, however, most coastal nations will need to transition to approaches based on ecological resilience—that is, to coastal zone management that allows coastal communities to absorb and adapt to change rather than to resist it—and the law will be critical in facilitating this transition. Researchers are increasingly illuminating law’s ability to promote social-ecological resilience to a changing world, but this scholarship—mostly focused on U.S. law—has not yet embraced its potential role in helping to create new international norms for social-ecological resilience. Through its comparison of coastal zone management in Australia, Finland, and the Netherlands, this article demonstrates that a comparative law approach offers a fruitful expansion of law-and-resilience research, both by extending this research to other countries and, more importantly, by allowing scholars to identify critical variables or variable constellations associated with countries’ decisions to adopt laws designed to promote social- ecological resilience and to identify mechanisms that allow for a smoother transition to this approach. For example, our comparison demonstrates, among other things, that countries can adopt coastal zone management techniques that integrate social-ecological resilience without fully abandoning more traditional engineering approaches to adapt to environmental change and its impacts.
  • Salomaa, Anna; Paloniemi, Riikka; Hujala, Teppo; Rantala, Salla; Arponen, Anni; Niemela, Jari (2016)
    Despite calls for evidence-based policies, the process of using evidence in forest conservation policy implementation has remained unclear. In this paper, we focus on voluntary conservation and investigate complex ways to use evidence in implementation of the Forest Biodiversity Programme METSO in Finland. Data were collected via nine focus group discussions involving a total of 59 forest conservation stakeholders. Through interpretative qualitative analysis, we found that forest owners' and forest advisers' awareness of the voluntary instrument and the smooth interplay of knowledge types are important factors in implementing voluntary conservation. Knowledge use should be locally bound for policy implementation to be effective. Social relationships enable integrating local knowledge. Forest owners, advisers, authorities and other actors interpret scientific and other knowledges (and simultaneously co-produce new knowledge) in practical action. We conclude that educating forest advisers, informing forest owners, and increasing collaboration can enhance evidence flows from research to practice. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.