Browsing by Subject "PROTEIN-KINASE"

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  • Moilanen, Anne-Mari; Rysa, Jaana; Serpi, Raisa; Mustonen, Erja; Szabo, Zoltan; Aro, Jani; Napankangas, Juha; Tenhunen, Olli; Sutinen, Meeri; Salo, Tuula; Ruskoaho, Heikki (2012)
  • Ardashov, Oleg V.; Pavlova, Alla V.; Mahato, Arun Kumar; Sidorova, Yulia; Morozova, Ekaterina A.; Korchagina, Dina V.; Salnikov, Georgi E.; Genaev, Alexander M.; Patrusheva, Oksana S.; Li-Zhulanov, Nikolay S.; Tolstikova, Tat'yana G.; Volcho, Konstantin P.; Salakhutdinov, Nariman. F. (2019)
    We previously showed that monoterpenoid (1R,2R,6S)-3-methyl-6-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-3-ene-1,2-diol 1 alleviates motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease in animal models. In the present study, we designed and synthesized monoepoxides of (1R,2R,6S)-3-methyl-6-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-3-ene-1,2-diol 1 and evaluated their biological activity in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease. We also assessed the ability of these compounds to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). According to these data, we chose epoxide 4, which potently restored the locomotor activity in MPTP-treated mice and efficiently penetrated the BBB, to further explore its potential mechanism of action. Epoxide 4 was found to robustly promote the survival of cultured dopamine neurons, protect dopamine neurons against toxin-induced degeneration, and trigger the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade in cells of neuronal origin. Meanwhile, neither the survival-promoting effect nor MAPK activation was observed in non-neuronal cells treated with epoxide 4. In the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease, compound 4 increased the density of dopamine neuron fibers in the striatum, which can highlight its potential to stimulate striatal reinnervation and thus halt disease progression. Taken together, these data indicate that epoxide 4 can be a promising compound for further development, not only as a symptomatic but also as a neuroprotective and neurorestorative drug for Parkinson's disease.
  • Sobral-Leite, Marcelo; Wesseling, Jelle; Smit, Vincent T. H. B. M.; Nevanlinna, Heli; van Miltenburg, Martine H.; Sanders, Joyce; Hofland, Ingrid; Blows, Fiona M.; Coulson, Penny; Patrycja, Gazinska; Schellens, Jan H. M.; Fagerholm, Rainer; Heikkila, Paivi; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Provenzano, Elena; Ali, Hamid Raza; Figueroa, Jonine; Sherman, Mark; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine; Visscher, Daniel; Brenner, Hermann; Butterbach, Katja; Arndt, Volker; Holleczek, Bernd; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John W. M.; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; van de Water, Bob; Broeks, Annegien; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; de Graauw, Marjo; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; kConFab-AOCS Investigators (2015)
    Background: Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a protein related with the carcinogenesis process and metastasis formation in many tumors. However, little is known about the prognostic value of ANXA1 in breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between ANXA1 expression, BRCA1/2 germline carriership, specific tumor subtypes and survival in breast cancer patients. Methods: Clinical-pathological information and follow-up data were collected from nine breast cancer studies from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) (n = 5,752) and from one study of familial breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations (n = 107). ANXA1 expression was scored based on the percentage of immunohistochemical staining in tumor cells. Survival analyses were performed using a multivariable Cox model. Results: The frequency of ANXA1 positive tumors was higher in familial breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations than in BCAC patients, with 48.6 % versus 12.4 %, respectively; P <0.0001. ANXA1 was also highly expressed in BCAC tumors that were poorly differentiated, triple negative, EGFR-CK5/6 positive or had developed in patients at a young age. In the first 5 years of follow-up, patients with ANXA1 positive tumors had a worse breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) than ANXA1 negative (HRadj = 1.35; 95 % CI = 1.05-1.73), but the association weakened after 10 years (HRadj = 1.13; 95 % CI = 0.91-1.40). ANXA1 was a significant independent predictor of survival in HER2+ patients (10-years BCSS: HRadj = 1.70; 95 % CI = 1.17-2.45). Conclusions: ANXA1 is overexpressed in familial breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations and correlated with poor prognosis features: triple negative and poorly differentiated tumors. ANXA1 might be a biomarker candidate for breast cancer survival prediction in high risk groups such as HER2+ cases.
  • Kinnunen, Sini Marketta; Tölli, Marja Anneli; Välimäki, Mika Juhani; Gao, Erhe; Szabo, Zoltan; Rysä, Jaana; Almeida Ferreira, Monica Patricia; J. Ohukainen, Pauli; Serpi, Raisa; Correia, Alexandra; Makila, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni Tapio; Almeida Santos, Helder; Ruskoaho, Heikki Juhani (2018)
    Transcription factors are fundamental regulators of gene transcription, and many diseases, such as heart diseases, are associated with deregulation of transcriptional networks. In the adult heart, zinc-finger transcription factor GATA4 is a critical regulator of cardiac repair and remodelling. Previous studies also suggest that NKX2-5 plays function role as a cofactor of GATA4. We have recently reported the identification of small molecules that either inhibit or enhance the GATA4–NKX2-5 transcriptional synergy. Here, we examined the cardiac actions of a potent inhibitor (3i-1000) of GATA4–NKX2-5 interaction in experimental models of myocardial ischemic injury and pressure overload. In mice after myocardial infarction, 3i-1000 significantly improved left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening, and attenuated myocardial structural changes. The compound also improved cardiac function in an experimental model of angiotensin II -mediated hypertension in rats. Furthermore, the up-regulation of cardiac gene expression induced by myocardial infarction and ischemia reduced with treatment of 3i-1000 or when micro- and nanoparticles loaded with 3i-1000 were injected intramyocardially or intravenously, respectively. The compound inhibited stretch- and phenylephrine-induced hypertrophic response in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. These results indicate significant potential for small molecules targeting GATA4–NKX2-5 interaction to promote myocardial repair after myocardial infarction and other cardiac injuries.
  • Raivola, Juuli; Haikarainen, Teemu; Silvennoinen, Olli (2020)
    The Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription protein (JAK-STAT) pathway mediates essential biological functions from immune responses to haematopoiesis. Deregulated JAK-STAT signaling causes myeloproliferative neoplasms, leukaemia, and lymphomas, as well as autoimmune diseases. Thereby JAKs have gained significant relevance as therapeutic targets. However, there is still a clinical need for better JAK inhibitors and novel strategies targeting regions outside the conserved kinase domain have gained interest. In-depth knowledge about the molecular details of JAK activation is required. For example, whether the function and regulation between receptors is conserved remains an open question. We used JAK-deficient cell-lines and structure-based mutagenesis to study the function of JAK1 and its pseudokinase domain (JH2) in cytokine signaling pathways that employ JAK1 with different JAK heterodimerization partner. In interleukin-2 (IL-2)-induced STAT5 activation JAK1 was dominant over JAK3 but in interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) and interferon-alpha (IFN alpha) signaling both JAK1 and heteromeric partner JAK2 or TYK2 were both indispensable for STAT1 activation. Moreover, IL-2 signaling was strictly dependent on both JAK1 JH1 and JH2 but in IFN gamma signaling JAK1 JH2 rather than kinase activity was required for STAT1 activation. To investigate the regulatory function, we focused on two allosteric regions in JAK1 JH2, the ATP-binding pocket and the alpha C-helix. Mutating L633 at the alpha C reduced basal and cytokine induced activation of STAT in both JAK1 wild-type (WT) and constitutively activated mutant backgrounds. Moreover, biochemical characterization and comparison of JH2s let us depict differences in the JH2 ATP-binding and strengthen the hypothesis that de-stabilization of the domain disturbs the regulatory JH1-JH2 interaction. Collectively, our results bring mechanistic understanding about the function of JAK1 in different receptor complexes that likely have relevance for the design of specific JAK modulators.
  • Koivisto, Elina; Acosta, Alicia Jurado; Moilanen, Anne-Mari; Tokola, Heikki; Aro, Jani; Pennanen, Harri; Sakkinen, Hanna; Kaikkonen, Leena; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Rysa, Jaana (2014)
  • Kimura, Sachie; Hunter, Kerri; Vaahtera, Lauri; Tran, Cuong; Citterico, Matteo; Vaattovaara, Aleksia; Rokka, Anne; Stolze, Sara Christina; Harzen, Anne; Meißner, Lena; Wilkens, Maya Melina Tabea; Hamann, Thorsten; Toyoga, Masatsugu; Nakagami, Hirofumi; Wrzaczek, Michael (2020)
    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important messengers in eukaryotic organisms and their production is tightly controlled. Active extracellular ROS production by NADPH oxidases in plants is triggered by receptor-like protein kinase (RLK)-dependent signaling networks. Here we show that the cysteine-rich RLK CRK2 kinase activity is required for plant growth and CRK2 exists in a preformed complex with the NADPH oxidase RBOHD in Arabidopsis. Functional CRK2 is required for the full elicitor-induced ROS burst and consequently the crk2 mutant is impaired in defense against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Our work demonstrates that CRK2 regulates plant innate immunity. We identified in vitro CRK2-dependent phosphorylation sites in the C-terminal region of RBOHD. Phosphorylation of S703 RBOHD is enhanced upon flg22 treatment and substitution of S703 with alanine reduced ROS production in Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that phospho-sites in C-terminal region of RBOHD are conserved throughout the plant lineage and between animals and plants. We propose that regulation of NADPH oxidase activity by phosphorylation of the C-terminal region might be an ancient mechanism and that CRK2 is an important element in regulating MAMP-triggered ROS production.
  • Apu, Ehsanul Hoque; Akram, Saad Ullah; Rissanen, Jouni; Wan, Hong; Salo, Tuula (2018)
    Desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) is an adhesion receptor in desmosomes, but its role in carcinoma cell migration and invasion is mostly unknown. Our aim was to quantitatively analyse the motion of Dsg3-modified carcinoma cells in 2D settings and in 3D within tumour microenvironment mimicking (TMEM) matrices. We tested mutant constructs of C-terminally truncated Dsg3 (Delta 238 and Delta 560), overexpressed full-length (FL) Dsg3, and empty vector control (Ct) of buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC/Y1) cells. We captured live cell images and analysed migration velocities and accumulated and Euclidean distances. We compared rodent collagen and Matrigel. with human Myogel TMEM matrices for these parameters in 3D sandwich, in which we also tested the effects of monoclonal antibody AK23, which targets the EC1 domain of Dsg3. In monolayer culture, FL and both truncated constructs migrated faster and had higher accumulated distances than Ct cells. However, in the 3D assays, only the mutants invaded faster relative to Ct cells. Of the mutants, the shorter form (Delta 238) exhibited faster migration and invasion than Delta 560 cells. In the Transwell, all of the cells invaded faster through Myogel than Matrigel coated wells. In 3D sandwich, AK23 antibody inhibited only the invasion of FL cells. We conclude that different experimental 2D and 3D settings can markedly influence the movement of oral carcinoma cells with various Dsg3 modifications.
  • Havula, Essi; Ghazanfar, Shila; Lamichane, Nicole; Francis, D.; Hasygar, Kiran; Liu, Ying; Alton, L. A.; Johnstone, J.; Needham, E. J.; Pulpitel, T.; Clark, T.; Niranjan, H. N.; Shang, Yi; Tong, Yongsheng; Jiwnani, N.; Audia, G.; Alves, A. N.; Sylow, L.; Mirth, C.; Neely, G. G.; Yang, J.; Hietakangas, Ville; Simpson, S. J.; Senior, A. M. (2022)
    Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are essential nutrients to all animals; however, closely related species, populations, and individuals can display dramatic variation in diet. Here we explore the variation in macronutrient tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster using the Drosophila genetic reference panel, a collection of similar to 200 strains derived from a single natural population. Our study demonstrates that D. melanogaster, often considered a "dietary generalist", displays marked genetic variation in survival on different diets, notably on high-sugar diet. Our genetic analysis and functional validation identify several regulators of macronutrient tolerance, including CG10960/GLUT8, Pkn and Eip75B. We also demonstrate a role for the JNK pathway in sugar tolerance and de novo lipogenesis. Finally, we report a role for tailless, a conserved orphan nuclear hormone receptor, in regulating sugar metabolism via insulin-like peptide secretion and sugar-responsive CCHamide-2 expression. Our study provides support for the use of nutrigenomics in the development of personalized nutrition.
  • Wasik, Anita A.; Lehtonen, Sanna (2018)
    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major microvascular complication of diabetes and a common cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. DKD manifests as an increased urinary protein excretion (albuminuria). Multiple studies have shown that insulin resistance correlates with the development of albuminuria in non-diabetic and diabetic patients. There is also accumulating evidence that glomerular epithelial cells or podocytes are insulin sensitive and that insulin signaling in podocytes is essential for maintaining normal kidney function. At the cellular level, the mechanisms leading to the development of insulin resistance include mutations in the insulin receptor gene, impairments in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway, or perturbations in the trafficking of glucose transporters (GLUTs), which mediate the uptake of glucose into cells. Podocytes express several GLUTs, including GLUT1, GLUT2, GLUT3, GLUT4, and GLUT8. Of these, the most studied ones are GLUT1 and GLUT4, both shown to be insulin responsive in podocytes. In the basal state, GLUT4 is preferentially located in perinuclear and cytosolic vesicular structures and to a lesser extent at the plasma membrane. After insulin stimulation, GLUT4 is sorted into GLUT4-containing vesicles (GCVs) that translocate to the plasma membrane. GCV trafficking consists of several steps, including approaching of the GCVs to the plasma membrane, tethering, and docking, after which the lipid bilayers of the GCVs and the plasma membrane fuse, delivering GLUT4 to the cell surface for glucose uptake into the cell. Studies have revealed novel molecular regulators of the GLUT trafficking in podocytes and unraveled unexpected roles for GLUT1 and GLUT4 in the development of DKD, summarized in this review. These findings pave the way for better understanding of the mechanistic pathways associated with the development and progression of DKD and aid in the development of new treatments for this devastating disease.
  • Raivola, Juuli; Hammaren, Henrik M.; Virtanen, Anniina T.; Bulleeraz, Vilasha; Ward, Alister C.; Silvennoinen, Olli (2018)
    Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) tyrosine kinase has a central role in the control of lymphopoiesis, and mutations in JAK3 can lead to either severe combined immunodeficiency or leukemia and lymphomas. JAK3 associates with the common gamma chain (yc) receptor and functions in a heteromeric signaling pair with JAK1. In IL-2 signaling JAK1 is the effector kinase for STAT5 phosphorylation but the precise molecular regulatory mechanisms of JAK1 and JAK3 and their individual domains are not known. The pseudokinase domain (JAK homology 2, JH2) of JAK3 is of particular interest as approximately half of clinical JAK3 mutations cluster into it. In this study, we investigated the role of JH2s of JAK1 and JAK3 in IL-2R signaling and show that STAT5 activation requires both JH1 and JH2 of JAK1, while both JH1 and JH2 in JAK3 are specifically required for the cytokine-induction of cellular signaling. Characterization of recombinant JAK3 JH2 in thermal shift assay shows an unstable protein domain, which is strongly stabilized by ATP binding. Unexpectedly, nucleotide binding to JAK3 JH2 was found to be cation-independent. JAK3 JH2 showed higher nucleotide binding affinity in MANT-ATP and fluorescent polarization competition assays compared to the other JAK JH2s. Analysis of the functional role of ATP binding in JAK3 JH2 in cells and in zebrafish showed that disruption of ATP binding suppresses ligand-independent activation of clinical JAK3 gain-of-function mutations residing in either JH2 or JH1 but does not inhibit constitutive activation of oncogenic JAK1. ATP-binding site mutations in JAK3 JH2 do not, however, abrogate normal IL-2 signaling making them distinct from JH2 deletion or kinase-deficient JAK3. These findings underline the importance of JAK3 JH2 for cellular signaling in both ligand-dependent and in gain-of-function mutation-induced activation. Furthermore, they identify the JH2 ATP-binding site as a key regulatory region for oncogenic JAK3 signaling, and thus a potential target for therapeutic modulation.
  • Hammaren, Henrik M.; Virtanen, Anniina T.; Abraham, Bobin George; Peussa, Heidi; Hubbard, Stevan R.; Silvennoinen, Olli (2019)
    Background: Janus kinases (JAKs; JAK1 to JAK3 and tyrosine kinase 2) mediate cytokine signals in the regulation of hematopoiesis and immunity. JAK2 clinical mutations cause myeloproliferative neoplasms and leukemia, and the mutations strongly concentrate in the regulatory pseudokinase domain Janus kinase homology (JH) 2. Current clinical JAK inhibitors target the tyrosine kinase domain and lack mutation and pathway selectivity. Objective: We sought to characterize mechanisms and differences for pathogenic and cytokine-induced JAK2 activation to enable design of novel selective JAK inhibitors. Methods: We performed a systematic analysis of JAK2 activation requirements using structure-guided mutagenesis, cell-signaling assays, microscopy, and biochemical analysis. Results: Distinct structural requirements were identified for activation of different pathogenic mutations. Specifically, the predominant JAK2 mutation, V617F, is the most sensitive to structural perturbations in multiple JH2 elements (C helix [aC], Src homology 2-JH2 linker, and ATP binding site). In contrast, activation of K539L is resistant to most perturbations. Normal cytokine signaling shows distinct differences in activation requirements: JH2 ATP binding site mutations have only a minor effect on signaling, whereasJH2aCmutations reduce homomeric (JAK2-JAK2) erythropoietin signaling and almost completely abrogate heteromeric (JAK2-JAK1) IFN-gamma signaling, potentially by disrupting a dimerization interface on JH2. Conclusions: These results suggest that therapeutic approaches targeting the JH2 ATP binding site and aC could be effective in inhibiting most pathogenic mutations. JH2 ATP site targeting has the potential for reduced side effects by retaining erythropoietin and IFN-gamma functions. Simultaneously, however, we identified the JH2 aC interface as a potential target for pathway-selective JAK inhibitors in patients with diseases with unmutated JAK2, thus providing new insights into the development of novel pharmacologic interventions.
  • Buljan, Marija; Ciuffa, Rodolfo; van Drogen, Audrey; Vichalkovski, Anton; Mehnert, Martin; Rosenberger, George; Lee, Sohyon; Varjosalo, Markku; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Spegg, Vincent; Snijder, Berend; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gstaiger, Matthias (2020)
    Protein kinases are essential for signal transduction and control of most cellular processes, including metabolism, membrane transport, motility, and cell cycle. Despite the critical role of kinases in cells and their strong association with diseases, good coverage of their interactions is available for only a fraction of the 535 human kinases. Here, we present a comprehensive mass-spectrometry-based analysis of a human kinase interaction network covering more than 300 kinases. The interaction dataset is a high-quality resource with more than 5,000 previously unreported interactions. We extensively characterized the obtained network and were able to identify previously described, as well as predict new, kinase functional associations, including those of the less well-studied kinases PIM3 and protein O-mannose kinase (POMK). Importantly, the presented interaction map is a valuable resource for assisting biomedical studies. We uncover dozens of kinase-disease associations spanning from genetic disorders to complex diseases, including cancer.
  • Bourdais, Gildas; Burdiak, Pawel; Gauthier, Adrien Guy Bernard; Nitsch, Lisette; Salojärvi, Jarkko Tapani; Rayapuram, Channabasavangowda; Idänheimo, Niina Johanna; Hunter, Kerri Alyssa; Kimura, Sachie; Merilo, Ebe; Vaattovaara, Aleksia Fanni Maria; Oracz, Krystyna; Kaufholdt, David; Pallon, Andres; Anggoro, Damar Tri; Glow, Dawid; Lowe, Jennifer; Zhou, Ji; Safronov, Omid; Puukko, Tuomas; Albert, Andreas; Lang, Hans; Ernst, Dieter; Kollist, Hannes; Brosche, Mikael Johan; Durner, Jörg; Borst, Jan Willem; Collinge, David B.; Karpinski, Stanislaw; Lyngkjaer, Michael F.; Robatzek, Silke; Wrzaczek, Michael Alois; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko Sakari (2015)
    Cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases (CRKs) are transmembrane proteins characterized by the presence of two domains of unknown function 26 (DUF26) in their ectodomain. The CRKs form one of the largest groups of receptor-like protein kinases in plants, but their biological functions have so far remained largely uncharacterized. We conducted a large-scale phenotyping approach of a nearly complete crk T-DNA insertion line collection showing that CRKs control important aspects of plant development and stress adaptation in response to biotic and abiotic stimuli in a non-redundant fashion. In particular, the analysis of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related stress responses, such as regulation of the stomatal aperture, suggests that CRKs participate in ROS/redox signalling and sensing. CRKs play general and fine-tuning roles in the regulation of stomatal closure induced by microbial and abiotic cues. Despite their great number and high similarity, large-scale phenotyping identified specific functions in diverse processes for many CRKs and indicated that CRK2 and CRK5 play predominant roles in growth regulation and stress adaptation, respectively. As a whole, the CRKs contribute to specificity in ROS signalling. Individual CRKs control distinct responses in an antagonistic fashion suggesting future potential for using CRKs in genetic approaches to improve plant performance and stress tolerance.
  • Nguyen, SD; Korhonen, EA; Lorey, MB; Hakanpaa, L; Mayranpaa, MI; Kovanen, PT; Saharinen, P; Alitalo, K; Oorni, K (2021)
    Background and aims: Secretory phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) hydrolyzes LDL phospholipids generating modified LDL particles (PLA(2)-LDL) with increased atherogenic properties. Exocytosis of Weibel-Palade bodies (WPB) releases angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) and externalizes P-selectin, which both play important roles in vascular inflammation. Here, we investigated the effects of PLA(2)-LDL on exocytosis of WPBs. Methods: Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were stimulated with PLA(2)-LDL, and its uptake and effect on Ang2 release, leukocyte adhesion, and intracellular calcium levels were measured. The effects of PLA(2)-LDL on Ang2 release and WPB exocytosis were measured in and ex vivo in mice. Results: Exposure of HCAECs to PLA(2)-LDL triggered Ang2 secretion and promoted leukocyte-HCAEC interaction. Lysophosphatidylcholine was identified as a critical component of PLA(2)-LDL regulating the WPB exocytosis, which was mediated by cell-surface proteoglycans, phospholipase C, intracellular calcium, and cytoskeletal remodeling. PLA(2)-LDL also induced murine endothelial WPB exocytosis in blood vessels in and ex vivo, as evidenced by secretion of Ang2 in vivo, P-selectin translocation to plasma membrane in intact endothelial cells in thoracic artery and tracheal vessels, and reduced Ang2 staining in tracheal endothelial cells. Finally, in contrast to normal human coronary arteries, in which Ang2 was present only in the endothelial layer, at sites of advanced atherosclerotic lesions, Ang2 was detected also in the intima, media, and adventitia. Conclusions: Our studies reveal PLA(2)-LDL as a potent agonist of endothelial WPB exocytosis, resulting in increased secretion of Ang2 and translocation of P-selectin. The results provide mechanistic insight into PLA(2)-LDL-dependent promotion of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis.
  • Saarinen, Lilli; Nummela, Pirjo; Thiel, Alexandra; Lehtonen, Rainer; Järvinen, Petrus; Järvinen, Heikki; Aaltonen, Lauri A.; Lepisto, Anna; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Ristimaki, Ari (2017)
    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a subtype of mucinous adenocarcinoma mainly restricted to the peritoneal cavity and most commonly originating from the appendix. The genetic background of PMP is poorly understood and no targeted treatments are currently available for this fatal disease. While RAS signaling pathway is affected in most if not all PMP cases and over half of them also have a mutation in the GNAS gene, other genetic alterations and affected pathways are, to a large degree, poorly known. In this study, we sequenced whole coding genome of nine PMP tumors and paired normal tissues in order to identify additional, commonly mutated genes and signaling pathways affected in PMP. These exome sequencing results were validated with an ultra-deep amplicon sequencing method, leading to 14 validated variants. The validated results contain seven genes that contribute to the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. PKA pathway, which also contains GNAS, is a major player of overproduction of mucin, which is the characteristic feature of PMP. In addition to PKA pathway, we identified mutations in six genes that belong to the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) pathway, which is a key regulator of cell proliferation. Since either GNAS mutation or an alternative mutation in the PKA pathway was identified in 8/9 patients, inhibition of the PKA pathway might reduce mucin production in most of the PMP patients and potentially suppress disease progression.
  • Kasica, Natalia; Podlasz, Piotr; Sundvik, Maria; Tamas, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Kaleczyc, Jerzy (2016)
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide, with known antiapoptotic functions. Our previous in vitro study has demonstrated the ameliorative role of PACAP-38 in chicken hair cells under oxidative stress conditions, but its effects on living hair cells is now yet known. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate in vivo the protective role of PACAP-38 in hair cells found in zebrafish (Danio rerio) sense organs-neuromasts. To induce oxidative stress the 5-day postfertilization (dpf) zebrafish larvae were exposed to 1.5 mM H2O2 for 15 min or 1 h. This resulted in an increase in caspase-3 and p-38 MAPK level in the hair cells as well as in an impairment of the larvae basic behavior. To investigate the ameliorative role of PACAP-38, the larvae were incubated with a mixture of 1.5 mM H2O2 and 100 nM PACAP-38 following 1 h preincubation with 100 nM PACAP-38 only. PACAP-38 abilities to prevent hair cells from apoptosis were investigated. Whole-mount immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy analyses revealed that PACAP-38 treatment decreased the cleaved caspase-3 level in the hair cells, but had no influence on p-38 MAPK. The analyses of basic locomotor activity supported the protective role of PACAP-38 by demonstrating the improvement of the fish behavior after PACAP-38 treatment. In summary, our in vivo findings demonstrate that PACAP-38 protects zebrafish hair cells from oxidative stress by attenuating oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.
  • Solman, Maja; Ligabue, Alessio; Blazevits, Olga; Jaiswal, Alok; Zhou, Yong; Liang, Hong; Lectez, Benoit; Kopra, Kari; Guzman, Camilo; Harma, Harri; Hancock, John F.; Aittokallio, Tero; Abankwa, Daniel (2015)
    Hotspot mutations of Ras drive cell transformation and tumorigenesis. Less frequent mutations in Ras are poorly characterized for their oncogenic potential. Yet insight into their mechanism of action may point to novel opportunities to target Ras. Here, we show that several cancer-associated mutations in the switch III region moderately increase Ras activity in all isoforms. Mutants are biochemically inconspicuous, while their clustering into nanoscale signaling complexes on the plasma membrane, termed nanocluster, is augmented. Nanoclustering dictates downstream effector recruitment, MAPK-activity, and tumorigenic cell proliferation. Our results describe an unprecedented mechanism of signaling protein activation in cancer.
  • Verardo, Lucas L.; Sevon-Aimonen, Marja-Liisa; Serenius, Timo; Hietakangas, Ville; Uimari, Pekka (2017)
    Background: One of the most commonly used quality measurements of pork is pH measured 24 h after slaughter. The most probable mode of inheritance for this trait is oligogenic with several known major genes, such as PRKAG3. In this study, we used whole-genome SNP genotypes of over 700 AI boars; after a quality check, 42,385 SNPs remained for association analysis. All the boars were purebred Finnish Yorkshire. To account for relatedness of the animals, a pedigree-based relationship matrix was used in a mixed linear model to test the effect of SNPs on pH measured from loin. A bioinformatics analysis was performed to identify the most promising genes in the significant regions related to meat quality. Results: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) revealed three significant chromosomal regions: one on chromosome 3 (39.9 Mb-40.1 Mb) and two on chromosome 15 (58.5 Mb-60.5 Mb and 132 Mb-135 Mb including PRKAG3). A conditional analysis with a significant SNP in the PRKAG3 region, MARC0083357, as a covariate in the model retained the significant SNPs on chromosome 3. Even though linkage disequilibrium was relatively high over a long distance between MARC0083357 and other significant SNPs on chromosome 15, some SNPs retained their significance in the conditional analysis, even in the vicinity of PRKAG3. The significant regions harbored several genes, including two genes involved in cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling: ADCY9 and CREBBP. Based on functional and transcription factor-gene networks, the most promising candidate genes for meat pH are ADCY9, CREBBP, TRAP1, NRG1, PRKAG3, VIL1, TNS1, and IGFBP5, and the key transcription factors related to these genes are HNF4A, PPARG, and Nkx2-5. Conclusions: Based on SNP association, pathway, and transcription factor analysis, we were able to identify several genes with potential to control muscle cell homeostasis and meat quality. The associated SNPs can be used in selection for better pork. We also showed that post-GWAS analysis reveals important information about the genes' potential role on meat quality. The gained information can be used in later functional studies.