Browsing by Subject "PROTEIN-KINASE-C"

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  • Lautala, S.; Koivuniemi, A.; Kulig, W.; Rog, T.; Talman, V.; Tuominen, R.; Bunker, A. (2019)
  • Mahalka, Ajay K.; Code, Christian; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Kirkegaard, Thomas; Jaattela, Marja; Kinnunen, Paavo K. J. (2011)
  • Kilpinen, Lotta; Tigistu-Sahle, Feven; Oja, Sofia; Greco, Dario; Parmar, Amarjit; Saavalainen, Päivi Marjaana; Nikkilä, Janne Tapio; Korhonen, Matti; Lehenkari, Petri; Käkelä, Reijo; Laitinen, Saara (2013)
  • Talman, Virpi; Tuominen, Raimo K.; Boije af Gennäs, Gustav; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Ekokoski, Elina (2011)
  • Boije af Gennäs, Gustav; Talman, Virpi; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Tuominen, Raimo K.; Ekokoski, Elina (2011)
    The second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) plays a central role in the signal transduction of G-protein coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases by binding to C1 domain of effector proteins. C1 domain was first identified in protein kinase C (PKC) which comprises a family of ten isoforms that play roles in diverse cellular processes such as proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. Aberrant signaling through PKC isoforms and other C1 domain-containing proteins has been implicated in several pathological disorders. Drug discovery concerning C1 domains has exploited both natural products and rationally designed compounds. Currently, molecules from several classes of C1 domain-binding compounds are in clinical trials; however, still more have the potential to enter the drug development pipeline. This review gives a summary of the recent developments in C1 domain-binding compounds.
  • Kissing, Sandra; Rudnik, Soenke; Damme, Markus; Luellmann-Rauch, Renate; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Kornak, Uwe; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa; Jabs, Sabrina; Heeren, Joerg; De Brabander, Jef K.; Haas, Albert; Saftig, Paul (2017)
    The vacuolar-type H+-translocating ATPase (v-H+-ATPase) has been implicated in the amino aciddependent activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (MTORC1), an important regulator of macroautophagy. To reveal the mechanistic links between the v-H+-ATPase and MTORC1, we destablilized v-H+-ATPase complexes in mouse liver cells by induced deletion of the essential chaperone ATP6AP2. ATP6AP2-mutants are characterized by massive accumulation of endocytic and autophagic vacuoles in hepatocytes. This cellular phenotype was not caused by a block in endocytic maturation or an impaired acidification. However, the degradation of LC3-II in the knockout hepatocytes appeared to be reduced. When v-H+-ATPase levels were decreased, we observed lysosome association of MTOR and normal signaling of MTORC1 despite an increase in autophagic marker proteins. To better understand why MTORC1 can be active when v-H+-ATPase is depleted, the activation of MTORC1 was analyzed in ATP6AP2-deficient fibroblasts. In these cells, very little amino acid-elicited activation of MTORC1 was observed. In contrast, insulin did induce MTORC1 activation, which still required intracellular amino acid stores. These results suggest that in vivo the regulation of macroautophagy depends not only on v-H+-ATPase-mediated regulation of MTORC1.
  • Talman, Virpi; Gateva, Gergana; Ahti, Marja; Ekokoski, Elina; Lappalainen, Pekka; Tuominen, Raimo K. (2014)
    Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a central mediator of signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis. Therefore, C1 domain, the DAG binding site within protein kinase C (PKC) and other DAG effector proteins, is considered a potential cancer drug target. Derivatives of 5-(hydroxymethyl)isophthalic acid are a novel group of C1 domain ligands with antiproliferative and differentiation-inducing effects. Our previous work showed that these isophthalate derivatives exhibit antiproliferative and elongation-inducing effects in HeLa human cervical cancer cells. In this study we further characterized the effects of bis(3-trifluoromethylbenzyl) 5-(hydroxymethyl)isophthalate (HMI-1a3) on HeLa cell proliferation and morphology. HMI-1a3-induced cell elongation was accompanied with loss of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers, and exposure to HMI-1a3 induced a prominent relocation of cofilin-1 into the nucleus regardless of cell phenotype. The antiproliferative and morphological responses to HMI-1a3 were not modified by coexposure to pharmacological inhibition or activation of PKC, or by RNAi knock-down of specific PKC isoforms, suggesting that the effects of HMI-1a3 were not mediated by PKC. Genome-wide gene expression microarray and gene set enrichment analysis suggested that, among others, HMI-1a3 induces changes in small GTPase-mediated signaling pathways. Our experiments revealed that the isophthalates bind also to the C1 domains of β2-chimaerin, protein kinase D (PKD) and myotonic dystrophy kinase-related Cdc42-binding kinase (MRCK), which are potential mediators of small GTPase signaling and cytoskeletal reorganization. Pharmacological inhibition of MRCK, but not that of PKD attenuated HMI-1a3-induced cell elongation, suggesting that MRCK participates in mediating the effects of HMI-1a3 on HeLa cell morphology.
  • Summanen, Milla; Granqvist, Niko; Tuominen, Raimo K.; Yliperttula, Marjo; Verrips, C. Theo; Boonstra, Johannes; Blanchetot, Christophe; Ekokoski, Elina (2012)
  • Kiamehr, Mostafa; Viiri, Leena E.; Vihervaara, Terhi; Koistinen, Kaisa M.; Hilvo, Mika; Ekroos, Kim; Kakela, Reijo; Aalto-Setala, Katriina (2017)
    Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an alternative model to primary human hepatocytes to study lipid aberrations. However, the detailed lipid profile of HLCs is yet unknown. In the current study, functional HLCs were differentiated from iPSCs generated from dermal fibroblasts of three individuals by a three-step protocol through the definitive endoderm (DE) stage. In parallel, detailed lipidomic analyses as well as gene expression profiling of a set of lipid-metabolism-related genes were performed during the entire differentiation process from iPSCs to HLCs. Additionally, fatty acid (FA) composition of the cell culture media at different stages was determined. Our results show that major alterations in the molecular species of lipids occurring during DE and early hepatic differentiation stages mainly mirror the quality and quantity of the FAs supplied in culture medium at each stage. Polyunsaturated phospholipids and sphingolipids with a very long FA were produced in the cells at a later stage of differentiation. This work uncovers the previously unknown lipid composition of iPSC-HLCs and its alterations during the differentiation in conjunction with the expression of key lipid-associated genes. Together with biochemical, functional and gene expression measurements, the lipidomic analyses allowed us to improve our understanding of the concerted influence of the exogenous metabolite supply and cellular biosynthesis essential for iPSC-HLC differentiation and function. Importantly, the study describes in detail a cell model that can be applied in exploring, for example, the lipid metabolism involved in the development of fatty liver disease or atherosclerosis.
  • Tigistu-Sahle, Feven; Lampinen, Milla; Kilpinen, Lotta; Holopainen, Minna; Lehenkari, Petri; Laitinen, Saara; Käkelä, Reijo (2017)
    High arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and low n-3 PUFA levels impair the capacity of cultured human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs) to modulate immune functions. The capacity of the hBMSCs to modify PUFA structures was found to be limited. Therefore, different PUFA supplements given to the cells resulted in very different glycerophospholipid (GPL) species profiles and substrate availability for phospholipases, which have preferences for polar head group and acyl chains when liberating PUFA precursors for production of lipid mediators. When supplemented with 20:4n-6, the cells increased prostaglandin E2 secretion. However, they elongated 20:4n-6 to the less active precursor, 22:4n-6, and also incorporated it into triacylglycerols, which may have limited the proinflammatory signaling. The n-3 PUFA precursor, 18:3n-3, had little potency to reduce the GPL 20:4n-6 content, while the eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acid supplements efficiently displaced the 20:4n-6 acyls, and created diverse GPL species substrate pools allowing attenuation of inflammatory signaling.(Jlr) The results emphasize the importance of choosing appropriate PUFA supplements for in vitro hBMSC expansion and suggests that for optimal function they require an exogenous fatty acid source providing 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 sufficiently, but 20:4n-6 moderately, which calls for specifically designed optimal PUFA supplements for the cultures.
  • Hautala, Laura C.; Koistinen, Riitta; Koistinen, Hannu (2016)
    Glycodelin is a glycoprotein mainly expressed in well-differentiated epithelial cells in reproductive tissues. In normal secretory endometrium, the expression of glycodelin is abundant and regulated by progesterone. In hormone-related cancers glycodelin expression is associated with well-differentiated tumors. We have previously found that glycodelin drives epithelial differentiation of HEC-1B endometrial adenocarcinoma cells, resulting in reduced tumor growth in a preclinical mouse model. Here we show that glycodelin-transfected HEC-1B cells have repressed protein kinase C delta (PKC delta) activation, likely due to downregulation of PDKI, and are resistant to phenotypic change and enhanced migration induced by phorbo112-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). In control cells, which do not express glycodelin, the effects of PMA were abolished by using PKC6 and PDKI inhibitors, and knockdown of PKC delta, MEK1 and 2, or ERK1 and 2 by siRNAs. Similarly, transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta)-induced phenotypic change was only seen in control cells, not in glycodelin-producing cells, and it was mediated by PKC delta. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that PKC delta, via MAPI( pathway, is involved in the glycodelin-driven cell differentiation rendering the cells resistant to stimulation by PMA and TGF beta. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Mäkinen, Selina; Datta, Neeta; Nguyen, Yen H.; Kyrylenko, Petro; Laakso, Markku; Koistinen, Heikki A. (2020)
    Objectives: Simvastatin use is associated with muscular side effects, and increased risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). In clinical use, simvastatin is administered in inactive lipophilic lactone-form, which is then converted to active acid-form in the body. Here, we have investigated if lactone- and acid-form simvastatin differentially affect glucose metabolism and mitochondrial respiration in primary human skeletal muscle cells. Methods: Muscle cells were exposed separately to lactone- and acid-form simvastatin for 48 h. After pre-exposure, glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis were measured using radioactive tracers; insulin signalling was detected with Western blotting; and glycolysis, mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP production were measured with Seahorse XF(e)96 analyzer. Results: Lactone-form simvastatin increased glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, whereas acid-form simvastatin did not affect glucose uptake and decreased glycogen synthesis. Phosphorylation of insulin signalling targets Akt substrate 160 kDa (AS160) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3 beta) was upregulated with lactone-, but not with acid-form simvastatin. Exposure to both forms of simvastatin led to a decrease in glycolysis and glycolytic capacity, as well as to a decrease in mitochondrial respiration and ATP production. Conclusions: These data suggest that lactone- and acid-forms of simvastatin exhibit differential effects on non-oxidative glucose metabolism as lacto ne-form increases and acid-form impairs glucose storage into glycogen, suggesting impaired insulin sensitivity in response to acid-form simvastatin. Both forms profoundly impair oxidative glucose metabolism and energy production in human skeletal muscle cells. These effects may contribute to muscular side effects and risk for T2D observed with simvastatin use.
  • Heinonen, J. A.; Schramko, A.; Skrifvars, M. B.; Litonius, E.; Backman, J. T.; Mervaala, E.; Rosenberg, P. H. (2017)
    Local anesthetic toxicity is thought to be mediated partly by inhibition of cardiac mitochondrial function. Intravenous (i.v.) lipid emulsion may overcome this energy depletion, but doses larger than currently recommended may be needed for rescue effect. In this randomized study with anesthetized pigs, we compared the effect of a large dose, 4 mL/kg, of i.v. 20% Intralipid (R) (n = 7) with Ringer's acetate (n = 6) on cardiovascular recovery after a cardiotoxic dose of bupivacaine. We also examined mitochondrial respiratory function in myocardial cell homogenates analyzed promptly after needle biopsies from the animals. Bupivacaine plasma concentrations were quantified from plasma samples. Arterial blood pressure recovered faster and systemic vascular resistance rose more rapidly after Intralipid than Ringer's acetate administration (p <0.0001), but Intralipid did not increase cardiac index or left ventricular ejection fraction. The lipid-based mitochondrial respiration was stimulated by approximately 30% after Intralipid (p <0.05) but unaffected by Ringer's acetate. The mean (standard deviation) area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of total bupivacaine was greater after Intralipid (105.2 (13.6) mg.min/L) than after Ringer's acetate (88.1 (7.1) mg.min/L) (p = 0.019). After Intralipid, the AUC of the lipid-un-entrapped bupivacaine portion (97.0 (14.5) mg.min/L) was 8% lower than that of total bupivacaine (p <0.0001). To conclude, 4 mL/kg of Intralipid expedited cardiovascular recovery from bupivacaine cardiotoxicity mainly by increasing systemic vascular resistance. The increased myocardial mitochondrial respiration and bupivacaine entrapment after Intralipid did not improve cardiac function.