Browsing by Subject "PROTEIN-SYNTHESIS"

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  • Lautaoja, Juulia H.; Pekkala, Satu; Pasternack, Arja; Laitinen, Mika; Ritvos, Olli; Hulmi, Juha J. (2020)
    Alongside in vivo models, a simpler and more mechanistic approach is required to study the effects of myostatin on skeletal muscle because myostatin is an important negative regulator of muscle size. In this study, myostatin was administered to murine (C2C12) and human (CHQ) myoblasts and myotubes. Canonical and noncanonical signaling downstream to myostatin, related ligands, and their receptor were analyzed. The effects of tumorkines were analyzed after coculture of C2C12 and colon cancer-C26 cells. The effects of myostatin on canonical and noncanonical signaling were strongly reduced in C2C12 cells after differentiation. This may be explained by increased follistatin, an endogenous blocker of myostatin and altered expression of activin receptor ligands. In contrast, CHQ cells were equally responsive to myostatin, and follistatin remained unaltered. Both myostatin administration and the coculture stimulated pathways associated with inflammation, especially in C2C12 cells. In conclusion, the effects of myostatin on intracellular signaling may be cell line- or organism-specific, and C2C12 myotubes seem to be a nonoptimal in vitro model for investigating the effects of myostatin on canonical and noncanonical signaling in skeletal muscle. This may be due to altered expression of activin receptor ligands and their regulators during muscle cell differentiation.
  • Hilander, Taru; Zhou, Xiao-Long; Konovalova, Svetlana; Zhang, Fu-Ping; Euro, Liliya; Shilov, Dmitri; Poutanen, Matti; Chihade, Joseph; Wang, En-Duo; Tyynismaa, Henna (2018)
    Accuracy of protein synthesis is enabled by the selection of amino acids for tRNA charging by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs), and further enhanced by the proofreading functions of some of these enzymes for eliminating tRNAs mischarged with noncognate amino acids. Mouse models of editing-defective cytoplasmic alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) have previously demonstrated the importance of proofreading for cytoplasmic protein synthesis, with embryonic lethal and progressive neurodegeneration phenotypes. Mammalian mitochondria import their own set of nuclear-encoded ARSs for translating critical polypeptides of the oxidative phosphorylation system, but the importance of editing by the mitochondrial ARSs for mitochondrial proteostasis has not been known. We demonstrate here that the human mitochondrial AlaRS is capable of editing mischarged tRNAs in vitro, and that loss of the proofreading activity causes embryonic lethality in mice. These results indicate that tRNA proofreading is essential in mammalian mitochondria, and cannot be overcome by other quality control mechanisms.
  • Haapa-Paananen, Saija; Chen, Ping; Hellström, Kirsi; Kohonen, Pekka; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Kallioniemi, Olli; Perala, Merja (2013)
  • Allmeroth, Kira; Kim, Christine S.; Annibal, Andrea; Pouikli, Andromachi; Koester, Janis; Derisbourg, Maxime J.; Chacon-Martinez, Carlos Andres; Latza, Christian; Antebi, Adam; Tessarz, Peter; Wickström, Sara A.; Denzel, Martin S. (2021)
    Stem cell differentiation is accompanied by increased mRNA translation. The rate of protein biosynthesis is influenced by the polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine, which are essential for cell growth and stem cell maintenance. However, the role of polyamines as endogenous effectors of stem cell fate and whether they act through translational control remains obscure. Here, we investigate the function of polyamines in stem cell fate decisions using hair follicle stem cell (HFSC) organoids. Compared to progenitor cells, HFSCs showed lower translation rates, correlating with reduced polyamine levels. Surprisingly, overall polyamine depletion decreased translation but did not affect cell fate. In contrast, specific depletion of natural polyamines mediated by spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT; also known as SAT1) activation did not reduce translation but enhanced stemness. These results suggest a translation-independent role of polyamines in cell fate regulation. Indeed, we identified N1-acetylspermidine as a determinant of cell fate that acted through increasing self-renewal, and observed elevated N1-acetylspermidine levels upon depilation-mediated HFSC proliferation and differentiation in vivo. Overall, this study delineates the diverse routes of polyamine metabolism-mediated regulation of stem cell fate decisions. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.
  • Ylivinkka, Irene; Keski-Oja, Jorma; Hyytiainen, Marko (2016)
    Netrins form a family of secreted and membrane-associated proteins, netrin-1 being the prototype and most investigated member of the family. The major physiological functions of netrin-1 lie in the regulation of axonal development as well as morphogenesis of different branched organs, by promoting the polarity of migratory/invasive front of the cell. On the other hand, netrin-1 acts as a factor preventing cell apoptosis. These events are mediated via a range of different receptors, including UNC5 and DCC-families. Cancer cells often employ developmental pathways to gain survival and motility advantage. Within recent years, there has been increasing number of observations of upregulation of netrin-1 expression in different forms of cancer, and the increased expression of netrin-1 has been linked to its functions as a survival and invasion promoting factor. We review here recent advances in the netrin-1 related developmental processes that may be of special interest in tumor biology, in addition to the known functions of netrin-1 in tumor biology with special focus on cancer cell migration. (C) 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • Barbe, Caroline; Loumaye, Audrey; Lause, Pascale; Ritvos, Olli; Thissen, Jean-Paul (2021)
    Skeletal muscle, the most abundant tissue in the body, plays vital roles in locomotion and metabolism. Understanding the cellular processes that govern regulation of muscle mass and function represents an essential step in the development of therapeutic strategies for muscular disorders. Myostatin, a member of the TGF-beta family, has been identified as a negative regulator of muscle development. Indeed, its inhibition induces an extensive skeletal muscle hypertrophy requiring the activation of Smad 1/5/8 and the Insulin/IGF-I signaling pathway, but whether other molecular mechanisms are involved in this process remains to be determined. Using transcriptomic data from various Myostatin inhibition models, we identified Pak1 as a potential mediator of Myostatin action on skeletal muscle mass. Our results show that muscle PAK1 levels are systematically increased in response to Myostatin inhibition, parallel to skeletal muscle mass, regardless of the Myostatin inhibition model. Using Pak1 knockout mice, we investigated the role of Pak1 in the skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by different approaches of Myostatin inhibition. Our findings show that Pak1 deletion does not impede the skeletal muscle hypertrophy magnitude in response to Myostatin inhibition. Therefore, Pak1 is permissive for the skeletal muscle mass increase caused by Myostatin inhibition.
  • Toompuu, Marina; Tuomela, Tea; Laine, Pia; Paulin, Lars; Dufour, Eric; Jacobs, Howard T. (2018)
    RNA 3' polyadenylation is known to serve diverse purposes in biology, in particular, regulating mRNA stability and translation. Here we determined that, upon exposure to high levels of the intercalating agent ethidium bromide (EtBr), greater than those required to suppress mitochondrial transcription, mitochondrial tRNAs in human cells became polyadenylated. Relaxation of the inducing stress led to rapid turnover of the polyadenylated tRNAs. The extent, kinetics and duration of tRNA polyadenylation were EtBr dose-dependent, with mitochondrial tRNAs differentially sensitive to the stress. RNA interference and inhibitor studies indicated that ongoing mitochondrial ATP synthesis, plus the mitochondrial poly(A) polymerase and SUV3 helicase were required for tRNA polyadenylation, while polynucleotide phosphorylase counteracted the process and was needed, along with SUV3, for degradation of the polyadenylated tRNAs. Doxycycline treatment inhibited both tRNA polyadenylation and turnover, suggesting a possible involvement of the mitoribosome, although other translational inhibitors had only minor effects. The dysfunctional tRNA(Leu(UUR)) bearing the pathological A3243G mutation was constitutively polyadenylated at a low level, but this was markedly enhanced after doxycycline treatment. We propose that polyadenylation of structurally and functionally abnormal mitochondrial tRNAs entrains their PNPase/SUV3-mediated destruction, and that this pathway could play an important role in mitochondrial diseases associated with tRNA mutations.
  • Ou, Hui-Ling; Kim, Christine S.; Uszkoreit, Simon; Wickström, Sara A.; Schumacher, Björn (2019)
    Genome integrity in primordial germ cells (PGCs) is a prerequisite for fertility and species maintenance. In C. elegans, PGCs require global-genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) to remove UV-induced DNA lesions. Failure to remove the lesions leads to the activation of the C. elegans p53, CEP-1, resulting in mitotic arrest of the PGCs. We show that the eIF4E2 translation initiation factor IFE-4 in somatic gonad precursor (SGP) niche cells regulates the CEP-1/p53-mediated DNA damage response (DDR) in PGCs. We determine that the IFE-4 translation target EGL-15/FGFR regulates the non-cell-autonomous DDR that is mediated via FGF-like signaling. Using hair follicle stem cells as a paradigm, we demonstrate that the eIF4E2-mediated niche cell regulation of the p53 response in stem cells is highly conserved in mammals. We thus reveal that the somatic niche regulates the CEP-1/p53-mediated DNA damage checkpoint in PGCs. Our data suggest that the somatic niche impacts the stability of heritable genomes.
  • Byts, Nadiya; Sharma, Subodh; Laurila, Jenny; Paudel, Prodeep; Miinalainen, Ilkka; Ronkainen, Veli-Pekka; Hinttala, Reetta; Törnquist, Kid; Koivunen, Peppi; Myllyharju, Johanna (2021)
    Prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs) have vital roles in regulating collagen synthesis and hypoxia response. A trans membrane P4H (P4H-TM) is a recently identified member of the family. Biallelic loss of function P4H-TM mutations cause a severe autosomal recessive intellectual disability syndrome in humans, but functions of P4H-TM are essentially unknown at cellular level. Our microarray data on P4h-tm(-/-) mouse cortexes where P4H-TM is abundantly expressed indicated expression changes in genes involved in calcium signaling and expression of several calcium sequestering ATPases was upregulated in P4h-tm(-/-) primary mouse astrocytes. Cytosolic and intraorganellar calcium imaging of P4h-tm(-/-) cells revealed that receptor-operated calcium entry (ROCE) and store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) and calcium re-uptake by mitochondria were compromised. HIF1, but not HIF2, was found to be a key mediator of the P4H-TM effect on calcium signaling. Furthermore, total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) imaging showed that calcium agonist-induced gliotransmission was attenuated in P4h-tm(-/-) astrocytes. This phenotype was accompanied by redistribution of mitochondria from distal processes to central parts of the cell body and decreased intracellular ATP content. Our data show that P4H-TM is a novel regulator of calcium dynamics and gliotransmission.
  • Nissinen, Tuuli A.; Hentilä, Jaakko; Penna, Fabio; Lampinen, Anita; Lautaoja, Juulia H.; Fachada, Vasco; Holopainen, Tanja; Ritvos, Olli; Kivelä, Riikka; Hulmi, Juha J. (2018)
    Background Cancer cachexia increases morbidity and mortality, and blocking of activin receptor ligands has improved survival in experimental cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully uncovered. Methods The effects of blocking activin receptor type 2 (ACVR2) ligands on both muscle and non-muscle tissues were investigated in a preclinical model of cancer cachexia using a recombinant soluble ACVR2B (sACVR2B-Fc). Treatment with sACVR2B-Fc was applied either only before the tumour formation or with continued treatment both before and after tumour formation. The potential roles of muscle and non-muscle tissues in cancer cachexia were investigated in order to understand the possible mechanisms of improved survival mediated by ACVR2 ligand blocking. Results Blocking of ACVR2 ligands improved survival in tumour-bearing mice only when the mice were treated both before and after the tumour formation. This occurred without effects on tumour growth, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines or the level of physical activity. ACVR2 ligand blocking was associated with increased muscle (limb and diaphragm) mass and attenuation of both hepatic protein synthesis and splenomegaly. Especially, the effects on the liver and the spleen were observed independent of the treatment protocol. The prevention of splenomegaly by sACVR2B-Fc was not explained by decreased markers of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Decreased tibialis anterior, diaphragm, and heart protein synthesis were observed in cachectic mice. This was associated with decreased mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) colocalization with late-endosomes/lysosomes, which correlated with cachexia and reduced muscle protein synthesis. Conclusions The prolonged survival with continued ACVR2 ligand blocking could potentially be attributed in part to the maintenance of limb and respiratory muscle mass, but many observed non-muscle effects suggest that the effect may be more complex than previously thought. Our novel finding showing decreased mTOR localization in skeletal muscle with lysosomes/late-endosomes in cancer opens up new research questions and possible treatment options for cachexia.