Browsing by Subject "PROTOCOL"

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  • Rank, Cecilie U.; Wolthers, Benjamin O.; Grell, Kathrine; Albertsen, Birgitte K.; Frandsen, Thomas L.; Overgaard, Ulrik M.; Toft, Nina; Nielsen, Ove J.; Wehner, Peder S.; Harila-Saari, Arja; Heyman, Mats M.; Malmros, Johan; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Noren-Nystrom, Ulrika; Tomaszewska-Toporska, Beata; Lund, Bendik; Jarvis, Kirsten B.; Quist-Paulsen, Petter; Vaitkeviciene, Goda E.; Griskevicius, Laimonas; Taskinen, Mervi; Wartiovaara-Kautto, Ulla; Lepik, Kristi; Punab, Mari; Jonsson, Olafur G.; Schmiegelow, Kjeld (2020)
    PURPOSE Asparaginase-associated pancreatitis (AAP) is common in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but risk differences across age groups both in relation to first-time AAP and after asparaginase re-exposure have not been explored. PATIENTS AND METHODS We prospectively registered AAP (n = 168) during treatment of 2,448 consecutive ALL patients aged 1.0-45.9 years diagnosed from July 2008 to October 2018 and treated according to the Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL2008 protocol. RESULTS Compared with patients aged 1.0-9.9 years, adjusted AAP hazard ratios (HRa) were associated with higher age with almost identical HRa (1.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.3; P = .02) for adolescents (10.0-17.9 years) and adults (18.0-45.9 years). The day 280 cumulative incidences of AAP were 7.0% for children (1.0-9.9 years: 95% CI, 5.4 to 8.6), 10.1% for adolescents (10.0 to 17.9 years: 95% CI, 7.0 to 13.3), and 11.0% for adults (18.0-45.9 years: 95% CI, 7.1 to 14.9; P = .03). Adolescents had increased odds of both acute (odds ratio [OR], 5.2; 95% CI, 2.1 to 13.2; P = .0005) and persisting complications (OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 2.4 to 18.4; P = .0002) compared with children (1.0-9.9 years), whereas adults had increased odds of only persisting complications (OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.4 to 11.8; P = .01). Fifteen of 34 asparaginase-rechallenged patients developed a second AAP. Asparaginase was truncated in 17/21 patients with AAP who subsequently developed leukemic relapse, but neither AAP nor the asparaginase truncation was associated with increased risk of relapse. CONCLUSION Older children and adults had similar AAP risk, whereas morbidity was most pronounced among adolescents. Asparaginase re-exposure should be considered only for patients with an anticipated high risk of leukemic relapse, because multiple studies strongly indicate that reduction of asparaginase treatment intensity increases the risk of relapse. (C) 2019 by American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • Siren, Jukka; Lens, Luc; Cousseau, Laurence; Ovaskainen, Otso (2018)
    1. Individual-based models (IBMs) allow realistic and flexible modelling of ecological systems, but their parameterization with empirical data is statistically and computationally challenging. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) has been proposed as an efficient approach for inference with IBMs, but its applicability to data on natural populations has not been yet fully explored. 2. We construct an IBM for the metapopulation dynamics of a species inhabiting a fragmented patch network, and develop an ABC method for parameterization of the model. We consider several scenarios of data availability from count data to combination of mark-recapture and genetic data. We analyse both simulated and real data on white-starred robin (Pogonocichla stellata), a passerine bird living in montane forest environment in Kenya, and assess how the amount and type of data affect the estimates of model parameters and indicators of population state. 3. The indicators of the population state could be reliably estimated using the ABC method, but full parameterization was not achieved due to strong posterior correlations between model parameters. While the combination of the data types did not provide more accurate estimates for most of the indicators of population state or model parameters than the most informative data type (ringing data or genetic data) alone, the combined data allowed robust simultaneous estimation of all unknown quantities. 4. Our results show that ABC methods provide a powerful and flexible technique forparameterizing complex IBMs with multiple data sources, and assessing the dynamics of the population in a robust manner.
  • Vuorinen, Aino-Maija; Pakarinen, Sami; Jaakkola, Ilkka; Holmström, Miia; Kivisto, Sari; Kaasalainen, Touko (2019)
    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with cardiac pacing devices has become available despite previously being considered absolutely contraindicated. However, most institutional safety protocols have included several limitations on patient selection, leaving MRI unavailable for many patients. Purpose To evaluate the first 1000 MRI examinations conducted on patients with cardiac pacing devices at Helsinki University Hospital for any potential safety hazards and also to evaluate the long-term functionality of the safety protocol in "real-life" clinical practice. Material and Methods A total of 1000 clinically indicated MRI scans were performed with a 1.5-T MRI scanner according to the safety protocol. The following information was collected from the electronic medical record (EMR): patients' date of birth; sex; pacing device generator model; date of MRI scan; date of the latest pacing device generator implantation; and the body region scanned. The EMR of these patients was checked and especially searched for any pacing device related safety hazards or adverse outcomes during or after the MRI scan. Results Only one potentially dangerous adverse event was noted in our study group. In addition, patients with abandoned leads, temporary pacing devices, and newly implanted pacing device generators were scanned successfully and safely. Conclusion MRI scans can be performed safely in patients with cardiac pacing devices if the dedicated safety protocol is followed.
  • Steele, Catriona M.; Mukherjee, Rajat; Kortelainen, Juha M.; Polonen, Harri; Jedwab, Michael; Brady, Susan L.; Theimer, Kayla Brinkman; Langmore, Susan; Riquelme, Luis F.; Swigert, Nancy B.; Bath, Philip M.; Goldstein, Larry B.; Hughes, Richard L.; Leifer, Dana; Lees, Kennedy R.; Meretoja, Atte; Muehlemann, Natalia (2019)
    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is prevalent in several at-risk populations, including post-stroke patients, patients in intensive care and the elderly. Dysphagia contributes to longer hospital stays and poor outcomes, including pneumonia. Early identification of dysphagia is recommended as part of the evaluation of at-risk patients, but available bedside screening tools perform inconsistently. In this study, we developed algorithms to detect swallowing impairment using a novel accelerometer-based dysphagia detection system (DDS). A sample of 344 individuals was enrolled across seven sites in the United States. Dual-axis accelerometry signals were collected prospectively with simultaneous videofluoroscopy (VFSS) during swallows of liquid barium stimuli in thin, mildly, moderately and extremely thick consistencies. Signal processing classifiers were trained using linear discriminant analysis and 10,000 random training-test data splits. The primary objective was to develop an algorithm to detect impaired swallowing safety with thin liquids with an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) > 80% compared to the VFSS reference standard. Impaired swallowing safety was identified in 7.2% of the thin liquid boluses collected. At least one unsafe thin liquid bolus was found in 19.7% of participants, but participants did not exhibit impaired safety consistently. The DDS classifier algorithms identified participants with impaired thin liquid swallowing safety with a mean AUC of 81.5%, (sensitivity 90.4%, specificity 60.0%). Thicker consistencies were effective for reducing the frequency of penetration-aspiration. This DDS reached targeted performance goals in detecting impaired swallowing safety with thin liquids. Simultaneous measures by DDS and VFSS, as performed here, will be used for future validation studies.
  • Benard-Slagter, Anne; Zondervan, Ilse; de Groot, Karel; Ghazavi, Farzaneh; Sarhadi, Virinder; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; De Moerloose, Barbara; Schwab, Claire; Vettenranta, Kim; Harrison, Christine J.; Knuutila, Sakari; Schouten, Jan; Lammens, Tim; Savola, Suvi (2017)
    Recurrent and clonal genetic alterations are characteristic of different subtypes of T- and B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and several subtypes are strong independent predictors of clinical outcome. A next-generation sequencing based multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification variant (digitalMLPA) has been developed enabling simultaneous detection of copy number alterations (CNAs) of up to 1000 target sequences. This novel digitalMLPA assay was designed and optimized to detect CNAs of 56 key target genes and regions in ALL. A set of digital karyotyping probes has been included for the detection of gross ploidy changes, to determine the extent of CNAs, while also serving as reference probes for data normalization. Sixty-seven ALL patient samples (including B- and T-cell ALL), previously characterized for genetic aberrations by standard MLPA, array comparative genomic hybridization, and/or single-nucleotide polymorphism array, were analyzed single blinded using digitalMLPA. The digitalMLPA assay reliably identified whole chromosome losses and gains (including high hyperdiploidy), whole gene deletions or gains, intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21, fusion genes, and intragenic deletions, which were confirmed by other methods. Furthermore, subclonal alterations were reliably detected if present in at least 20% to 30% of neoplastic cells. The diagnostic sensitivity of the digitaLMLPA assay was 98.9%, and the specificity was 97.8%. These results merit further consideration of digitalMLPA as a valuable alternative for genetic work-up of newly diagnosed ALL patients.
  • Borssen, Magnus; Haider, Zahra; Landfors, Mattias; Noren-Nystrom, Ulrika; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Asberg, Ann E.; Kanerva, Jukka; Madsen, Hans O.; Marquart, Hanne; Heyman, Mats; Hultdin, Magnus; Roos, Goran; Forestier, Erik; Degerman, Sofie (2016)
    Background. Despite increased knowledge about genetic aberrations in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), no clinically feasible treatment-stratifying marker exists at diagnosis. Instead patients are enrolled in intensive induction therapies with substantial side effects. In modern protocols, therapy response is monitored by minimal residual disease (MRD) analysis and used for postinduction risk group stratification. DNA methylation profiling is a candidate for subtype discrimination at diagnosis and we investigated its role as a prognostic marker in pediatric T-ALL. Procedure. Sixty-five diagnostic T-ALL samples from Nordic pediatric patients treated according to the Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology ALL 2008 (NOPHO ALL 2008) protocol were analyzed by HumMeth450K genome wide DNA methylation arrays. Methylation status was analyzed in relation to clinical data and early T-cell precursor (ETP) phenotype. Results. Two distinct CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) groups were identified. Patients with a CIMP-negative profile had an inferior response to treatment compared to CIMP-positive patients (3-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR3y) rate: 29% vs. 6%, P = 0.01). Most importantly, CIMP classification at diagnosis allowed subgrouping of high-risk T-ALL patients (MRD >= 0.1% at day 29) into two groups with significant differences in outcome (CIR3y rates: CIMP negative 50% vs. CIMP positive 12%; P = 0.02). These groups did not differ regarding ETP phenotype, but the CIMP-negative group was younger (P = 0.02) and had higher white blood cell count at diagnosis (P = 0.004) compared with the CIMP-positive group. Conclusions. CIMP classification at diagnosis in combination with MRD during induction therapy is a strong candidate for further risk classification and could confer important information in treatment decision making. (C) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • Quéléver, Lauriane L. J.; Kristensen, Kasper; Jensen, Louise Normann; Rosati, Bernadette; Teiwes, Ricky; Dällenbach, Kaspar; Peräkylä, Otso; Roldin, Pontus; Bossi, Rossana; Pedersen, Henrik B.; Glasius, Marianne; Bilde, Merete; Ehn, Mikael (2019)
    Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) are important contributors to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and new-particle formation (NPF) in the boreal atmosphere. This newly discovered class of molecules is efficiently formed from atmospheric oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as monoterpenes, through a process called autoxidation. This process, in which peroxy-radical intermediates isomerize to allow addition of molecular oxygen, is expected to be highly temperature-dependent. Here, we studied the dynamics of HOM formation during a -pinene ozonolysis experiments performed at three different temperatures, 20, 0 and - 15 degrees C, in the Aarhus University Research on Aerosol (AURA) chamber. We found that the HOM formation, under our experimental conditions (50 ppb alpha-pinene and 100 ppb ozone), decreased considerably at lower temperature, with molar yields dropping by around a factor of 50 when experiments were performed at 0 degrees C, compared to 20 degrees C. At -15 degrees C, the HOM signals were already close to the detection limit of the nitrate-based chemical ionization atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight (CI-APi-TOF) mass spectrometer used for measuring gas-phase HOMs. Surprisingly, comparing spectra measured at 0 and 20 degrees C, ratios between HOMs of different oxidation levels, e.g., the typical HOM products C10H14O7, C10H14O9, and C10H14O11, changed considerably less than the total HOM yields. More oxidized species have undergone more isomerization steps; yet, at lower temperature, they did not decrease more than the less oxidized species. One possible explanation is that the primary rate-limiting steps forming these HOMs occur before the products become oxygenated enough to be detected by our CI-APi-TOF (i.e., typically seven or more oxygen atoms). The strong temperature dependence of HOM formation was observed under temperatures highly relevant to the boreal forest, but the exact magnitude of this effect in the atmosphere will be much more complex: the fate of peroxy radicals is a competition between autoxidation (influenced by temperature and VOC type) and bimolecular termination pathways (influenced mainly by concentration of reaction partners). While the temperature influence is likely smaller in the boreal atmosphere than in our chamber, both the magnitude and complexity of this effect clearly deserve more consideration in future studies in order to estimate the ultimate role of HOMs on SOA and NPF under different atmospheric conditions.
  • Molteni, Ugo; Simon, Mario; Heinritzi, Martin; Hoyle, Christopher R.; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia; Dias, António; Duplissy, Jonathan; Frege, Carla; Gordon, Hamish; Heyn, Claudia; Jokinen, Tuija; Kürten, Andreas; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Petäjä, Tuukka; Pieber, Simone M.; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Steiner, Gerhard; Stozhkov, Yuri; Tomé, António; Tröstl, Jasmin; Wagner, Andrea C.; Wagner, Robert; Williamson, Christina; Yan, Chao; Baltensperger, Urs; Curtius, Joachim; Donahue, Neil M.; Hansel, Armin; Kirkby, Jasper; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Dommen, Josef (2019)
    Terpenes are emitted by vegetation, and their oxidation in the atmosphere is an important source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). A part of this oxidation can proceed through an autoxidation process, yielding highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) with low saturation vapor pressure. They can therefore contribute, even in the absence of sulfuric acid, to new particle formation (NPF). The understanding of the autoxidation mechanism and its kinetics is still far from complete. Here, we present a mechanistic and kinetic analysis of mass spectrometry data from α-pinene (AP) ozonolysis experiments performed during the CLOUD 8 campaign at CERN. We grouped HOMs in classes according to their identified chemical composition and investigated the relative changes of these groups and their components as a function of the reagent concentration. We determined reaction rate constants for the different HOM peroxy radical reaction pathways. The accretion reaction between HOM peroxy radicals was found to be extremely fast. We developed a pseudo-mechanism for HOM formation and added it to the AP oxidation scheme of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). With this extended model, the observed concentrations and trends in HOM formation were successfully simulated.
  • Jyväkorpi, Satu K.; Pitkala, Kaisu H.; Puranen, Taija M.; Björkman, Mikko P.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Strandberg, Timo E.; Helena, Soini; Suominen, Merja H. (2017)
    Background: High dietary sugar intake may compromise protein and micronutrient intakes in people with low energy intakes. The results of micronutrient dilution studies in older people have been few and conflicting. We examined the nutritional status and nutrient intakes associated with nonmilk extrinsic sugars (NMES) intakes in older people representing a broad spectrum of both healthy and vulnerable older populations. Design and participants: This cross-sectional study combined five Finnish data sets covering homedwelling (n = 526) and institutionalized (n = 374) older people. Their nutritional status was assessed using Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and nutrient intakes retrieved from 1- to 3-day food records. The participants were divided into quartiles corresponding to the proportions of energy received from NMES. Energy, nutrient, and fiber intakes were classified according to the NMES quartiles, and the participants were divided according to their places of residence (home, institution). Results: High NMES intakes were associated with older age, female sex, poor cognition, low MNA scores, immobility, and institutionalization. In all, 90% of the participants in the highest NMES quartile (Q4) were institutionalized. In the institutionalized individuals, low protein and micronutrient intakes were observed in both those with low energy intake (Q1) and in those with very high NMES intakes (Q4). In home-dwelling individuals, the nutrient intakes tended to decline linearly with increasing NMES intakes in protein and most micronutrients. Conclusions: Institutionalized older people consumed diets high in NMES, compared with those living at home, and their low energy and high NMES intakes were associated with low protein and micronutrient intakes. (C) 2016 AMDA - The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine.
  • Mammola, Stefano; Fontaneto, Diego; Martinez, Alejandro; Chichorro, Filipe (2021)
    Many believe that the quality of a scientific publication is as good as the science it cites. However, quantifications of how features of reference lists affect citations remain sparse. We examined seven numerical characteristics of reference lists of 50,878 research articles published in 17 ecological journals between 1997 and 2017. Over this period, significant changes occurred in reference lists' features. On average, more recent papers have longer reference lists and cite more high Impact Factor papers and fewer non-journal publications. We also show that highly cited articles across the ecological literature have longer reference lists, cite more recent and impactful references, and include more self-citations. Conversely, the proportion of 'classic' papers and non-journal publications cited, as well as the temporal span of the reference list, have no significant influence on articles' citations. From this analysis, we distill a recipe for crafting impactful reference lists, at least in ecology.
  • Nicolosi, Giuseppe; Mammola, Stefano; Costanzo, Salvatore; Sabella, Giorgio; Cirrincione, Rosolino; Signorello, Giovanni; Isaia, Marco (2021)
    Human activities in subterranean environments can affect different ecosystem components, including the resident fauna. Subterranean terrestrial invertebrates are particularly sensitive to environmental change, especially microclimatic variations. For instance, microclimate modifications caused by the visitors may directly affect local fauna in caves opened to the public. However, since numerous factors act synergistically in modulating the distribution and abundance of subterranean species, it remains challenging to differentiate the impact of human intervention from that of other factors. Therefore, evidence of the impact of tourism on cave invertebrate fauna remains scarce. Over a year and with approximately two visits a month, we investigated the effects of the presence of visitors on the subterranean endemic woodlouse Armadillidium lagrecai in the strict natural reserve of Monello Cave (Sicily, Italy). We found that natural microclimatic fluctuations, and not direct human disturbance, were the main factors driving the distribution of A. lagrecai. Specifically, A. lagrecai select for more climatically stable areas of the cave, where the temperature was constantly warm and the relative humidity close to saturation. We also observed a significant temporal effect, with a greater abundance of A. lagrecai in summer and a gradual decrease during the winter months. The number of visitors in the Monello cave had no effect on the abundance and distribution of A. lagrecai. However, considering the high sensitivity of the species to microclimatic variations, it seems likely that a significant increase in the number of visitors to the cave could indirectly affect this species by altering local microclimate. Constant monitoring of the environmental parameters within the cave is therefore recommended.
  • Rosenberg, Anna; Ngandu, Tiia; Rusanen, Minna; Antikainen, Riitta; Bäckman, Lars; Havulinna, Satu; Hänninen, Tuomo; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Levälahti, Esko; Lindström, Jaana; Paajanen, Teemu; Peltonen, Markku; Soininen, Hilkka; Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Solomon, Alina; Kivipelto, Miia (2018)
    Introduction: The 2-year Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) multidomain lifestyle intervention trial (NCT01041989) demonstrated beneficial effects on cognition. We investigated whether sociodemographics, socioeconomic status, baseline cognition, or cardiovascular factors influenced intervention effects on cognition. Methods: The FINGER recruited 1260 people from the general Finnish population (60-77 years, at risk for dementia). Participants were randomized 1: 1 to multidomain intervention (diet, exercise, cognition, and vascular risk management) and regular health advice. Primary outcome was change in cognition (Neuropsychological Test Battery z-score). Prespecified analyses to investigate whether participants' characteristics modified response to intervention were carried out using mixed-model repeated-measures analyses. Results: Sociodemographics (sex, age, and education), socioeconomic status (income), cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination), cardiovascular factors (body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, fasting glucose, and overall cardiovascular risk), and cardiovascular comorbidity did not modify response to intervention (P-values for interaction > .05). Conclusions: The FINGER intervention was beneficial regardless of participants' characteristics and can thus be implemented in a large elderly population at increased risk for dementia. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the Alzheimer's Association.
  • Choque-Velasquez, Joham; Colasanti, Roberto; Resendiz-Nieves, Julio; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Tynninen, Olli; Collan, Juhani; Niemelä, Mika; Hernesniemi, Juha (2018)
    BACKGROUND: Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a rare grade II-III pineal lesion with peculiar histological and immunohistochemical features. These tumors mostly occur in adults, only rarely in children, with 19 cases reported up to now. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a 3-year-old boy who underwent reoperation for a recurrent PTPR (grade II). Gross total resection of the lesion through an occipital interhemispheric approach with the patient in a sitting position was followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Histological examination revealed tumor progression (grade III) and an MIB-1 proliferation index >25%. The patient continues to do well with no evidence of recurrence more than 3 years following surgery. A comprehensive literature review regarding the PTPR, including the current management in children, is reported. CONCLUSIONS: PTPRs are extremely rare in children, and immunohistochemistry is needed to differentiate them from other pineal tumors. These tumors show a high rate of recurrence, and a multidisciplinary management approach (microsurgical resection followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy) can help achieve a favorable outcome.
  • Adamo, Martino; Chialva, Matteo; Calevo, Jacopo; Bertoni, Filippo; Dixon, Kingsley; Mammola, Stefano (2021)
    Despite the perception that plant science focuses on strictly scientific criteria, this analysis finds that there is an aesthetic bias in regards to which plants, based on certain traits, receive more research attention. Scientists' research interests are often skewed toward charismatic organisms, but quantifying research biases is challenging. By combining bibliometric data with trait-based approaches and using a well-studied alpine flora as a case study, we demonstrate that morphological and colour traits, as well as range size, have significantly more impact on species choice for wild flowering plants than traits related to ecology and rarity. These biases should be taken into account to inform more objective plant conservation efforts.
  • Choque-Velasquez, Joham; Colasanti, Roberto; Resendiz-Nieves, Julio C.; Gonzales-Echevarria, Kleber E.; Raj, Rahul; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Goehre, Felix; Lindroos, Ann-Christine; Hernesniemi, Juha (2018)
    BACKGROUND: The sitting position has lost favor among neurosurgeons partly owing to assumptions of increased complications, such as venous air embolisms and hemodynamic disturbances. Moreover, the surgeon must assume a tiring posture. We describe our protocol for the "praying position" for pineal region surgery; this variant may reduce some of the risks of the sitting position, while providing a more ergonomic surgical position. METHODS: A retrospective review of 56 pineal lesions operated on using the praying position between January 2008 and October 2015 was performed. The praying position is a steeper sitting position with the upper torso and the head bent forward and downward. The patient's head is tilted about 30 degrees making the tentorium almost horizontal, thus providing a good viewing angle. G-suit trousers or elastic bandages around the lower extremities are always used. RESULTS: Complete lesion removal was achieved in 52 cases; subtotal removal was achieved in 4. Venous air embolism associated with persistent hemodynamic changes was nonexistent in this series. When venous air embolism was suspected, an immediate reaction based on good teamwork was imperative. No cervical spine cord injury or peripheral nerve damage was reported. The microsurgical time was CONCLUSIONS: A protocolized praying position that includes proper teamwork management may provide a simple, fast, and safe approach for proper placement of the patient for pineal region surgery.
  • Nesbitt, Robin C.; Lohela, Terhi; Manu, Alexander; Vesel, Linda; Okyere, Eunice; Edmond, Karen; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Kirkwood, Betty R.; Gabrysch, Sabine (2013)
  • Ianiro, Gianluca; Mullish, Benjamin H.; Kelly, Colleen R.; Kassam, Zain; Kuijper, Ed J.; Ng, Siew C.; Iqbal, Tariq H.; Allegretti, Jessica R.; Bibbo, Stefano; Sokol, Harry; Zhang, Faming; Fischer, Monika; Costello, Samuel Paul; Keller, Josbert J.; Masucci, Luca; van Prehn, Joffrey; Quaranta, Gianluca; Quraishi, Mohammed Nabil; Segal, Jonathan; Kao, Dina; Satokari, Reetta; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Tilg, Herbert; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Cammarota, Giovanni (2020)
    The COVID-19 pandemic has led to an exponential increase in SARS-CoV-2 infections and associated deaths, and represents a significant challenge to healthcare professionals and facilities. Individual countries have taken several prevention and containment actions to control the spread of infection, including measures to guarantee safety of both healthcare professionals and patients who are at increased risk of infection from COVID-19. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has a well-established role in the treatment of Clostridioides difficile infection. In the time of the pandemic, FMT centres and stool banks are required to adopt a workflow that continues to ensure reliable patient access to FMT while maintaining safety and quality of procedures. In this position paper, based on the best available evidence, worldwide FMT experts provide guidance on issues relating to the impact of COVID-19 on FMT, including patient selection, donor recruitment and selection, stool manufacturing, FMT procedures, patient follow-up and research activities.
  • Mustonen, L.; Vollert, J.; Rice, A. S. C.; Kalso, E.; Harno, H. (2020)
    Purpose We performed a detailed analysis of sensory function in patients with chronic post-surgical neuropathic pain (NP) after breast cancer treatments by quantitative sensory testing (QST) with DFNS (German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain) protocol and bed side examination (BE). The nature of sensory changes in peripheral NP may reflect distinct pathophysiological backgrounds that can guide the treatment choices. NP with sensory gain (i.e., hyperesthesia, hyperalgesia, allodynia) has been shown to respond to Na+-channel blockers (e.g., oxcarbazepine). Methods 104 patients with at least "probable" NP in the surgical area were included. All patients had been treated for breast cancer 4-9 years ago and the handling of the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN) was verified by the surgeon. QST was conducted at the site of NP in the surgical or nearby area and the corresponding contralateral area. BE covered the upper body and sensory abnormalities were marked on body maps and digitalized for area calculation. The outcomes of BE and QST were compared to assess the value of QST in the sensory examination of this patient group. Results Loss of function in both small and large fibers was a prominent feature in QST in the area of post-surgical NP. QST profiles did not differ between spared and resected ICBN. In BE, hypoesthesia on multiple modalities was highly prevalent. The presence of sensory gain in BE was associated with more intense pain. Conclusions Extensive sensory loss is characteristic for chronic post-surgical NP several years after treatment for breast cancer. These patients are unlikely to respond to Na+-channel blockers.
  • Pachito, Daniela V.; Pega, Frank; Bakusic, Jelena; Boonen, Emma; Clays, Els; Descatha, Alexis; Delvaux, Ellen; De Bacquer, Dirk; Koskenvuo, Karoliina; Kroeger, Hannes; Lambrechts, Marie-Claire; Latorraca, Carolina O. C.; Li, Jian; Cabrera Martimbianco, Ana L.; Riera, Rachel; Rugulies, Reiner; Sembajwe, Grace; Siegrist, Johannes; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Sumanen, Markku; Suominen, Sakari; Ujita, Yuka; Vandersmissen, Godelieve; Godderis, Lode (2021)
    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing Joint Estimates of the work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO Joint Estimates), with contributions from a large network of experts. Evidence from mechanistic data suggests that exposure to long working hours may increase alcohol consumption and cause alcohol use disorder. In this paper, we present a systematic review and meta-analysis of parameters for estimating the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years from alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder that are attributable to exposure to long working hours, for the development of the WHO/ILO Joint Estimates. Objectives: We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse estimates of the effect of exposure to long working hours (three categories: 41-48, 49-54 and >55 h/week), compared with exposure to standard working hours (35-40 h/week), on alcohol consumption, risky drinking (three outcomes: prevalence, incidence and mortality) and alcohol use disorder (three outcomes: prevalence, incidence and mortality). Data sources: We developed and published a protocol, applying the Navigation Guide as an organizing systematic review framework where feasible. We searched electronic bibliographic databases for potentially relevant records from published and unpublished studies, including the WHO International Clinical Trials Register, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, and CISDOC on 30 June 2018. Searches on PubMed were updated on 18 April 2020. We also searched electronic grey literature databases, Internet search engines and organizational websites; hand searched reference list of previous systematic reviews and included study records; and consulted additional experts. Study eligibility and criteria: We included working-age (15 years) and unpaid domestic workers. We considered for inclusion randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and other nonrandomized intervention studies with an estimate of the effect of exposure to long working hours (41-48, 49-54 and 55 h/week), compared with exposure to standard working hours (35-40 h/week), on alcohol consumption (in g/week), risky drinking, and alcohol use disorder (prevalence, incidence or mortality). Study appraisal and synthesis methods: At least two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts against the eligibility criteria at a first stage and full texts of potentially eligible records at a second stage, followed by extraction of data from publications related to qualifying studies. Two or more review authors assessed the risk of bias, quality of evidence and strength of evidence, using Navigation Guide and GRADE tools and approaches adapted to this project. Results: Fourteen cohort studies met the inclusion criteria, comprising a total of 104,599 participants (52,107 females) in six countries of three WHO regions (Americas, South-East Asia, and Europe). The exposure and outcome were assessed with self-reported measures in most studies. Across included studies, risk of bias was generally probably high, with risk judged high or probably high for detection bias and missing data for alcohol consumption and risky drinking. Compared to working 35-40 h/week, exposure to working 41-48 h/week increased alcohol consumption by 10.4 g/week (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.59-15.20; seven studies; 25,904 participants, I2 71%, low quality evidence). Exposure to working 49-54 h/week increased alcohol consumption by 17.69 g/week (95% confidence interval (CI) 9.16-26.22; seven studies, 19,158 participants, I2 82%, low quality evidence). Exposure to working >55 h/week increased alcohol consumption by 16.29 g/week (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.93-24.65; seven studies; 19,692 participants; I2 82%, low quality evidence). We are uncertain about the effect of exposure to working 41-48 h/week, compared with working 35-40 h/week on developing risky drinking (relative risk 1.08; 95% CI 0.86-1.36; 12 studies; I2 52%, low certainty evidence). Working 49-54 h/week did not increase the risk of developing risky drinking (relative risk 1.12; 95% CI 0.90-1.39; 12 studies; 3832 participants; I2 24%, moderate certainty evidence), nor working >55 h/week (relative risk 1.11; 95% CI 0.95-1.30; 12 studies; 4525 participants; I2 0%, moderate certainty evidence). Subgroup analyses indicated that age may influence the association between long working hours and both alcohol consumption and risky drinking. We did not identify studies for which we had access to results on alcohol use disorder. Conclusions: Overall, for alcohol consumption in g/week and for risky drinking, we judged this body of evidence to be of low certainty. Exposure to long working hours may have increased alcohol consumption, but we are uncertain about the effect on risky drinking. We found no eligible studies on the effect on alcohol use disorder. Producing estimates for the burden of alcohol use disorder attributable to exposure to long working hours appears to not be evidence-based at this time. Protocol identifier: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.07.025. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018084077
  • Mammola, Stefano; Riccardi, Nicoletta; Prie, Vincent; Correia, Ricardo A.; Cardoso, Pedro; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Sousa, Ronaldo (2020)
    Through the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and the financial investments of the LIFE projects, Europe has become an experimental arena for biological conservation. With an estimated annual budget of euro20 billion, the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 has set an ambitious goal of classifying 30% of its land and sea territory as Protected Areas and ensuring no deterioration in conservation trends and the status of protected species. We analysed LIFE projects focused on animals from 1992 to 2018 and found that investment in vertebrates was six times higher than that for invertebrates (euro970 versus euro150 million), with birds and mammals alone accounting for 72% of species and 75% of the total budget. In relative terms, investment per species towards vertebrates has been 468 times higher than that for invertebrates. Using a trait-based approach, we show that conservation effort is primarily explained by species' popularity rather than extinction risk or body size. Therefore, we propose a roadmap to achieve unbiased conservation targets for 2030 and beyond.