Browsing by Subject "PROTON-TRANSFER"

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  • Postila, Pekka A.; Kaszuba, Karol; Kuleta, Patryk; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur; Rog, Tomasz (2016)
    The cytochrome (cyt) bc(1) complex is an integral component of the respiratory electron transfer chain sustaining the energy needs of organisms ranging from humans to bacteria. Due to its ubiquitous role in the energy metabolism, both the oxidation and reduction of the enzyme's substrate co-enzyme Q has been studied vigorously. Here, this vast amount of data is reassessed after probing the substrate reduction steps at the Q(i)-site of the cyt bc(1) complex of Rhodobacter capsulatus using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations suggest that the Lys251 side chain could rotate into the Q(i)-site to facilitate binding of half-protonated semiquinone - a reaction intermediate that is potentially formed during substrate reduction. At this bent pose, the Lys251 forms a salt bridge with the Asp252, thus making direct proton transfer possible. In the neutral state, the lysine side chain stays close to the conserved binding location of cardiolipin (CL). This back-and-forth motion between the CL and Asp252 indicates that Lys251 functions as a proton shuttle controlled by pH-dependent negative feedback. The CL/K/D switching, which represents a refinement to the previously described CL/K pathway, fine-tunes the proton transfer process. Lastly, the simulation data was used to formulate a mechanism for reducing the substrate at the Q(i)-site.
  • Vaikkinen, Anu; Kauppila, Tiina J.; Kostiainen, Risto (2016)
    The efficiencies of charge exchange reaction in dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DA-APCI) and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (DA-APPI) mass spectrometry (MS) were compared by flow injection analysis. Fourteen individual compounds and a commercial mixture of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were chosen as model analytes to cover a wide range of polarities, gas-phase ionization energies, and proton affinities. Chlorobenzene was used as the dopant, and methanol/water (80/20) as the solvent. In both techniques, analytes formed the same ions (radical cations, protonated molecules, and/or fragments). However, in DA-APCI, the relative efficiency of charge exchange versus proton transfer was lower than in DA-APPI. This is suggested to be because in DA-APCI both dopant and solvent clusters can be ionized, and the formed reagent ions can react with the analytes via competing charge exchange and proton transfer reactions. In DA-APPI, on the other hand, the main reagents are dopant-derived radical cations, which favor ionization of analytes via charge exchange. The efficiency of charge exchange in both DA-APPI and DA-APCI was shown to depend heavily on the solvent flow rate, with best efficiency seen at lowest flow rates studied (0.05 and 0.1 mL/min). Both DA-APCI and DA-APPI showed the radical cation of chlorobenzene at 0.05-0.1 mL/min flow rate, but at increasing flow rate, the abundance of chlorobenzene M+. decreased and reagent ion populations deriving from different gas-phase chemistry were recorded. The formation of these reagent ions explains the decreasing ionization efficiency and the differences in charge exchange between the techniques.
  • Suomivuori, Carl-Mikael; Gamiz-Hernandez, Ana P.; Sundholm, Dage; Kaila, Ville R. I. (2017)
    The conversion of light energy into ion gradients across biological membranes is one of the most fundamental reactions in primary biological energy transduction. Recently, the structure of the first light-activated Na+ pump, Krokinobacter eikastus rhodopsin 2 (KR2), was resolved at atomic resolution [Kato HE, et al. (2015) Nature 521: 48-53]. To elucidate its molecular mechanism for Na+ pumping, we perform here extensive classical and quantum molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of transient photocycle states. Our simulations show how the dynamics of key residues regulate water and ion access between the bulk and the buried light-triggered retinal site. We identify putative Na+ binding sites and show how protonation and conformational changes gate the ion through these sites toward the extracellular side. We further show by correlated ab initio quantum chemical calculations that the obtained putative photocycle intermediates are in close agreement with experimental transient optical spectroscopic data. The combined results of the ion translocation and gating mechanisms in KR2 may provide a basis for the rational design of novel light-driven ion pumps with optogenetic applications.
  • Stepanenko, Olesya V.; Stepanenko, Olga V.; Kuznetsova, Irina M.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.; Turoverov, Konstantin K. (2014)
  • Claesson, Elin; Wahlgren, Weixiao Yuan; Takala, Heikki; Pandey, Suraj; Castillon, Leticia; Kuznetsova, Valentyna; Henry, Leocadie; Panman, Matthijs; Carrillo, Melissa; Kubel, Joachim; Nanekar, Rahul; Isaksson, Linnea; Nimmrich, Amke; Cellini, Andrea; Morozov, Dmitry; Maj, Michal; Kurttila, Moona; Bosman, Robert; Nango, Eriko; Tanaka, Rie; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Fangjia, Luo; Iwata, So; Owada, Shigeki; Moffat, Keith; Groenhof, Gerrit; Stojkovic, Emina A.; Ihalainen, Janne A.; Schmidt, Marius; Westenhoff, Sebastian (2020)
    Phytochrome proteins control the growth, reproduction, and photosynthesis of plants, fungi, and bacteria. Light is detected by a bilin cofactor, but it remains elusive how this leads to activation of the protein through structural changes. We present serial femtosecond X-ray crystallographic data of the chromophore-binding domains of a bacterial phytochrome at delay times of 1 ps and 10 ps after photoexcitation. The data reveal a twist of the D-ring, which leads to partial detachment of the chromophore from the protein. Unexpectedly, the conserved so-called pyrrole water is photodissociated from the chromophore, concomitant with movement of the A-ring and a key signaling aspartate. The changes are wired together by ultrafast backbone and water movements around the chromophore, channeling them into signal transduction towards the output domains. We suggest that the observed collective changes are important for the phytochrome photoresponse, explaining the earliest steps of how plants, fungi and bacteria sense red light.