Browsing by Subject "PROVIDES INSIGHTS"

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  • Chan, Yingleong; Lim, Elaine T.; Sandholm, Niina; Wang, Sophie R.; McKnight, Amy Jayne; Ripke, Stephan; Daly, Mark J.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Salem, Rany M.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; DIAGRAM Consortium; GENIE Consortium; GIANT Consortium; IIBDGC Consortium; PGC Consortium (2014)
  • Hu, Ming; Cebola, Ines; Carrat, Gaelle; Jiang, Shuying; Nawaz, Sameena; Khamis, Amna; Canouil, Mickael; Froguel, Philippe; Schulte, Anke; Solimena, Michele; Ibberson, Mark; Marchetti, Piero; Cardenas-Diaz, Fabian L.; Gadue, Paul J.; Hastoy, Benoit; Almeida-Souza, Leonardo; McMahon, Harvey; Rutter, Guy A. (2021)
    Using chromatin conformation capture, we show that an enhancer cluster in the STARD10 type 2 diabetes (T2D) locus forms a defined 3-dimensional (3D) chromatin domain. A 4.1-kb region within this locus, carrying 5 T2D-associated variants, physically interacts with CTCF-binding regions and with an enhancer possessing strong transcriptional activity. Analysis of human islet 3D chromatin interaction maps identifies the FCHSD2 gene as an additional target of the enhancer cluster. CRISPR-Cas9-mediated deletion of the variant region, or of the associated enhancer, from human pancreas-derived EndoC-bH1 cells impairs glucose- stimulated insulin secretion. Expression of both STARD10 and FCHSD2 is reduced in cells harboring CRISPR deletions, and lower expression of STARD10 and FCHSD2 is associated, the latter nominally, with the possession of risk variant alleles in human islets. Finally, CRISPR-Cas9-mediated loss of STARD10 or FCHSD2, but not ARAP1, impairs regulated insulin secretion. Thus, multiple genes at the STARD10 locus influence b cell function.
  • ADHD Working Grp Psychiat Genomics; Early Lifecourse Genetic; 23andMe Res Team; Daly, Mark J. (2019)
    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable childhood behavioral disorder affecting 5% of children and 2.5% of adults. Common genetic variants contribute substantially to ADHD susceptibility, but no variants have been robustly associated with ADHD. We report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 20,183 individuals diagnosed with ADHD and 35,191 controls that identifies variants surpassing genome-wide significance in 12 independent loci, finding important new information about the underlying biology of ADHD. Associations are enriched in evolutionarily constrained genomic regions and loss-of-function intolerant genes and around brain-expressed regulatory marks. Analyses of three replication studies: a cohort of individuals diagnosed with ADHD, a self-reported ADHD sample and a meta-analysis of quantitative measures of ADHD symptoms in the population, support these findings while highlighting study-specific differences on genetic overlap with educational attainment. Strong concordance with GWAS of quantitative population measures of ADHD symptoms supports that clinical diagnosis of ADHD is an extreme expression of continuous heritable traits.
  • Kilpelainen, Tuomas O.; Carli, Jayne F. Martin; Skowronski, Alicja A.; Sun, Qi; Kriebel, Jennifer; Feitosa, Mary F.; Hedman, Asa K.; Drong, Alexander W.; Hayes, James E.; Zhao, Jinghua; Pers, Tune H.; Schick, Ursula; Grarup, Niels; Kutalik, Zoltan; Trompet, Stella; Mangino, Massimo; Kristiansson, Kati; Beekman, Marian; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Eriksson, Joel; Henneman, Peter; Lahti, Jari; Tanaka, Toshiko; Luan, Jian'an; Del Greco M, Fabiola; Pasko, Dorota; Renstrom, Frida; Willems, Sara M.; Mahajan, Anubha; Rose, Lynda M.; Guo, Xiuqing; Liu, Yongmei; Kleber, Marcus E.; Perusse, Louis; Gaunt, Tom; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Sung, Yun Ju; Ramos, Yolande F.; Amin, Najaf; Amuzu, Antoinette; Barroso, Ines; Bellis, Claire; Blangero, John; Buckley, Brendan M.; Boehringer, Stefan; Chen, Yii-Der I.; de Craen, Anton J. N.; Crosslin, David R.; Dale, Caroline E.; Dastani, Zari; Day, Felix R.; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela E.; Demirkan, Ayse; Finucane, Francis M.; Ford, Ian; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gieger, Christian; Gustafsson, Stefan; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Havulinna, Aki S.; Herder, Christian; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hunter, David J.; Illig, Thomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea; Jansson, John-Olov; Jenny, Nancy S.; Jorgensen, Marit E.; Jorgensen, Torben; Karlsson, Magnus; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kraft, Peter; Kwekkeboom, Joanneke; Laatikainen, Tiina; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; LeDuc, Charles A.; Lowe, Gordon; Lu, Yingchang; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meisinger, Christa; Menni, Cristina; Morris, Andrew P.; Myers, Richard H.; Mannisto, Satu; Nalls, Mike A.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Peters, Annette; Pradhan, Aruna D.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rice, Treva K.; Richards, J. Brent; Ridker, Paul M.; Sattar, Naveed; Savage, David B.; Soderberg, Stefan; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Heemst, Diana; Uh, Hae-Won; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Walker, Mark; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Wood, Andrew R.; Yao, Jie; Zeller, Tanja; Zhang, Yiying; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Astrup, Arne; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Rao, D. C.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Vartiainen, Erkki; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G.; Heliovaara, Markku; Knekt, Paul B.; Koskinen, Seppo; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Huupponen, Risto K.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Kahonen, Mika; Lehtimaki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T.; Mellstrom, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias; Casas, Juan P.; Bandinelli, Stefanie; Maerz, Winfried; Isaacs, Aaron; van Dijk, Ko W.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Harris, Tamara B.; Bouchard, Claude; Allison, Matthew A.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ohlsson, Claes; Lind, Lars; Scott, Robert A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Frayling, Timothy M.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Bergmann, Sven; Waeber, Gerard; Vollenweider, Peter; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Hu, Frank B.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Grallert, Harald; Spector, Tim D.; Jukema, J. W.; Klein, Robert J.; Schadt, Erik E.; Franks, Paul W.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Loos, Ruth J. F. (2016)
    Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone, the circulating levels of which correlate closely with overall adiposity. Although rare mutations in the leptin (LEP) gene are well known to cause leptin deficiency and severe obesity, no common loci regulating circulating leptin levels have been uncovered. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating leptin levels from 32,161 individuals and followed up loci reaching P <10(-6) in 19,979 additional individuals. We identify five loci robustly associated (P <5 x 10(-8)) with leptin levels in/near LEP, SLC32A1, GCKR, CCNL1 and FTO. Although the association of the FTO obesity locus with leptin levels is abolished by adjustment for BMI, associations of the four other loci are independent of adiposity. The GCKR locus was found associated with multiple metabolic traits in previous GWAS and the CCNL1 locus with birth weight. Knockdown experiments in mouse adipose tissue explants show convincing evidence for adipogenin, a regulator of adipocyte differentiation, as the novel causal gene in the SLC32A1 locus influencing leptin levels. Our findings provide novel insights into the regulation of leptin production by adipose tissue and open new avenues for examining the influence of variation in leptin levels on adiposity and metabolic health.
  • Trampush, J. W.; Yang, M. L. Z.; Yu, J.; Knowles, E.; Davies, G.; Liewald, D. C.; Starr, J. M.; Djurovic, S.; Melle, I.; Sundet, K.; Christoforou, A.; Reinvang, I.; DeRosse, P.; Lundervold, A. J.; Steen, V. M.; Espeseth, T.; Räikkönen, Katri; Widen, E.; Palotie, A.; Eriksson, J. G.; Giegling, I.; Konte, B.; Roussos, P.; Giakoumaki, S.; Burdick, K. E.; Payton, A.; Ollier, W.; Horan, M.; Chiba-Falek, O.; Attix, D. K.; Need, A. C.; Cirulli, E. T.; Voineskos, A. N.; Stefanis, N. C.; Avramopoulos, D.; Hatzimanolis, A.; Arking, D. E.; Smyrnis, N.; Bilder, R. M.; Freimer, N. A.; Cannon, T. D.; London, E.; Poldrack, R. A.; Sabb, F. W.; Congdon, E.; Conley, E. D.; Scult, M. A.; Dickinson, D.; Straub, R. E.; Donohoe, G.; Morris, D.; Corvin, A.; Gill, M.; Hariri, A. R.; Weinberger, D. R.; Pendleton, N.; Bitsios, P.; Rujescu, D.; Lahti, J.; Le Hellard, S.; Keller, M. C.; Andreassen, O. A.; Deary, I. J.; Glahn, D. C.; Malhotra, A. K.; Lencz, T. (2017)
    The complex nature of human cognition has resulted in cognitive genomics lagging behind many other fields in terms of gene discovery using genome-wide association study (GWAS) methods. In an attempt to overcome these barriers, the current study utilized GWAS meta-analysis to examine the association of common genetic variation (similar to 8M single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with minor allele frequency >= 1%) to general cognitive function in a sample of 35 298 healthy individuals of European ancestry across 24 cohorts in the Cognitive Genomics Consortium (COGENT). In addition, we utilized individual SNP lookups and polygenic score analyses to identify genetic overlap with other relevant neurobehavioral phenotypes. Our primary GWAS meta-analysis identified two novel SNP loci (top SNPs: rs76114856 in the CENPO gene on chromosome 2 and rs6669072 near LOC105378853 on chromosome 1) associated with cognitive performance at the genome-wide significance level (P
  • Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L.; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Esko, Tonu; Evans, David M.; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Asa K.; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Iles, Mark M.; Justice, Anne E.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Magi, Reedik; Perry, John R. B.; Pers, Tune H.; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Scott, William R.; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Walker, Ryan W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amelie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S.; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C.; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; De Jager, Philip L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; Enneman, Anke W.; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S.; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frederic; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gartner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W.; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Leach, Irene Mateo; Lee, Christine G.; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stephane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaelsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polasek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Shin, Chan Soo; Narancic, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M. A.; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F.; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Pellikka, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U.; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Mannisto, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D.; Ried, Janina S.; Scott, Robert A.; Stancakova, Alena; Wagner, Peter J.; Demirkan, Ayse; Doring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kuhnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C.; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jorgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A.; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Bennett, David A.; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Bluher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H.; Cummings, Steven R.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliovaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kahonen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S.; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Perusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tonjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J.; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Volzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F.; Yengo, Loic; Bishop, D. Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Chambers, John C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S.; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J.; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Bishop, Julia A. N.; North, Kari E.; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K.; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J. Brent; Schadt, Eric E.; Spector, Tim D.; Widen, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J.; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M. Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpelainen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J. F. (2016)
    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P <5 x 10(-8)), of which eight were previously associated with increased overall adiposity (BMI, BF%) and four (in or near COBLL1/GRB14, IGF2BP1, PLA2G6, CRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk.
  • Tervaniemi, Mari H.; Katayama, Shintaro; Skoog, Tiina; Siitonen, H. Annika; Vuola, Jyrki; Nuutila, Kristo; Sormunen, Raija; Johnsson, Anna; Linnarsson, Sten; Suomela, Sari; Kankuri, Esko; Kere, Juha; Elomaa, Outi (2016)
    Psoriatic skin differs distinctly from normal skin by its thickened epidermis. Most gene expression comparisons utilize full-thickness biopsies, with substantial amount of dermis. We assayed the transcriptomes of normal, lesional, and non-lesional psoriatic epidermis, sampled as split-thickness skin grafts, with 5'-end RNA sequencing. We found that psoriatic epidermis contains more mRNA per total RNA than controls, and took this into account in the bioinformatic analysis. The approach highlighted innate immunity-related pathways in psoriasis, including NOD-like receptor (NLR) signaling and inflammasome activation. We demonstrated that the NLR signaling genes NOD2, PYCARD, CARD6, and IFI16 are upregulated in psoriatic epidermis, and strengthened these findings by protein expression. Interestingly, PYCARD, the key component of the inflammasome, showed an altered expression pattern in the lesional epidermis. The profiling of non-lesional skin highlighted PSORS4 and mitochondrially encoded transcripts, suggesting that their gene expression is altered already before the development of lesions. Our data suggest that all components needed for the active inflammasome are present in the keratinocytes of psoriatic skin. The characterization of inflammasome pathways provides further opportunities for therapy. Complementing previous transcriptome studies, our approach gives deeper insight into the gene regulation in psoriatic epidermis.
  • Frohnmeyer, Esther Gesine; Deptula, Paulina; Nyman, Tuula Anneli; Laine, Pia Kati Sofia; Vihinen, Anja Helena; Paulin, Lars Göran; Auvinen, Petri Olli Viljami; Jokitalo, Eija Sofia; Piironen, Vieno Irene; Varmanen, Pekka Kristian; Savijoki, Kirsi Kristiina (2018)
    This study compared the secretomes (proteins exported out of the cell) of Propionibacterium freudenreichii of different origin to identify plausible adaptation factors. Phylosecretomics indicated strain-specific variation in secretion of adhesins/invasins (SlpA, InlA), cell-wall hydrolysing (NlpC60 peptidase, transglycosylase), protective (RpfB) and moonlighting (DnaK, GroEL, GaPDH, IDH, ENO, ClpB) enzymes and/or proteins. Detailed secretome comparison suggested that one of the cereal strains (JS14) released a tip fimbrillin (FimB) in to the extracellular milieu, which was in line with the electron microscopy and genomic analyses, indicating the lack of surface-associated fimbrial-like structures, predicting a mutated type-2 fimbrial gene cluster (fimB-fimA-srtC2) and production of anchorless FimB. Instead, the cereal strain produced high amounts of SlpB that tentatively mediated adherent growth on hydrophilic surface and adherence to hydrophobic material. One of the dairy strains (JS22), producing non-covalently bound surface-proteins (LspA, ClpB, AraI) and releasing SlpA and InlA into the culture medium, was found to form clumps under physiological conditions. The JS22 strain lacked SlpB and displayed a non-clumping and biofilm-forming phenotype only under conditions of increased ionic strength (300mM NaCl). However, this strain cultured under the same conditions was not adherent to hydrophobic support, which supports the contributory role of SlpB in mediating hydrophobic interactions. Thus, this study reports significant secretome variation in P.freudenreichii and suggests that strain-specific differences in protein export, modification and protein-protein interactions have been the driving forces behind the adaptation of this bacterial species.
  • MAGIC; Alonso, Lorena; Piron, Anthony; Moran, Ignasi; Groop, Leif; Torrents, David (2021)
    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) identified hundreds of signals associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). To gain insight into their underlying molecular mechanisms, we have created the translational human pancreatic islet genotype tissue-expression resource (TIGER), aggregating >500 human islet genomic datasets from five cohorts in the Horizon 2020 consortium T2DSystems. We impute genotypes using four reference panels and meta-analyze cohorts to improve the coverage of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and develop a method to combine allele-specific expression across samples (cASE). We identify >1 million islet eQTLs, 53 of which colocalize with T2D signals. Among them, a low-frequency allele that reduces T2D risk by half increases CCND2 expression. We identify eight cASE colocalizations, among which we found a T2D-associated SLC30A8 variant. We make all data available through the TIGER portal (, which represents a comprehensive human islet genomic data resource to elucidate how genetic variation affects islet function and translates into therapeutic insight and precision medicine for T2D.