Browsing by Subject "PSD-95"

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  • Moliner, Rafael (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Classical and rapid-acting antidepressant drugs have been shown to reinstate juvenile-like plasticity in the adult brain, allowing mature neuronal networks to rewire in an environmentally-driven/activity-dependent process. Indeed, antidepressant drugs gradually increase expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and can rapidly activate signaling of its high-affinity receptor TRKB. However, the exact mechanism of action underlying drug-induced restoration of juvenile-like plasticity remains poorly understood. In this study we first characterized acute effects of classical and rapid-acting antidepressant drugs on the interaction between TRKB and postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins PSD-93 and PSD-95 in vitro. PSD proteins constitute the core of synaptic complexes by anchoring receptors, ion channels, adhesion proteins and various signaling molecules, and are also involved in protein transport and cell surface localization. PSD proteins have in common their role as key regulators of synaptic structure and function, although PSD-93 and PSD-95 are associated with different functions during development and have opposing effects on the state of plasticity in individual synapses and neurons. Secondly, we investigated changes in mobility of TRKB in dendritic structures in response to treatment with antidepressant drugs in vitro. We found that antidepressant drugs decrease anchoring of TRKB with PSD-93 and PSD-95, and can rapidly increase TRKB turnover in dendritic spines. Our results contribute to the mechanistic model explaining drug-induced restoration of juvenile-like neuronal plasticity, and may provide a common basis for the effects of antidepressant drugs.
  • Fagerlund, Ilkka; Dougalis, Antonios; Shakirzyanova, Anastasia; Gomez-Budia, Mireia; Pelkonen, Anssi; Konttinen, Henna; Ohtonen, Sohvi; Fazaludeen, Mohammad Feroze; Koskuvi, Marja; Kuusisto, Johanna; Hernandez, Damian; Pebay, Alice; Koistinaho, Jari; Rauramaa, Tuomas; Lehtonen, Sarka; Korhonen, Paula; Malm, Tarja (2022)
    Human cerebral organoids, derived from induced pluripotent stem cells, offer a unique in vitro research window to the development of the cerebral cortex. However, a key player in the developing brain, the microglia, do not natively emerge in cerebral organoids. Here we show that erythromyeloid progenitors (EMPs), differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells, migrate to cerebral organoids, and mature into microglia-like cells and interact with synaptic material. Patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings show that the microglia-like population supported the emergence of more mature and diversified neuronal phenotypes displaying repetitive firing of action potentials, low-threshold spikes and synaptic activity, while multielectrode array recordings revealed spontaneous bursting activity and increased power of gamma-band oscillations upon pharmacological challenge with NMDA. To conclude, microglia-like cells within the organoids promote neuronal and network maturation and recapitulate some aspects of microglia-neuron co-development in vivo, indicating that cerebral organoids could be a useful biorealistic human in vitro platform for studying microglia-neuron interactions.