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  • Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Swank, Jacqueline M. (2021)
    A national study of clinical directors examined professional development (PD) focused on mental health provided to professionals in juvenile justice facilities for adjudicated youth. A total of 85 clinical directors responded to a mail survey (45% return rate). The survey questions related to (a) topics of staff training and the basis for choosing topics, (b) which professionals participated in each PD topic, (c) training format and frequency of PD, (d) recommended attributes of PD, (e) methods of evaluating PD, and (f) adequacy of PD and how can it be improved. For each topic, PD was typically provided once per year and face to face, rather than online. PD participation rates were commonly in the 30% and 40% ranges for professionals other than clinical directors and counselors, with teachers, correctional officers, administrators, and teaching assistants receiving PD the least. Rarely did PD include recommended attributes of PD, and it was commonly viewed as ineffective. Implications for research and practice related to PD and its relationship to youth reentry from juvenile justice facilities are discussed.
  • Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; Ni, Guiyan; Gratten, Jacob; Wray, Naomi R.; Lee, Sang Hong; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar; Paunio, Tiina Maria; Pietiläinen, Olli Kalevi; Palotie, Aarno Veikko (2018)
    Previous studies have shown an increased risk for mental health problems in children born to both younger and older parents compared to children of average-aged parents. We previously used a novel design to reveal a latent mechanism of genetic association between schizophrenia and age at first birth in women (AFB). Here, we use independent data from the UK Biobank (N = 38,892) to replicate the finding of an association between predicted genetic risk of schizophrenia and AFB in women, and to estimate the genetic correlation between schizophrenia and AFB in women stratified into younger and older groups. We find evidence for an association between predicted genetic risk of schizophrenia and AFB in women (P-value = 1.12E-05), and we show genetic heterogeneity between younger and older AFB groups (P-value = 3.45E-03). The genetic correlation between schizophrenia and AFB in the younger AFB group is -0.16 (SE = 0.04) while that between schizophrenia and AFB in the older AFB group is 0.14 (SE = 0.08). Our results suggest that early, and perhaps also late, age at first birth in women is associated with increased genetic risk for schizophrenia in the UK Biobank sample. These findings contribute new insights into factors contributing to the complex bio-social risk architecture underpinning the association between parental age and offspring mental health.
  • Castren, Sari; Basnet, Syaron; Pankakoski, Maiju; Ronkainen, Jenni-Emilia; Helakorpi, Satu; Uutela, Antti; Alho, Hannu; Lahti, Tuuli (2013)
  • Karpov, B.; Joffe, G.; Aaltonen, K.; Suvisaari, J.; Baryshnikov, I.; Naatanen, P.; Koivisto, M.; Melartin, T.; Oksanen, J.; Suominen, K.; Heikkinen, M.; Paunio, T.; Isometsa, E. (2016)
    Background: Comorbid anxiety symptoms and disorders are present in many psychiatric disorders, but methodological variations render comparisons of their frequency and intensity difficult. Furthermore, whether risk factors for comorbid anxiety symptoms are similar in patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia spectrum disorders remains unclear. Methods: The Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS) was used to measure anxiety symptoms in psychiatric care patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SSA, n = 113), bipolar disorder (BD, n = 99), or depressive disorder (DD, n = 188) in the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium Study. Bivariate correlations and multivariate linear regression models were used to examine associations of depressive symptoms, neuroticism, early psychological trauma and distress, self-efficacy, symptoms of borderline personality disorder, and attachment style with anxiety symptoms in the three diagnostic groups. Results: Frequent or constant anxiety was reported by 40.2% of SSA, 51.5% of BD, and 55.6% of DD patients; it was described as severe or extreme by 43.8%, 41.4%, and 41.2% of these patients, respectively. SSA patients were significantly less anxious (P = 0.010) and less often avoided anxiety-provoking situations (P = 0.009) than the other patients. In regression analyses, OASIS was associated with high neuroticism, symptoms of depression and borderline personality disorder and low self-efficacy in all patients, and with early trauma in patients with mood disorders. Conclusions: Comorbid anxiety symptoms are ubiquitous among psychiatric patients with mood or schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and in almost half of them, reportedly severe. Anxiety symptoms appear to be strongly related to both concurrent depressive symptoms and personality characteristics, regardless of principal diagnosis. (C) 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Vincent, John; Hovatta, Iiris; Frissa, Souci; Goodwin, Laura; Hotopf, Matthew; Hatch, Stephani L.; Breen, Gerome; Powell, Timothy R. (2017)
    Background: Studies have provided evidence that both childhood maltreatment and depressive disorders are associated with shortened telomere lengths. However, as childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for depression, it remains unclear whether this may be driving shortened telomere lengths observed amongst depressed patients. Furthermore, it's unclear if the effects of maltreatment on telomere length shortening are more pervasive amongst depressed patients relative to controls, and consequently whether biological ageing may contribute to depression's pathophysiology. The current study assesses the effects of childhood maltreatment, depression case/control status, and the interactive effect of both childhood maltreatment and depression case/control status on relative telomere length (RTL). Method: DNA samples from 80 depressed subjects and 100 control subjects were utilized from a U.K. sample (ages 20-84), with childhood trauma questionnaire data available for all participants. RTL was quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reactions. Univariate linear regression analyses were used to assess the effects of depression status, childhood maltreatment and depression by childhood maltreatment interactions on RTL. The false discovery rate (q <0.05) was used for multiple testing correction. Results: Analysis of depression case/control status showed no significant main effect on RTL. Four subtypes of childhood maltreatment also demonstrated no significant main effect on RTL, however a history of physical neglect did significantly predict shorter RTL in adulthood (F(1, 174)=7.559, p=0.007, q=0.042, Variance Explained=4.2%), which was independent of case/control status. RTL was further predicted by severity of physical neglect, with the greatest differences observed in older maltreated individuals ( > 50 years old). There were no significant depression case/control status by childhood maltreatment interactions. Limitations: A relatively small sample limited our power to detect interaction effects, and we were unable to consider depression chronicity or recurrence. Conclusion: Shortened RTL was specifically associated with childhood physical neglect, but not the other subtypes of maltreatment or depression case/control status. Our results suggest that the telomere-eroding effects of physical neglect may represent a biological mechanism important in increasing risk for ageing-related disorders. As physical neglect is more frequent amongst depressed cases generally, it may also represent a confounding factor driving previous associations between shorter RTL and depression case status.
  • Koponen, Hannu; Kautiainen, Hannu; Leppanen, Esa; Mantyselka, Pekka; Vanhala, Mauno (2015)
    Background: Disturbances in lipid metabolism have been linked to suicidal behaviour, but little is known about the association between suicide risk and abnormal glucose metabolism in depression. Hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia may increase the risk of depression and also the risk for suicide, we therefore studied associations between suicidal behaviour and disturbances in glucose metabolism in depressive patients who had been referred to depression nurse case managers. Methods: Patients aged 35 years and older (N = 448, mean age 51 years) who were experiencing a new depressive episode, who were referred to depression nurse case managers in 2008-2009 and who scored = 10 on the Beck Depression Inventory were enrolled in this study. The study was conducted in municipalities within the Central Finland Hospital District (catchment area of 274 000 inhabitants) as part of the Finnish Depression and Metabolic Syndrome in Adults study. The patients' psychiatric diagnoses and suicidal behaviour were confirmed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Blood samples, for glucose and lipid determinations, were drawn from participants after 12 h of fasting, which was followed by a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) when blood was drawn at 0 and 2 h. Insulin resistance was measured by the Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) method.' Results: Suicidal ideation (49 %) and previous suicide attempts (16 %) were common in patients with major depressive disorder or dysthymia. Patients with depression and suicidal behaviour had higher blood glucose concentrations at baseline and at 2 hours in the OGTT. Glucose levels associated positively with the prevalence of suicidal behaviour, and the linearity was significant at baseline (p for linearity: 0.012, adjusted for age and sex) and for 2-hour OGTT glucose (p for linearity: 0.004, adjusted for age and sex). QUICKI levels associated with suicidal behavior (p for linearity across tertiles of QUICKI: 0.026). Total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also higher in those patients with suicidal behaviour. Multivariate analysis revealed that blood glucose levels, BDI scores and antidepressive medications associated with suicidal behaviour. Conclusion: Insulin resistance and disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism may be more common in middle-aged depressive patients with suicidal behaviour.
  • Toffol, Elena; Partonen, Timo; Heikinheimo, Oskari; But, Anna; Latvala, Antti; Haukka, Jari (2022)
    Objectives The relationship between the use of contraception and of psychiatric medications is understudied. We examined whether the current and past use of psychotropic medications is associated with the use and type of hormonal contraception (HC). Design Nationwide register-based matched case-control study. Settings All fertile-aged (15-49 years) girls and women living in Finland in 2017; data from several national registers. Participants 294 356 girls and women with a redeemed prescription of HC in 2017, and their same-sized control group of non-users (n=294 356) identified through the Prescription Centre. Main outcome measures Associations between the use of psychotropic medications and the use of HC, and the type of HC tested in logistic regression models. Results Altogether 19.5% of the HC users, and 18% of the HC non-users received at least one prescription for a psychotropic medication in 2017. Among HC users, the proportions of occasional and regular users of psychotropic medications in 2013-2016 were 4.5% and 14.8%, while among HC non-users the respective figures were 4.3% and 14.6%, respectively. In multivariable logistic regression models both the use of psychotropic medications in 2017, and their occasional or regular use between 2013-2016 were associated with higher odds of HC use, although with small to very small effect sizes (ORs between 1.37 and 1.06 and 95% CIs 1.22 to 1.53, and 1.03 to 1.09, respectively). After adjustment for covariates, when fixed combinations of progestogens and oestrogens for systemic use was the reference category, women using almost any class of psychotropic medications had higher odds of using other types of HC. Conclusions Fertile-aged girls and women with current and past use of psychotropic medications have higher odds of using HC, with a specific pattern in the type of contraceptives used. Further research is warranted to examine whether our observations indicate a reduction of unwanted pregnancies in women with psychiatric disorders.
  • Edgren, Robert; Castrén, Sari; Jokela, Markus; Salonen, Anne H. (2016)
    AIMS - The aims were to compare past-year at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG) and other at-risk behaviours (computer gaming, risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking) by age and gender, and to explore how ARPG is associated with risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, poor mental health and loneliness in males and females. DESIGN - Data from respondents aged 15-28 (n = 822) were derived from a cross-sectional random sample of population-based data (n = 4484). The data were collected in 2011-2012 by telephone interviews. The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI, score >= 2) was used to evaluate ARPG. Prevalence rates for risk behaviours were compared for within gender-specific age groups. Regression models were gender-specific. RESULTS - The proportion of at-risk and problem gamblers was higher among males than females in all age groups except among 18-21-year-olds, while frequent computer gaming was higher among males in all age groups. The odds ratio (95% CI) of being a male ARPGer was 2.57 (1.40-4.74) for risky alcohol consumption; 1.95 (1.07-3.56) for tobacco smoking; 2.63 (0.96-7.26) for poor mental health; and 4.41 (1.20-16.23) for feeling lonely. Likewise, the odds ratio (95% CI) of being a female ARPGer was 1.19 (0.45-3.12) for risky alcohol consumption; 4.01 (1.43-11.24) for tobacco smoking; 0.99 (0.18-5.39) for poor mental health; and 6.46 (1.42-29.34) for feeling lonely. All 95% CIs of ARPG correlates overlapped among males and females. CONCLUSIONS - Overall, past-year at-risk and problem gambling and computer gaming seem to be more common among males than females; however, for risky alcohol consumption similar gender differences were evident only for the older half of the sample. No clear gender differences were seen in correlates associated with ARPG.
  • Antila, Henna; Arola, Riikka; Hakko, Helina; Riala, Kaisa; Riipinen, Pirkko; Kantojarvi, Liisa (2017)
    We examined the association of bullying behavior in adolescence to personality disorder (PD) diagnosed in early adulthood. The study sample consisted of 508 adolescents (300 girls, 208 boys) who were admitted to psychiatric inpatient treatment between April 2001 and March 2006. Data were based on semi-structured K-SADSPL-interviews and hospital treatments extracted from the Care Register for Health Care (CRHC). At the end of 2013, details of psychiatric diagnoses recorded on hospital discharges and outpatient visits were extracted from the CRHC. This study showed that female victims of bullying have an almost fourfold likelihood of developing a PD later in life compared to adolescents with no involvement in bullying behavior. Most of the females had Borderline PD. Female adolescents diagnosed with anxiety disorder during adolescence had an over threefold risk of developing a PD during late adolescence or early adulthood. Conversely, we found no associations between bullying involvement among men in adolescence and subsequent PDs. Bullying victimization may influence the development of PDs among females. Adolescent services should pay particular attention to female victims of bullying and those displaying symptoms of anxiety disorders.
  • Kananen, Laura; Surakka, Ida; Pirkola, Sami; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Peltonen, Leena; Ripatti, Samuli; Hovatta, Iiris (2010)
  • Virtanen, Suvi; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Mataix-Cols, David; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Larsson, Henrik; Ruck, Christian; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lichtenstein, Paul; Latvala, Antti (2020)
    Background Causes of the comorbidity of substance misuse with anxiety-related and depressive disorders (anxiety/depression) remain poorly known. We estimated associations of substance misuse and anxiety/depression in the general population and tested them while accounting for genetic and shared environmental factors. Methods We studied individuals born in Sweden 1968–1997 (n = 2 996 398) with follow-up in nationwide register data for 1997–2013. To account for familial effects, stratified analyses were conducted within siblings and twin pairs. Substance misuse was defined as ICD-10 alcohol or drug use disorder or an alcohol/drug-related criminal conviction. Three dimensions of ICD-10 anxiety and depressive disorders and a substance misuse dimension were identified through exploratory factor analysis. Results Substance misuse was associated with a 4.5-fold (95% CI 4.50–4.58) elevated risk of lifetime generalized anxiety/depression, 4.7-fold (95% CI 4.63–4.82) elevated risk of panic disorder and agora/social phobia, and 2.9-fold elevated risk of phobias/OCD (95% CI 2.82–3.02) as compared to those without substance misuse. The associations were attenuated in within-family analyses but we found elevated risks in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for substance misuse as well as significant non-shared environmental correlations. The association between anxiety/depression and substance misuse was mainly driven by generalized anxiety/depression, whereas other anxiety/depression dimensions had minor or no independent associations with substance misuse. Conclusions Substance misuse and anxiety/depression are associated at the population level, and these associations are partially explained by familial liabilities. Our findings indicate a common genetic etiology but are also compatible with a potential partially causal relationship between substance misuse and anxiety/depression.
  • Aaltonen, Kari; Naatanen, Petri; Heikkinen, Martti; Koivisto, Maaria; Baryshnikoy, Ilya; Karpov, Boris; Oksanen, Jorma; Melartin, Tarja; Suominen, Kirsi; Joffe, Grigori; Paunio, Tiina; Isometsa, Erkki (2016)
    Background: Substantial literature exists on risk factors for suicidal behaviour. However, their comparative strength, independence and specificity for either suicidal ideation or suicide attempt(s) remain unclear. Methods: The Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium (HUPC) Study surveyed 287 psychiatric care patients with ICD-10-DCR depressive or bipolar disorders about lifetime suicidal behaviour, developmental history and attachment style, personality and psychological traits, current and lifetime symptom profiles, and life events. Psychiatric records were used to confirm diagnosis and complement information on suicide attempts. Multinomial regression models predicting lifetime suicidal ideation and single or repeated suicide attempts were generated. Results: Overall, 21.6% patients had no lifetime suicidal behaviour, 33.8% had lifetime suicide ideation without attempts, and 17.1% had a single and 27.5% repeated suicide attempts. In univariate analyses, lifetime suicidal behaviour was associated with numerous factors. In multivariate models, suicidal ideation was independently predicted by younger age, severe depressive disorder, bipolar disorder type II/nos, hopelessness, and childhood physical abuse. Repeated suicide attempts were independently predicted by younger age, female sex, severe depressive disorder with or without psychotic symptoms, bipolar disorder type II/nos, alcohol use disorder, borderline personality disorder traits, and childhood physical abuse. Limitations: Cross-sectional and retrospective study design, utilization of clinical diagnoses, and relatively low response rate. Conclusions: Risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts may diverge both qualitatively and in terms of dose response. When effects of risk factors from multiple domains are concurrently examined, proximal clinical characteristics remain the most robust. All risk factors cluster into the group of repeated attempters. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Aaltonen, Kari I.; Rosenström, Tom; Jylhä, Pekka; Holma, Irina; Holma, Mikael; Pallaskorpi, Sanna; Riihimäki, Kirsi; Suominen, Kirsi; Vuorilehto, Maria; Isometsä, Erkki T. (2020)
    Background: Preceding suicide attempts strongly predict future suicidal acts. However, whether attempting suicide per se increases the risk remains undetermined. We longitudinally investigated among patients with mood disorders whether after a suicide attempt future attempts occur during milder depressive states, indicating a possible lowered threshold for acting. Methods: We used 5-year follow-up data from 581 patients of the Jorvi Bipolar Study, Vantaa Depression Study, and Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study cohorts. Lifetime suicide attempts were investigated at baseline and during the follow-up. At follow-up interviews, life-chart data on the course of the mood disorder were generated and suicide attempts timed. By using individual-level data and multilevel modeling, we investigated at each incident attempt the association between the lifetime ordinal number of the attempt and the major depressive episode (MDE) status (full MDE, partial remission, or remission). Results: A total of 197 suicide attempts occurred among 90 patients, most during MDEs. When the dependencies between observations and individual liabilities were modeled, no association was found between the number of past suicide attempts at the time of each attempt and partial remissions. No association between adjusted inter-suicide attempt times and the number of past attempts emerged during follow-up. No indication for direct risk-increasing effects was found. Conclusion: Among mood disorder patients, repeated suicide attempts do not tend to occur during milder depressive states than in the preceding attempts. Previous suicide attempts may indicate underlying diathesis, future risk being principally set by the course of the disorder itself.
  • Whipp, Alyce M.; Korhonen, Tellervo; Raevuori, Anu; Heikkilä, Kauko; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Vuoksimaa, Eero (2019)
    Modestly prevalent in the general population (4%), but highly prevalent in prison populations (>40%), the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) involves aggression as one of several possible criteria. Using multiple informants, we aimed to determine if general aggression, as well as direct and indirect subtypes, assessed in early adolescence (ages 12, 14) predict young adulthood ASPD in a population-based sample. Using data from a Finnish population-based longitudinal twin cohort study with psychiatric interviews available at age 22 (N=1347), we obtained DSM-IV-based ASPD diagnoses. Aggression measures from ages 12 (parental and teacher ratings) and 14 (teacher, self, and co-twin ratings) were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) of ASPD from logistic regression models and the area under the curve (AUC) from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, and family structure. All informants' aggression ratings were significant (p
  • Congdon, Eliza; Service, Susan; Wessman, Jaana; Seppanen, Jouni K.; Schönauer, Stefan; Miettunen, Jouko; Turunen, Hannu; Koiranen, Markku; Joukamaa, Matti; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Palotie, Leena; Veijola, Juha; Mannila, Heikki; Paunio, Tiina; Freimer, Nelson B. (2012)
  • Hartung, Henrike; Cichon, Nicole; De Feo, Vito; Riemann, Stephanie; Schildt, Sandra; Lindemann, Christoph; Mulert, Christoph; Gogos, Joseph A.; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L. (2016)
    Cognitive deficits represent a major burden of neuropsychiatric disorders and result in part from abnormal communication within hippocampal-prefrontal circuits. While it has been hypothesized that this network dysfunction arises during development, long before the first clinical symptoms, experimental evidence is still missing. Here, we show that pre-juvenile mice mimicking genetic and environmental risk factors of disease (dual-hit GE mice) have poorer recognition memory that correlates with augmented coupling by synchrony and stronger directed interactions between prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. The network dysfunction emerges already during neonatal development, yet it initially consists in a diminished hippocampal theta drive and consequently, a weaker and disorganized entrainment of local prefrontal circuits in discontinuous oscillatory activity in dual-hit GE mice when compared with controls. Thus, impaired maturation of functional communication within hippocampal-prefrontal networks switching from hypo- to hyper-coupling may represent a mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders.
  • Urrila, Anna S.; Hakkarainen, Antti; Castaneda, Anu; Paunio, Tiina; Marttunen, Mauri; Lundbom, Nina (2017)
    Aim: This study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-1 MRS) to evaluate the neurochemistry of the frontal cortex in adolescents with symptoms of sleep and depression. Methods: Nineteen non-medicated adolescent boys (mean age 16.0 years; 9 clinical cases with depression/sleep symptoms and 10 healthy controls) underwent H-1 MRS at 3 T. MR spectra were acquired from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and frontal white matter. Concentrations of N-acetyl aspartate, total creatine, choline-containing compounds, total glutamine plus glutamate, and myo-inositol (mI) were compared in the 2 subgroups, and correlated with sleep and clinical measures in the total sample. Sleep was assessed with self-report questionnaires and ambulatory polysomnography recordings. Results: Concentrations of mI were lower in both frontal cortical regions among the depressed adolescents than in controls. No statistically significant differences in other metabolite concentrations were observed between the subgroups. Frontal cortex mI concentrations correlated negatively with depression severity, subjective daytime sleepiness, insomnia symptoms, and the level of anxiety, and correlated positively with total sleep time and overall psychosocial functioning. The correlations between mI in the ACC and total sleep time as well as daytime sleepiness remained statistically significant when depression severity was controlled in the analyses. Conclusion: Lower frontal cortex ml may indicate a disturbed second messenger system. Frontal cortical mI may thus be linked to the pathophysiology of depression and concomitant sleep symptoms among maturing adolescents. Short sleep and daytime sleepiness may be associated with frontal cortex mI independently from depression. (C) 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • Ilomaki, Essi; Hakko, Helina; Ilomaki, Risto; Rasanen, Pirkko; Study-70 Workgrp; Marttunen, Mauri (2012)
    Objectives: Conduct disorder (CD) refers to a pattern of severe antisocial and aggressive behaviour manifested in childhood or adolescence, with heavy costs to society. Though CD is a common psychiatric diagnosis among adolescents of both genders, gender differences in comorbidity of CD have been little studied. In this study we examined gender differences among adolescents with CD in causes for hospitalization, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses and somatic conditions. Study design: The original study sample consisted of 508 inpatient adolescents in Northern Finland (age 12-17); 155 of them (65 girls, 92 boys) fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for CD. Methods: Diagnosis of CD and psychiatric comorbidities were obtained from the K-SADS-PL and somatic conditions from the EuropAsi. Results: As compared to boys with CD, suicidality (including suicidal ideation and behaviour) was significantly more commonly the cause of hospitalization among girls with CD (43% vs. 24%, p = 0.013). Among somatic conditions, there was a significant predominance in self-reported allergies among girls (60% vs. 25%, p Conclusions: Girls with CD seem to have an increased tendency to develop both comorbid psychiatric and somatic conditions as well as suicidality. New clinical aspects in treatment of CD and comorbid disorders among girls are discussed.
  • Leblond, Claire S.; Heinrich, Jutta; Delorme, Richard; Proepper, Christian; Betancur, Catalina; Huguet, Guillaume; Konyukh, Marina; Chaste, Pauline; Ey, Elodie; Rastam, Maria; Anckarsater, Henrik; Nygren, Gudrun; Gillberg, I. Carina; Melke, Jonas; Toro, Roberto; Regnault, Beatrice; Fauchereau, Fabien; Mercati, Oriane; Lemiere, Nathalie; Skuse, David; Poot, Martin; Holt, Richard; Monaco, Anthony P.; Jarvela, Irma; Kantojärvi, Katri; Vanhala, Raija; Curran, Sarah; Collier, David A.; Bolton, Patrick; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Klauck, Sabine M.; Poustka, Fritz; Freitag, Christine M.; Waltes, Regina; Kopp, Marnie; Duketis, Eftichia; Bacchelli, Elena; Minopoli, Fiorella; Ruta, Liliana; Battaglia, Agatino; Mazzone, Luigi; Maestrini, Elena; Sequeira, Ana F.; Oliveira, Barbara; Vicente, Astrid; Oliveira, Guiomar; Pinto, Dalila; Scherer, Stephen W.; Zelenika, Diana; Delepine, Marc; Lathrop, Mark; Bonneau, Dominique; Guinchat, Vincent; Devillard, Francoise; Assouline, Brigitte; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Leboyer, Marion; Gillberg, Christopher; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Bourgeron, Thomas (2012)
  • Rietschel, Liz; Streit, Fabian; Zhu, Gu; McAloney, Kerrie; Frank, Josef; Couvy-Duchesne, Baptiste; Witt, Stephanie H.; Binz, Tina M.; McGrath, John; Hickie, Ian B.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Wright, Margaret J.; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Forstner, Andreas J.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Wust, Stefan; Nothen, Markus M.; Baumgartner, Markus R.; Walker, Brian R.; Crawford, Andrew A.; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Medland, Sarah E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Rietschel, Marcella; CORtisolNETwork CORNET Consortium; Major Depressive Disorder; Palotie, Aarno (2017)
    Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a promising measure of long-term hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Previous research has suggested an association between HCC and psychological variables, and initial studies of inter-individual variance in HCC have implicated genetic factors. However, whether HCC and psychological variables share genetic risk factors remains unclear. The aims of the present twin study were to: (i) assess the heritability of HCC; (ii) estimate the phenotypic and genetic correlation between HPA axis activity and the psychological variables perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism; using formal genetic twin models and molecular genetic methods, i.e. polygenic risk scores (PRS). HCC was measured in 671 adolescents and young adults. These included 115 monozygotic and 183 dizygotic twin-pairs. For 432 subjects PRS scores for plasma cortisol, major depression, and neuroticism were calculated using data from large genome wide association studies. The twin model revealed a heritability for HCC of 72%. No significant phenotypic or genetic correlation was found between HCC and the three psychological variables of interest. PRS did not explain variance in HCC. The present data suggest that HCC is highly heritable. However, the data do not support a strong biological link between HCC and any of the investigated psychological variables.