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  • Makinen, Mauno; Puukko-Viertomies, Leena-Riitta; Lindberg, Nina; Siimes, Martti A.; Aalberg, Veikko (2012)
  • APIC Adults Born; Kajantie, Eero; Johnson, Samantha; Heinonen, Kati; Hovi, Petteri; Doyle, Lex W. (2021)
    Background Of all newborns, 1%-2% are born very preterm (VP;
  • Selinheimo, Sanna; Vuokko, Aki; Sainio, Markku; Karvala, Kirsi; Suojalehto, Hille; Jarnefelt, Heli; Paunio, Tiina (2016)
    Introduction Indoor air-related conditions share similarities with other conditions that are characterised by medically unexplained symptoms (MUS)-a combination of non-specific symptoms that cannot be fully explained by structural bodily pathology. In cases of indoor air-related conditions, these symptoms are not fully explained by either medical conditions or the immunological-toxicological effects of environmental factors. The condition may be disabling, including a non-adaptive health behaviour. In this multifaceted phenomenon, psychosocial factors influence the experienced symptoms. Currently, there is no evidence of clinical management of symptoms, which are associated with the indoor environment and cannot be resolved by removing the triggering environmental factors. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of treatment-as-usual (TAU) and two psychosocial interventions on the quality of life, and the work ability of employees with non-specific indoor air-related symptomatology. Methods and analyses The aim of this ongoing randomised controlled trial is to recruit 60 participants, in collaboration with 5 occupational health service units. The main inclusion criterion is the presence of indoor air-related recurrent symptoms in 2 organ systems, which have no pathophysiological explanation. After baseline clinical investigations, participants are randomised into interventions, which all include TAU: cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy, psychoeducation and TAU (control condition). Health-related quality of life, measured using the 15D-scale, is the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes include somatic and psychiatric symptoms, occupational factors, and related underlying mechanisms (ie, cognitive functioning). Questionnaires are completed at baseline, at 3, 6 and 12-month follow-ups. Data collection will continue until 2017. The study will provide new information on the individual factors related to indoor air-associated symptoms, and on ways in which to support work ability. Ethics and dissemination The Coordinating Ethics Committee of the Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa, Finland, has granted approval for the study. The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals.
  • Flink, Niko; Honkalampi, Kirsi; Lehto, Soili M.; Viinamaki, Heimo; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Valkonen-Korhonen, Minna; Lindeman, Sari (2019)
    Background Schema therapy has been proposed as a potentially effective treatment for chronic depression. However, little is known about early maladaptive schemas (EMSs), a key concept in schema therapy, in relation to chronic depression or chronic depression with comorbid personality pathology. The aim of the present study was to compare EMSs between currently chronically depressed patients with comorbid cluster C personality disorder (CDCPD), currently chronically depressed patients (CD), and patients remitted from chronic depression (CDR). Methods Based on data from a naturalistic follow-up study on psychiatric outpatients with major depressive disorder, three groups were formed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV: CDCPD (n = 15), CD (n = 23), and CDR (n = 13). Groups were compared in terms of background information and measurements for depression (Beck Depression Inventory) and EMSs (Young Schema Questionnaire). Results Patients with CDCPD and CD did not differ in terms of background variables or the severity of depressive symptoms, but patients with CDCPD were more maladaptive with respect to the majority of EMSs. Patients with CDR were less depressed than CDCPD or CD patients, but did not differ in terms of EMSs compared with CD patients. Conclusions Comorbid cluster C personality disorder appears to be associated with more severe EMS endorsement in chronically depressed patients. Remitted patients show similar cognitive vulnerability factors in terms of EMSs compared to those currently chronically depressed. The findings suggest that EMSs may contribute to vulnerability to chronic depression. Focusing on EMSs may be beneficial in the treatment of chronic depression.
  • Rosenstrom, Tom H.; Mylläri, Sanna; Malkki, Veera; Saarni, Suoma E. (2022)
    Objective: While the CORE-10 inventory for Clinical Outcome Routine Evaluation has shown good psychometric properties in cross-sectional assessment, the feasibility of generic, short, and easy-to-use longitudinal assessment of a broadband construct such as the targeted "general psychological distress" remains to be psychometrically demonstrated. Therefore, we investigated longitudinal measurement invariance (LMI) of CORE-10. For comprehensiveness, we also analyzed its parent inventory, CORE-OM. Method: We investigated the LMI of pre- and post-therapy CORE-10 and -OM assessments in a naturalistic treatment register of 1715 patients' short psychotherapies, testing whether the construct of "psychological distress" remained the same across the treatments. Results: We observed good psychometric properties and no violations of LMI for CORE-10 in chi-squared equivalence tests, nor in effect-size-based evaluations. Only the highly sensitive chi-squared difference tests detected LMI violations but these had little practical influence. The CORE-OM data did not fit well with factorial models but this was cross-sectional rather than a genuinely longitudinal (LMI-related) issue. Conclusions: CORE-10 appeared a structurally valid measure of general psychological distress and suitable for longitudinal assessment, whereas the CORE-OM had a less clear factorial structure. Regarding psychometrics, these findings support the use of CORE-10 in longitudinal assessment during psychotherapy and do not support CORE-OM.
  • Lassander, Maarit; Saarinen, Tapio; Simonsen-Rehn, Nina; Suominen, Sakari; Vahlberg, Tero; Volanen, Salla-Maarit (2023)
    Background This paper presents the baseline characteristics and their moderators in the Healthy Learning Mind (HLM)- school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial. Objectives The paper evaluates the state of various measures of well-being, their moderators and how these results compare to national and global norms/population studies. Methods Data were collected from all participants prior to the intervention and further analyzed by gender, grade and perceived socioeconomic status, including standardized measures for resilience, depressive symptoms and socioemotional functioning; health-related quality of life, dispositional mindfulness, satisfaction with life, compassion/self-kindness, self-rated health and morning tiredness. Results Participating 2793 students (1425 girls, 1368 boys), ages 12 to 15 years, filled in the questionnaires. The outcomes were in line with previous research, demonstrating gender differentiation and lower wellbeing among older children and adolescents. Conclusions All outcomes were associated with perceived socioeconomic status, suggesting that perceived low socioeconomic status should be addressed as a serious risk factor and included as a moderator in similar trials.
  • Volanen, S-M.; Lassander, M.; Hankonen, N.; Santalahti, P.; Hintsanen, M.; Simonsen, N.; Raevuori, A.; Mullola, S.; Vahlberg, T.; But, A.; Suominen, S. (2020)
    Background Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBIs) have shown promising effects on mental health among children and adolescents, but high-quality studies examining the topic are lacking. The present study assessed the effects of MBI on mental health in school-setting in an extensive randomised controlled trial. Methods Finnish school children and adolescents (N=3519), aged 12-15 years (6th to 8th graders), from 56 schools were randomized into a 9 week MBI group, and control groups with a relaxation program or teaching as usual. The primary outcomes were resilience, socio-emotional functioning, and depressive symptoms at baseline, at completion of the programs at 9 weeks (T9), and at follow-up at 26 weeks (T26). Results Overall, mindfulness did not show more beneficial effects on the primary outcomes compared to the controls except for resilience for which a positive intervention effect was found at T9 in all participants (β=1.18, SE 0.57, p=0.04) as compared to the relaxation group. In addition, in gender and grade related analyses, MBI lowered depressive symptoms in girls at T26 (β=-0.49, SE 0.21, p=0.02) and improved socio-emotional functioning at T9(β=-1.37, SE 0.69, p=0.049) and at T26 (β=-1.71, SE 0.73, p=0.02) among 7th graders as compared to relaxation. Limitations The inactive control group was smaller than the intervention and active control groups, reducing statistical power. Conclusions A short 9-week MBI in school-setting provides slight benefits over a relaxation program and teaching as usual. Future research should investigate whether embedding regular mindfulness-based practice in curriculums could intensify the effects.
  • Savilahti, Emma M.; Haravuori, Henna; Rytilä-Manninen, Minna; Lindberg, Nina; Kettunen, Kirsi; Marttunen, Mauri (2018)
    Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is widely used in assessing adolescents' psychological wellbeing, but occasionally the result diverges from diagnostics. Our aim was to identify factors associated with discrepancies between BDI scores and diagnostic assessment in adolescent psychiatric patients and general population. The study comprised 206 inpatients (13-17 years old) and 203 age and gender matched non -referred adolescents. Study subjects filled self-reports on depression symptoms (BDI-21), alcohol use (AUDIT), defense styles (DSQ-40) and self-image (OSIQ-11), and on background information and adverse life events. Diagnostics was based on K-SADS-PL interview, and/or clinical interview and clinical records when available. We compared subjects who scored in BDI-21 either 0-15 points or 16-63 points firstly among subjects without current unipolar depression (n = 284), secondly among those with unipolar depression (n = 105). High BDI-21 scores in subjects without depression diagnosis (n = 48) were associated with female sex, adverse life events, parents' psychiatric problems, higher comorbidity, higher AUDIT scores, worse self-image and more immature defense styles. Low BDI-21 scores among subjects with depression diagnosis (n = 23) were associated with male sex, more positive self-image and less immature defense style. In conclusion, high BDI-21 scores in the absence of depression may reflect a broad range of challenges in an adolescent's psychological development.
  • Jarvela-Reijonen, Elina; Karhunen, Leila; Sairanen, Essi; Rantala, Sanni; Laitinen, Jaana; Puttonen, Sampsa; Peuhkuri, Katri; Hallikainen, Maarit; Juvonen, Kristiina; Myllymaki, Tero; Fohr, Tiina; Pihlajamaki, Jussi; Korpela, Riitta; Ermes, Miikka; Lappalainen, Raimo; Kolehmainen, Marjukka (2016)
    Stress-related eating may be a potential factor in the obesity epidemic. Rather little is known about how stress associates with eating behavior and food intake in overweight individuals in a free-living situation. Thus, the present study aims to investigate this question in psychologically distressed overweight and obese working-aged Finns. The study is a cross-sectional baseline analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Of the 339 study participants, those with all the needed data available (n = 297, 84% females) were included. The mean age was 48.9 y (SD = 7.6) and mean body mass index 31.3 kg/m(2) (SD = 3.0). Perceived stress and eating behavior were assessed by self-reported questionnaires Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Intuitive Eating Scale, the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, Health and Taste Attitude Scales and ecSatter Inventory. Diet and alcohol consumption were assessed by 48-h dietary recall, Index of Diet Quality, and AUDIT-C. Individuals reporting most perceived stress (i.e. in the highest PSS tertile) had less intuitive eating, more uncontrolled eating, and more emotional eating compared to those reporting less perceived stress (p <0.05). Moreover, individuals in the highest PSS tertile reported less cognitive restraint and less eating competence than those in the lowest tertile (p <0.05). Intake of whole grain products was the lowest among those in the highest PSS tertile (p <0.05). Otherwise the quality of diet and alcohol consumption did not differ among the PSS tertiles. In conclusion, high perceived stress was associated with the features of eating behavior that could in turn contribute to difficulties in weight management. Stress-related way of eating could thus form a potential risk factor for obesity. More research is needed to develop efficient methods for clinicians to assist in handling stress-related eating in the treatment of obese people. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Selenius, Jannica S.; Wasenius, Niko S.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Salonen, Minna; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Eriksson, Johan G. (2020)
    Introduction This study aims to investigate whether the associations between impaired glucose regulation and health-related quality of life are modified by severity or type of depressive symptoms. Research design and methods For this cross-sectional study, we included 1939 individuals (mean age 61.5 years) from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Between 2001 and 2004, a standard 2-hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was applied to define normoglycemia, pre-diabetes, and newly diagnosed diabetes. Information on previously diagnosed diabetes was collected from national registers and questionnaires. Pre-diabetes was defined as having either impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. The Mental and Physical Component Scores of health-related quality of life were assessed with Short Form-36. Beck's Depression Inventory was employed to investigate the severity of depressive symptoms and to define minimal (depression score Results Glucose regulation subgroups, especially previously known diabetes, were associated with lower Physical Component Score (p=0.001) and higher depression score (p=0.015), but not with the Mental Component Score (p=0.189). Non-melancholic depression was associated with lower Physical and Mental Component Scores compared with those with depression score 0.54). Conclusions Non-melancholic type of depression and previously known diabetes are independently associated with lower health-related quality of life. This should be appraised in long-term treatment of diabetes and when treating non-melancholic depressive symptoms to maintain a higher health-related quality of life.
  • Huhdanpää, Hanna; Klenberg, Liisa; Westerinen, Hannu; Bergman, Paula Hannele; Aronen, Eeva Tuulikki (2019)
    Few studies have reported on the quantity and quality of executive function (EF) deficits in young children referred to child psychiatric outpatient clinic with multiple psychiatric symptoms. We evaluated the EF deficits with the Attention and Executive Function Rating Inventory-Preschool (ATTEX-P) filled out by day care teachers for 4- to 7-year-old clinical group (n = 171) and reference group (n = 709). Family background information was collected from all families by parent questionnaire. Diagnoses of the referred children were collected from medical records. Clinical group exhibited higher mean ranks across the ATTEX-P Total score and all nine subscales than reference group (p <.001). Most of the children in the clinical group (58.5%) showed a significant amount of EF deficits (ATTEX-P Total score over clinical cut-off) including distractibility (55.6%) and impulsivity (53.8%) regardless of their diagnoses. In a multiple logistic regression model (controlling for age, gender and parental education), children in the clinical group had increased risk (odds ratio (OR)) = 10.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [6.88, 16.2], p <.001) for scoring over the clinical cut-off point on the ATTEX-P Total score. Assessment of EFs should be a routine part of the treatment plan in young children referred to child psychiatric outpatient clinic as it may guide the treatment choices.
  • Ritola, Ville; Lipsanen, Jari; Pihlaja, Satu M; Gummerus, Eero-Matti; Stenberg, Jan-Henry; Saarni, Suoma Eeva Matilda; Joffe, Grigori (2022)
    Background: Therapist-supported, internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) is efficacious for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but few studies are yet to report its effectiveness in routine care. Objective: In this study, we aim to examine whether a new 12-session iCBT program for GAD is effective in nationwide routine care. Methods: We administered a specialized, clinic-delivered, therapist-supported iCBT for GAD in 1099 physician-referred patients. The program was free of charge for patients, and the completion time was not predetermined. We measured symptoms with web-based questionnaires. The primary measure of anxiety was the GAD 7-item scale (GAD-7); secondary measures were, for pathological worry, the Penn State Worry Questionnaire and, for anxiety and impairment, the Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale. Results: Patients completed a mean 7.8 (SD 4.2; 65.1%) of 12 sessions, and 44.1% (485/1099) of patients completed all sessions. The effect size in the whole sample for GAD-7 was large (Cohen d=0.97, 95% CI 0.88-1.06). For completers, effect sizes were very large (Cohen d=1.34, 95% CI 1.25-1.53 for GAD-7; Cohen d=1.14, 95% CI 1.00-1.27 for Penn State Worry Questionnaire; and Cohen d=1.23, 95% CI 1.09-1.37 for Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale). Noncompleters also benefited from the treatment. Greater symptomatic GAD-7–measured relief was associated with more completed sessions, older age, and being referred from private or occupational care. Of the 894 patients with a baseline GAD-7 score ≥10, approximately 421 (47.1%) achieved reliable recovery. Conclusions: This nationwide, free-of-charge, therapist-supported HUS Helsinki University Hospital–iCBT for GAD was effective in routine care, but further research must establish effectiveness against other treatments and optimize the design of iCBT for GAD for different patient groups and individual patients.
  • Parhiala, P.; Ranta, K.; Gergov, Vera; Kontunen, J.; Law, R.; La Greca, A. M.; Torppa, M.; Marttunen, M. (2020)
    In order to offer early and accessible treatment for adolescents with depression, brief and effective treatments in adolescents' everyday surroundings are needed. This randomized controlled trial studied the preliminary effectiveness, feasibility, and acceptability of interpersonal counseling (IPC) and brief psychosocial support (BPS) in school health and welfare services. The study was conducted in the 28 lower secondary schools of a large city in Southern Finland, randomized to provide either IPC or BPS. Help-seeking 12-16-year-old adolescents with mild-to-moderate depression, with and without comorbid anxiety, were included in the study. Fifty-five adolescents received either 6 weekly sessions of IPC or BPS and two follow-up sessions. Outcome measures included self- and clinician-rated measures of depression, global functioning, and psychological distress/well-being. To assess feasibility and acceptability of the treatments, adolescents' and counselors' treatment compliance and satisfaction with treatment were assessed. Both treatments were effective in reducing depressive disorders and improving adolescents' overall functioning and well-being. At post-treatment, in both groups, over 50% of adolescents achieved recovery based on self-report and over 70% based on observer report. Effect sizes for change were medium or large in both groups at post-treatment and increased at 6-month follow-up. A trend indicating greater baseline symptom severity among adolescents treated in the IPC-providing schools was observed. Adolescents and counselors in both groups were satisfied with the treatment, and 89% of the adolescents completed the treatments and follow-ups. This trial suggests that both IPC and BPS are feasible, acceptable, and effective treatments for mild-to-moderate depression in the school setting. In addition, IPC seems effective even if comorbid anxiety exists. Our study shows that brief, structured interventions, such as IPC and BPS, are beneficial in treating mild-to-moderate depression in school settings and can be administered by professionals working at school.
  • Hintsa, Taina; Elovainio, Marko; Jokela, Markus; Ahola, Kirsi; Virtanen, Marianna; Pirkola, Sami (2016)
    Burnout has been suggested to be related to depression. We examined the relationship between burnout and allostatic load, and whether this association is independent of psychological distress and depression. We measured burnout psychological distress, depression, and allostatic load in 3283 participants. Higher burnout (=0.06, p=0.003) and cynicism (=0.03, p=0.031) and decreased professional efficacy (=0.03, p=0.007) were related to higher allostatic load independent of age, sex, education, occupation and psychological distress. Depression, however, explained 60percent of the association. Burnout is related to higher allostatic load, and this association partly overlaps with co-occurring depression.
  • Miettinen, Teemu; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Hagelberg, Nora; Mustola, Seppo; Kalso, Eija; Lötsch, Jörn (2021)
    Patients with chronic pain have complex pain profiles and associated problems. Subgroup analysis can help identify key problems. We used a data-based approach to define pain phenotypes and their most relevant associated problems in 320 patients undergoing tertiary pain management. Unsupervised machine learning analysis of parameters "pain intensity," "number of pain areas," "pain duration," "activity pain interference," and "affective pain interference," implemented as emergent self-organizing maps, identified 3 patient phenotype clusters. Supervised analyses, implemented as different types of decision rules, identified "affective pain interference" and the "number of pain areas" as most relevant for cluster assignment. These appeared 698 and 637 times, respectively, in 1000 cross-validation runs among the most relevant characteristics in an item categorization approach in a computed ABC analysis. Cluster assignment was achieved with a median balanced accuracy of 79.9%, a sensitivity of 74.1%, and a specificity of 87.7%. In addition, among 59 demographic, pain etiology, comorbidity, lifestyle, psychological, and treatment-related variables, sleep problems appeared 638 and 439 times among the most important characteristics in 1000 cross-validation runs where patients were assigned to the 2 extreme pain phenotype clusters. Also important were the parameters "fear of pain," "self-rated poor health," and "systolic blood pressure." Decision trees trained with this information assigned patients to the extreme pain phenotype with an accuracy of 67%. Machine learning suggested sleep problems as key factors in the most difficult pain presentations, therefore deserving priority in the treatment of chronic pain.
  • Lahti-Pulkkinen, M.; Mina, Theresia H.; Riha, Renata L.; Raikkonen, K.; Pesonen, A. K.; Drake, A. J.; Denison, Fiona C.; Reynolds, Rebecca M. (2019)
    Background The prevalence of sleep problems among pregnant women is over 50%, and daytime sleepiness is among the most common sleep problems. Previous studies have associated antenatal sleep problems with adverse maternal health and neonatal outcomes, but the consequences of antenatal sleep problems and particularly daytime sleepiness on child psychological development have not been assessed prospectively. Methods In this prospective cohort study including 111 mother-child dyads, we examined the associations of maternal daytime sleepiness during pregnancy, assessed at 17 and 28 weeks of gestation using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, with child neuropsychiatric problems and neuropsychological development, assessed with mother-rated questionnaires and individually administered neuropsychological tests, at child age 2.6-5.7 years (mean = 4.3 years). Results Independently of sociodemographic and perinatal covariates and maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms during and/or after pregnancy, maternal antenatal daytime sleepiness was associated with increased total [unstandardized regression coefficient (B) = 0.25 standard deviation (s.d.) units; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01-0.48] and internalizing (B = 0.25 s.d.s: 95% CI 0.01-0.49) psychiatric problems and ADHD symptoms (B = 0.27 s.d.s: 95% CI 0.04-0.50) in children, and with poorer executive function, particularly in the areas of attention, working memory and inhibitory control (B = -0.39 s.d.s: 95% CI -0.69 to -0.10). Conclusions Maternal antenatal daytime sleepiness carries adverse consequences for offspring psychological development. The assessment of sleep problems may be an important addition to standard antenatal care.
  • Miettinen, Teemu; Kautiainen, Hannu; Mantyselka, Pekka; Linton, Steven J.; Kalso, Eija (2019)
    Chronic pain patients enter treatment with different problem profiles making careful assessment a necessity for more individualized treatment plans. In this cross-sectional study we assigned 320 patients entering tertiary multidisciplinary pain treatment into four categories based on whether they scored low or high on the activity and the affective pain interference dimensions of the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). To determine whether this categorization system delineates issues that should be assessed further, the categories were compared with ANOVA and MANOVA analyses on three domains: variables affecting physical well-being (body mass index, exercise, substance use), psychological resources (mood), and painspecific psychological factors (pain anxiety, pain acceptance). The results indicated that subjects who scored low on both interference dimensions compared similarly in weight: mean Body Mass Index (BMI) 27.0 (SD 6.0) kg/m(2), and exercise: mean of 2.4 (SD 1.7) exercising sessions over 20 minutes per week, to the general population, had no depressive symptoms on average: mean Beck Depression Index II (BDI-II) score 11.7 (SD 7.5), and had the most favorable psychological reactions to pain relative to the other categories: mean total Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 (PASS-20) score 36.4 (SD 17.9). In contrast, when interference was high on activity, more physical well-being problems were evident e.g. weight: mean BMI 31.0 (SD 7.3) kg/m(2), diminished exercise: mean of 1.5 (SD 1.6) exercising sessions per week, and avoidance behavior: mean PASS-20 Escape/Avoidance subscale 3.7 (95% CI: 1.7 to 5.8) scores higher in comparison to activity interference remaining low. With high affective interference, more depressive symptoms: mean BDI-II score 17.7 (SD 7.3), and more cognitive pain anxiety: mean PASS-20 Cognitive Anxiety subscale 2.8 (95% CI 0.7 to 4.8) scores higher in comparison to affective interference remaining low, emerged. Having high interference on both dimensions indicated accumulated risks for reduced physical well-being: mean BMI 29.9 (SD 6.1) kg/m(2), mean of 1.2 (SD 1.7) exercising sessions per week, mood problems: mean BDI-II 20.3 (SD 10.6), and negative psychological reactions to pain: mean total PASS-20 score 53.2 (18.4). The results suggest that low interference on both dimensions may allow assessment with only physician consultations, while high interference on either dimension may call attention to distinct issues to be addressed with the help of a physiotherapist or a psychologist, whereas high interference on both dimensions highlights the need for a full multidisciplinary assessment.
  • Huhdanpää, Hanna; Morales-Munoz, Isabel; Aronen, Eeva T.; Pölkki, Pirjo; Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Outi; Kylliäinen, Anneli; Paavonen, E. Juulia (2021)
    We examined several parent-reported prenatal and postnatal factors as potential risk factors for attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology in 5-year-old children. Our study is based on the CHILD-SLEEP birth cohort. Several parental questionnaires were collected prenatally (32nd pregnancy week) and postnatally (i.e. child aged 3, 8, and 24 months and at 5 years). At 5 years of age, ADHD symptoms were assessed using questionnaires. Our main results showed that being a boy, parental depressive symptoms, more negative family atmosphere or a child’s shorter sleep duration, and maternal authoritarian parenting style predicted inattentive/hyperactive symptoms. Maternal and paternal authoritative parenting style predicted less inattentive/hyperactive symptoms. Children with several risk factors together had the highest risk for inattentive/hyperactive symptoms. Our findings emphasise the need for early screening and treatment of parental mental health, and early evidence-based targeted parental support, to enable early intervention in those children at a risk of developing ADHD.
  • Kita, Yosuke; Ashizawa, Fumiko; Masumi, Inagaki (2020)
    Abstract Aim The prevalence estimates of neurodevelopmental disorders have been calculated by questionnaire surveys scored by a single rater, which introduces inherent rater biases. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence and comorbidity rates of four neurodevelopmental disorders based both on parent and teacher rating scales. Methods We performed a community sample survey recruiting 3852 children aged 6?9?years. Both parents and teachers evaluated clinical conditions in children using questionnaire-style scales. These scales with the cut-off values were used to estimate the prevalence and comorbidity rates of attention deficit / hyperactive disorder, autism spectrum disorder, specific learning disorder (or developmental dyslexia), and developmental coordination disorder. Results The prevalence estimates were separately confirmed according to the raters. Some estimates were higher than those in the previous studies conducted in other countries. We also found a large disagreement between the parent and teacher rating scores. Moreover, the degree of agreement between two raters varied depending on the severity of clinical condition in the child. Conclusion These estimates are the first findings based on evaluating children by two raters. The prevalence and comorbidity estimates are informative to the researchers and clinicians of pediatric neurology. The disagreement between two raters raises questions about previous estimates of neurodevelopmental disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Peltonen, Kirsi; Kurki, Marjo; Reedtz, Charlotte; Kaiser, Sabine; Rasmussen, Lene-Mari P.; Merikukka, Marko; Rye, Marte; Laajasalo, Taina; Kyrrestad, Henriette; Karjalainen, Piia; Pettersen, Susann Dahl; Eng, Helene; Breivik, Kyrre; Martinussen, Monica (2023)
    The aim of this article is to review the psychometric properties of the psychological tests that are being used in the Nordic countries during pregnancy and the child's first two years of life. A systematic literature search was performed for 33 identified tests routinely used in health care, using specific review databases as well as PsycInfo, Embase and Medline. The trained authors conducted an overall assessment of quality for each test which was then verified by the editors. A total of 12% of the tests were rated at Level 1 'Low level of quality', 61% at Level 2 'Some evidence of Quality', 15% at level 3 'Good level of Quality' and 12% at Level 4 'High level of quality'. This indicates that the evidence for the psychometric properties is insufficient for many tests used in the Nordic countries for this purpose