Browsing by Subject "PSYCHOPATHOLOGY"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-14 of 14
  • Laukkanen, Eila; Hintikka, Jukka J.; Kylma, Jari; Kekkonen, Virve; Marttunen, Mauri (2010)
  • Kerkelä, Martta; Gyllenberg, David; Gissler, Mika; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Keski-Säntti, Markus; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Filatova, Svetlana; Hurtig, Tuula; Miettunen, Jouko; Sourander, Andre; Veijola, Juha (2021)
    Objective The aim of this study was to explore changes in the incidences of childhood and early adulthood hospital-treated psychiatric disorders in five large Finnish birth cohorts of individuals born between 1966 and 1997. Methods The five birth cohorts were as follows: Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC 1966) and 1986 (NFBC 1986), 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort (FBC 1987) and 1997 (FBC 1997), and Finnish 1981 Birth Cohort Study (FBCS 1981). Incidences of hospital-treated psychiatric disorders in each cohort were calculated separately for males (N = 71,209) and females (N = 65,190). Poisson regression was used to test difference in proportions of psychiatric disorders in wide range of diagnosis classes separately in childhood and adolescence, and early adulthood. Results The total incidences of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence among males has increased in the birth cohorts over decades (Incidence Rate Ratio, IRR = 1.04 (1.04-1.05); p <0.001). Similar result was seen among females (IRR = 1.04 (1.03-1.04); p <0.001). In early adulthood, there was significant increase among females (IRR = 1.04 (1.03-1.05); p <0.001), but among males, the change was not significant (IRR = 0.99 (0.99-1.00), p = 0.051). Conclusions The main finding was that the cumulative incidence of hospital-treated psychiatric disorders increased over the decades in Finland. The increasing trend in hospital-treated psychiatric disorders in early adulthood was detected in females but not in males. In the youngest cohorts, the cumulative incidence of hospital-treated psychiatric disorders was at the same level in males and females, whereas in oldest cohort, males had higher incidence than females.
  • Whipp, Alyce M.; Korhonen, Tellervo; Raevuori, Anu; Heikkilä, Kauko; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Vuoksimaa, Eero (2019)
    Modestly prevalent in the general population (4%), but highly prevalent in prison populations (>40%), the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) involves aggression as one of several possible criteria. Using multiple informants, we aimed to determine if general aggression, as well as direct and indirect subtypes, assessed in early adolescence (ages 12, 14) predict young adulthood ASPD in a population-based sample. Using data from a Finnish population-based longitudinal twin cohort study with psychiatric interviews available at age 22 (N=1347), we obtained DSM-IV-based ASPD diagnoses. Aggression measures from ages 12 (parental and teacher ratings) and 14 (teacher, self, and co-twin ratings) were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) of ASPD from logistic regression models and the area under the curve (AUC) from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, and family structure. All informants' aggression ratings were significant (p
  • Congdon, Eliza; Service, Susan; Wessman, Jaana; Seppanen, Jouni K.; Schönauer, Stefan; Miettunen, Jouko; Turunen, Hannu; Koiranen, Markku; Joukamaa, Matti; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Palotie, Leena; Veijola, Juha; Mannila, Heikki; Paunio, Tiina; Freimer, Nelson B. (2012)
  • Lindblom, Jallu; Peltola, Mikko J.; Vanska, Mervi; Hietanen, Jari K.; Laakso, Anu; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamaki, Raija-Leena (2017)
    The family environment shapes children's social information processing and emotion regulation. Yet, the long-term effects of early family systems have rarely been studied. This study investigated how family system types predict children's attentional biases toward facial expressions at the age of 10 years. The participants were 79 children from Cohesive, Disengaged, Enmeshed, and Authoritarian family types based on marital and parental relationship trajectories from pregnancy to the age of 12 months. A dot-probe task was used to assess children's emotional attention biases toward threatening (angry) and affiliative (happy) faces at the early (500 ms) and late (1250 ms) stages of processing. Situational priming was applied to activate children's sense of danger or safety. Results showed that children from Cohesive families had an early-stage attentional bias toward threat, whereas children from Enmeshed families had a late-stage bias toward threat. Children from Disengaged families had an early-stage attentional bias toward threat, but showed in addition a late-stage bias away from emotional faces (i.e., both angry and happy). Children from Authoritarian families, in turn, showed a late-stage attentional bias toward emotional faces. Situational priming did not moderate the effects of family system types on children's attentional biases. The findings confirm the influence of early family systems on the attentional biases, suggesting differences in the emotion regulation strategies children have developed to adapt to their family environments.
  • Ilomaki, Essi; Hakko, Helina; Ilomaki, Risto; Rasanen, Pirkko; Study-70 Workgrp; Marttunen, Mauri (2012)
    Objectives: Conduct disorder (CD) refers to a pattern of severe antisocial and aggressive behaviour manifested in childhood or adolescence, with heavy costs to society. Though CD is a common psychiatric diagnosis among adolescents of both genders, gender differences in comorbidity of CD have been little studied. In this study we examined gender differences among adolescents with CD in causes for hospitalization, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses and somatic conditions. Study design: The original study sample consisted of 508 inpatient adolescents in Northern Finland (age 12-17); 155 of them (65 girls, 92 boys) fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for CD. Methods: Diagnosis of CD and psychiatric comorbidities were obtained from the K-SADS-PL and somatic conditions from the EuropAsi. Results: As compared to boys with CD, suicidality (including suicidal ideation and behaviour) was significantly more commonly the cause of hospitalization among girls with CD (43% vs. 24%, p = 0.013). Among somatic conditions, there was a significant predominance in self-reported allergies among girls (60% vs. 25%, p Conclusions: Girls with CD seem to have an increased tendency to develop both comorbid psychiatric and somatic conditions as well as suicidality. New clinical aspects in treatment of CD and comorbid disorders among girls are discussed.
  • Teivaanmäki, Sini; Huhdanpää, Hanna; Kiuru, Noona; Aronen, Eeva T.; Närhi, Vesa; Klenberg, Liisa (2020)
    The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between internalizing and externalizing symptoms and deficits in executive functions (EF) as well as to examine the overall heterogeneity of EFs in a sample of preschool children attending a psychiatric clinic (n = 171). First, based on cut-off points signifying clinical levels of impairment on the parent-completed Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), children were assigned into groups of internalizing, externalizing, combined or mild symptoms and compared to a reference group (n = 667) with regard to day care teacher ratings of EFs on the Attention and Executive Function Rating Inventory-Preschool (ATTEX-P). Second, latent profile analysis (LPA) was employed to identify distinct subgroups of children representing different EF profiles with unique strengths and weaknesses in EFs. The first set of analyses indicated that all symptom groups had more difficulties in EFs than the reference group did, and the internalizing group had less inhibition-related problems than the other symptom groups did. Using LPA, five EF profiles were identified: average, weak average, attentional problems, inhibitory problems, and overall problems. The EF profiles were significantly associated with gender, maternal education level, and psychiatric symptom type. Overall, the findings suggest that the comparison of means of internalizing and externalizing groups mainly captures the fairly obvious differences in inhibition-related domains among young psychiatric outpatient children, whereas the person-oriented approach, based on individual differences, identifies heterogeneity related to attentional functions, planning, and initiating one's action. The variability in EF difficulties suggests that a comprehensive evaluation of a child's EF profile is important regardless of the type of psychiatric symptoms the child presents with.
  • Anderson, Peter J.; de Miranda, Debora Marques; Albuquerque, Maicon Rodrigues; Indredavik, Marit Saebo; Evensen, Kari Anne; Van Lieshout, Ryan; Saigal, Saroj; Taylor, H. Gerry; Raikkonen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Marlow, Neil; Johnson, Samantha; Woodward, Lianne J.; Austin, Nicola; Nosarti, Chiara; Jaekel, Julia; Wolke, Dieter; Cheong, Jeanie Ly; Burnett, Alice; Treyvaud, Karli; Lee, Katherine J.; Doyle, Lex W. (2021)
    Background: Data on psychiatric disorders in survivors born very preterm (VP; Methods: This individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis pooled data from eligible groups in the Adults born Preterm International Collaboration (APIC). Inclusion criteria included: 1) VP/VLBW group (birth weight 2499 g and/or gestational age >= 37 weeks), and 3) structured measure of psychiatric diagnoses using DSM or ICD criteria. Diagnoses of interest were Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Anxiety Disorder, Mood Disorder, Disruptive Behaviour Disorder (DBD), Eating Disorder, and Psychotic Disorder. A systematic search for eligible studies was conducted (PROSPERO Registration Number 47555). Findings: Data were obtained from 10 studies (1385 VP/VLBW participants, 1780 controls), using a range of instruments and approaches to assigning diagnoses. Those born VP/VLBW had ten times higher odds of meeting criteria for ASD (odds ratio [OR] 10.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.50, 44.7), five times higher odds of meeting criteria for ADHD (OR 5.42, 95% CI 3.10, 9.46), twice the odds of meeting criteria for Anxiety Disorder (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.36, 2.69), and 1.5 times the odds of meeting criteria for Mood Disorder (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.08, 2.12) than controls. This pattern of findings was consistent within age (= 18 years) and sex subgroups. Interpretation: Our data suggests that individuals born VP/VLBW might have higher odds of meeting criteria for certain psychiatric disorders through childhood and into adulthood than term/NBW controls. Further research is needed to corroborate our results and identify factors associated with psychiatric disorders in individuals born VP/VLBW. (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Saari, Toni; Koivisto, Anne; Hintsa, Taina; Hänninen, Tuomo; Hallikainen, Ilona (2022)
    Neuropsychiatric symptoms cause a significant burden to individuals with neurocognitive disorders and their families. Insights into the clinical associations, neurobiology, and treatment of these symptoms depend on informant questionnaires, such as the commonly used Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). As with any scale, the utility of the NPI relies on its psychometric properties, but the NPI faces unique challenges related to its skip-question and scoring formats. In this narrative review, we examined the psychometric properties of the NPI in a framework including properties pertinent to construct validation, and health-related outcome measurement in general. We found that aspects such as test-retest and inter-rater reliability are major strengths of the NPI in addition to its flexible and relatively quick administration. These properties are desired in clinical trials. However, the reported properties appear to cover only some of the generally examined psychometric properties, representing perhaps necessary but insufficient reliability and validity evidence for the NPI. The psychometric data seem to have significant gaps, in part because small sample sizes in the relevant studies have precluded more comprehensive analyses. Regarding construct validity, only one study has examined structural validity with the NPI subquestions. Measurement error was not assessed in the reviewed studies. For future validation, we recommend using data from all subquestions, collecting larger samples, paying specific attention to construct validity and formulating hypotheses a priori. Because the NPI is an outcome measure of interest in clinical trials, examining measurement error could be of practical importance.
  • Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri; Aro, Hillevi (2003)
    Background: Few longitudinal studies have attempted to identify risk factors in mid-adolescence for subsequent depression in young adulthood. Mid-adolescence is a critical developmental phase for studying vulnerability to depression due to high incidence and prevalence of depression. Methods: In a longitudinal study, following an urban Finnish community cohort (761 males and 887 females) from age 16, mid-adolescent risk factors for depression at age 22 years were studied. Data were collected by a questionnaire at school at age 16, and by a postal questionnaire at age 22. Results: Of the females 116 (13%) and of the males 69 (9%) had depression (S-BDI) in young adulthood. In multivariate analyses baseline depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, dissatisfaction with academic achievement, problems with the law, poor atmosphere at home and having no close friends predicted subsequent depression. Risk factors for males included more 'externalizing' aspects, for females more 'internalizing' factors. Conclusions: Mid-adolescence is an important age to study risk for depression, and self-reported perceptions of psychosocial well-being have predictive value. Preventive efforts can be selectively targeted at adolescents who have been exposed to identifiable risk factors. (C) 2002 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Urrila, Anna S.; Artiges, Eric; Massicotte, Jessica; Miranda, Ruben; Vulser, Helene; Bezivin-Frere, Pauline; Lapidaire, Winok; Lemaitre, Herve; Penttilae, Jani; Conrod, Patricia J.; Garavan, Hugh; Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillere; Martinot, Jean-Luc; IMAGEN Consortium (2017)
    Here we report the first and most robust evidence about how sleep habits are associated with regional brain grey matter volumes and school grade average in early adolescence. Shorter time in bed during weekdays, and later weekend sleeping hours correlate with smaller brain grey matter volumes in frontal, anterior cingulate, and precuneus cortex regions. Poor school grade average associates with later weekend bedtime and smaller grey matter volumes in medial brain regions. The medial prefrontal anterior cingulate cortex appears most tightly related to the adolescents' variations in sleep habits, as its volume correlates inversely with both weekend bedtime and wake up time, and also with poor school performance. These findings suggest that sleep habits, notably during the weekends, have an alarming link with both the structure of the adolescent brain and school performance, and thus highlight the need for informed interventions.
  • Whipp, Alyce M.; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Bolhuis, Koen; de Zeeuw, Eveline L.; Korhonen, Tellervo; Mauri, Matteo; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rimfeld, Kaili; Rose, Richard J.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina (Toos) E. M.; Bartels, Meike; Plomin, Robert; Tiemeier, Henning; Kaprio, Jaakko; Boomsma, Dorret I. (2021)
    Aggressive behavior in school is an ongoing concern. The current focus is on specific manifestations such as bullying, but the behavior is broad and heterogenous. Children spend a substantial amount of time in school, but their behaviors in the school setting tend to be less well characterized than at home. Because aggression may index multiple behavioral problems, we used three validated instruments to assess means, correlations and gender differences of teacher-rated aggressive behavior with co-occurring externalizing/internalizing problems and social behavior in 39,936 schoolchildren aged 7-14 from 4 population-based cohorts from Finland, the Netherlands, and the UK. Correlations of aggressive behavior were high with all other externalizing problems (r: 0.47-0.80) and lower with internalizing problems (r: 0.02-0.39). A negative association was observed with prosocial behavior (r: -0.33 to -0.54). Mean levels of aggressive behavior differed significantly by gender. Despite the higher mean levels of aggressive behavior in boys, the correlations were notably similar for boys and girls (e.g., aggressive-hyperactivity correlations: 0.51-0.75 boys, 0.47-0.70 girls) and did not vary greatly with respect to age, instrument or cohort. Thus, teacher-rated aggressive behavior rarely occurs in isolation; boys and girls with problems of aggressive behavior likely require help with other behavioral and emotional problems. Important to note, higher aggressive behavior is not only associated with higher amounts of other externalizing and internalizing problems but also with lower levels of prosocial behavior.
  • Liskola, Krista; Raaska, Hanna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lipsanen, Jari; Sinkkonen, Jari; Elovainio, Marko (2021)
    Background Even though child psychopathology assessment guidelines emphasize comprehensive multi-method, multimodal, and multi-informant methodologies, maternal-report symptom-rating scales often serve as the predominant source of information. Research has shown that parental mood symptomatology affects their reports of their offspring's psychopathology. For example, the depression-distortion hypothesis suggests that maternal depression promotes a negative bias in mothers' perceptions of their children's behavioral and emotional problems. We investigated this difference of perception between adoptive mothers and internationally adopted children. Most previous studies suffer from the potential bias caused by the fact that parents and children share genetic risks. Methods Data were derived from the Finnish Adoption (FinAdo) survey study (a subsample of adopted children aged between 9 and 12 years, n = 222). The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was used to assess emotional and behavioral problems and competences of the adopted children. The CBCL was filled in by the adopted children and the adoptive mothers, respectively. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the short version of the General Health Questionnaire. Results On average, mothers reported less total CBCL symptoms in their children than the children themselves (0.25 vs 0.38, p-value < 0.01 for difference). Mothers' depressive symptoms moderated the discrepancy in reporting internalizing symptoms (beta = - 0.14 and p-value 0.01 for interaction) and the total symptoms scores (beta = - 0.22 and p-value < 0.001 for interaction) and externalizing symptoms in girls in the CBCL. Limitations The major limitation of our study is its cross-sectional design and the fact that we only collected data in the form of questionnaires. Conclusions The results of our research support the depression-distortion hypothesis concerning the association of maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing symptoms and externalizing symptoms in girls in a sample without genetic bias
  • Salonen, Minna K.; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; Kautiainen, Hannu; von Bonsdorff, Monika E.; Kajantie, Eero; Wasenius, Niko S.; Pesonen, Anukatriina; Raikkonen, Katri; Eriksson, Johan G. (2019)
    Introduction: Traumatic experiences, such as separation from parents in childhood causing early life stress (ELS) may increase the risk of adverse long-term health outcomes and biological age-related changes. This may have an impact on work career. Our aim was to examine long term consequences of ELS due to temporary separation from parents during World War II (WWII) in relation to work career. Material and methods: The Helsinki Birth Cohort Study comprises 13,345 individuals born in Helsinki, Finland, between the years 1934-1944. From the original cohort, 1781 individuals were identified as being separated temporarily from their parents due to World War II. Information on date and type of pension was provided by the Finnish Centre for Pensions and the Social Insurance Institution of Finland. The cohort members either transitioned into old age pension at the statutory retirement age or retired earlier and transitioned into disability, unemployment, part-time pension or died before retirement. Results: Those who were separated were more likely to have transitioned into disability pension (RRR: 1.26: 95% CI: 1.06-1.48), especially due to diseases of the musculoskeletal system (OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.20-2.07), or into unemployment pension (RRR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.02-1.53) compared with those not separated from their parents. Longer duration of separation was associated with early exit from the workforce compared with non-separation. Conclusions: Exposure to ELS may have an impact upon lifetime work career. Early interventions preventing exposure to ELS or mitigating its negative effects may prolong future work careers along with healthier aging across the life-span.