Browsing by Subject "PSYCHOTROPIC-DRUGS"

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  • Nurminen, Janne; Puustinen, Juha; Lahteenmaki, Ritva; Vahlberg, Tero; Lyles, Alan; Partinen, Markku; Raiha, Ismo; Neuvonen, Pertti J.; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa (2014)
  • Roitto, Hanna-Maria; Öhman, Hannareeta; Salminen, Karoliina; Kautiainen, Hannu; Laurila, Jouko; Pitkälä, Kaisu H. (2020)
    Objectives: Falls and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common among long-term care residents with cognitive impairment. Despite the high prevalence of falls and NPS, little is known about their association. The aim of our study was to explore how NPS, particularly the severity of NPS and specific NPS subgroups, are associated with falls and how psychotropics modify this association. Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Setting and Participants: In total, 532 long-term care residents aged 65 years or older in Helsinki, Finland. Methods: NPS were measured with Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) at baseline. Participants were grouped into 3 groups: no significant NPS (NPI points 0-3), low NPS burden (NPI 4-12), and high NPS burden (NPI >12). The number of falls, injuries, fractures, and hospitalizations were collected from medical records over 12 months following baseline assessment. Results: Altogether, 606 falls occurred during the follow-up year. The falls led to 121 injuries, 42 hospitalizations, and 20 fractures. Falls and injuries increased significantly with NPS burden (P <.001): 330 falls in the high NPS group (n = 184), 188 falls in the low NPS group (n = 181), and 88 falls in the no significant NPS group (n = 167). The risk of falling showed a curvilinear association with NPI total score. Of NPS subgroups, psychosis and hyperactivity were associated with a higher incidence rate ratio of falls, whereas apathy had a protective association even after adjustment for age, sex, and mobility. Affective symptoms were not associated with falls. Psychotropics did not modify the association between NPS burden and falls. Conclusions and Implications: The results of this study show that NPS, especially NPS severity, may predict falls and fall-related negative consequences. Severity of NPS should be taken into account when assessing fall risk in long-term care residents with cognitive impairment. (C) 2020 AMDA - The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine.
  • Pajunen, Tuulia; Vuori, Erkki; Vincenzi, Frank F.; Lillsunde, Pirjo; Smith, Gordon; Lunetta, Philippe (2017)
    Background: Alcohol is a well-known risk factor in unintentional drownings. Whereas psychotropic drugs, like alcohol, may cause psychomotor impairment and affect cognition, no detailed studies have focused on their association with drowning. Finland provides extensive post-mortem toxicological data for studies on drowning because of its high medico-legal autopsy rates. Methods: Drowning cases, 2000 through 2009, for which post-mortem toxicological analysis was performed, came from the database of the Toxicological Laboratory, Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, using the ICD-10 nature-of-injury code T75.1. The data were narrowed to unintentional drowning, using the ICD-10 external-injury codes V90, V92, and W65-74. Each drowning case had its blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and concentrations of other drugs recorded. Evaluation of the contribution of psychotropic drugs to drowning was based on their blood concentration by means of a 6-grade scale. Results: Among victims >= 15 years old, unintentional drownings numbered 1697, of which, 303 (17.9%) were boating-related and 1394 (82.1%) non-boating-related. Among these, 65.0% of boating-related and 61.8% of non-boating-related victims were alcohol-positive (=BAC >= 50 mg/dL). The male-to-female ratio in alcohol-positive drownings was 7.3. At least one psychotropic drug appeared in 453 (26.7%) drowning cases, with some victims' bodies showing up to 7 different drugs. Overall 70 different psychotropic drugs were detectable, with 134 (7.9%) cases both alcohol-negative and psychotropic-drug-positive, of these, 59 (3.5%) were graded 4 to 6, indicating a possible to very probable contribution to drowning. Our findings suggest that psychotropic drugs may play a significant role in drowning, in up to 14.5% of cases, independently or in association with alcohol. Conclusions: Psychotropic drugs alone or in association with alcohol may be an overlooked risk factor in drowning, due to their effects on psychomotor function and cognition. Future studies should also address other mechanisms-for instance drug-induced long-QT syndrome-by which drugs may contribute to drowning.