Browsing by Subject "PTR-MS"

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  • Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Sevanto, Sanna; Dal Maso, Miikka; Taipale, Risto; Kajos, Maija; Kolari, Pasi; Back, Jaana (2013)
  • Rantala, P.; Aalto, J.; Taipale, R.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Rinne, J. (2015)
    Long-term flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) over boreal forests are rare, although the forests are known to emit considerable amounts of VOCs into the atmosphere. Thus, we measured fluxes of several VOCs and oxygenated VOCs over a Scots-pine-dominated boreal forest semi-continuously between May 2010 and December 2013. The VOC profiles were obtained with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, and the fluxes were calculated using vertical concentration profiles and the surface layer profile method connected to the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. In total fluxes that differed significantly from zero on a monthly basis were observed for 13 out of 27 measured masses. Monoterpenes had the highest net emission in all seasons and statistically significant positive fluxes were detected from March until October. Other important compounds emitted were methanol, ethanol+ formic acid, acetone and isoprene+ methylbutenol. Oxygenated VOCs showed also deposition fluxes that were statistically different from zero. Isoprene+ methylbutenol and monoterpene fluxes followed well the traditional isoprene algorithm and the hybrid algorithm, respectively. Emission potentials of monoterpenes were largest in late spring and autumn which was possibly driven by growth processes and decaying of soil litter, respectively. Conversely, largest emission potentials of isoprene+ methylbutenol were found in July. Thus, we concluded that most of the emissions of m/z 69 at the site consisted of isoprene that originated from broadleaved trees. Methanol had deposition fluxes especially before sunrise. This can be connected to water films on surfaces. Based on this assumption, we were able to build an empirical algorithm for bi-directional methanol exchange that described both emission term and deposition term. Methanol emissions were highest in May and June and deposition level increased towards autumn, probably as a result of increasing relative humidity levels leading to predominance of deposition.
  • Rantala, Pekka; Järvi, Leena; Taipale, Risto; Laurila, Terhi K.; Patokoski, Johanna; Kajos, Maija K.; Kurppa, Mona; Haapanala, Sami; Siivola, Erkki; Petäjä, Tuukka; Ruuskanen, Taina M.; Rinne, Janne (2016)
    We measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) at an urban background site near the city centre of Helsinki, Finland, northern Europe. The VOC and CO2 measurements were obtained between January 2013 and September 2014 whereas for CO a shorter measurement campaign in April-May 2014 was conducted. Both anthropogenic and biogenic sources were identified for VOCs in the study. Strong correlations between VOC fluxes and CO fluxes and traffic rates indicated anthropogenic source of many VOCs. The VOC with the highest emission rate to the atmosphere was methanol, which originated mostly from traffic and other anthropogenic sources. The traffic was also a major source for aromatic compounds in all seasons whereas isoprene was mostly emitted from biogenic sources during summer. Some amount of traffic-related isoprene emissions were detected during other seasons but this might have also been an instrumental contamination from cycloalkane products. Generally, the observed VOC fluxes were found to be small in comparison with previous urban VOC flux studies. However, the differences were probably caused by lower anthropogenic activities as the CO2 fluxes were also relatively small at the site.
  • Acton, W. Joe F.; Schallhart, Simon; Langford, Ben; Valach, Amy; Rantala, Pekka; Fares, Silvano; Carriero, Giulia; Tillmann, Ralf; Tomlinson, Sam J.; Dragosits, Ulrike; Gianelle, Damiano; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Nemitz, Eiko (2016)
    This paper reports the fluxes and mixing ratios of biogenically emitted volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) 4aEuro-m above a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy. Fluxes of methanol, acetaldehyde, isoprene, methyl vinyl ketoneaEuro-+aEuro-methacrolein, methyl ethyl ketone and monoterpenes were obtained using both a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) together with the methods of virtual disjunct eddy covariance (using PTR-MS) and eddy covariance (using PTR-ToF-MS). Isoprene was the dominant emitted compound with a mean daytime flux of 1.9aEuro-mgaEuro-m(-2)aEuro-h(-1). Mixing ratios, recorded 4aEuro-m above the canopy, were dominated by methanol with a mean value of 6.2aEuro-ppbv over the 28-day measurement period. Comparison of isoprene fluxes calculated using the PTR-MS and PTR-ToF-MS showed very good agreement while comparison of the monoterpene fluxes suggested a slight over estimation of the flux by the PTR-MS. A basal isoprene emission rate for the forest of 1.7aEuro-mgaEuro-m(-2)aEuro-h(-1) was calculated using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) isoprene emission algorithms (Guenther et al., 2006). A detailed tree-species distribution map for the site enabled the leaf-level emission of isoprene and monoterpenes recorded using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to be scaled up to produce a bottom-up canopy-scale flux. This was compared with the top-down canopy-scale flux obtained by measurements. For monoterpenes, the two estimates were closely correlated and this correlation improved when the plant-species composition in the individual flux footprint was taken into account. However, the bottom-up approach significantly underestimated the isoprene flux, compared with the top-down measurements, suggesting that the leaf-level measurements were not representative of actual emission rates.
  • Smolander, S.; He, Q.; Mogensen, D.; Zhou, L.; Back, J.; Ruuskanen, T.; Noe, S.; Guenther, A.; Aaltonen, Hermanni; Kulmala, M.; Boy, M. (2014)
    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are essential in atmospheric chemistry because of their chemical reactions that produce and destroy tropospheric ozone, their effects on aerosol formation and growth, and their potential influence on global warming. As one of the important BVOC groups, monoterpenes have been a focus of scientific attention in atmospheric research. Detailed regional measurements and model estimates are needed to study emission potential and the monoterpene budget on a global scale. Since the use of empirical measurements for upscaling is limited by many physical and biological factors, such as genetic variation, temperature and light, water availability, seasonal changes, and environmental stresses, comprehensive inventories over larger areas are difficult to obtain. We applied the boundary-layer–chemistry-transport model SOSA (model to Simulate the concentrations of Organic vapours and Sulphuric Acid) to investigate Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) monoterpene emissions in a boreal coniferous forest at the SMEAR (Station for Measuring forest Ecosystem–Atmosphere Relations) II site, southern Finland. SOSA was applied to simulate monoterpene emissions with three different emission modules: the semiempirical G95, MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature) 2.04 with improved descriptions of temperature and light responses and including also carbonyl emissions, and a process-based model SIM–BIM (Seasonal Isoprenoid synthase Model – Biochemical Isoprenoid biosynthesis Model). For the first time, the emission models included seasonal and diurnal variations in both quantity and chemical species of emitted monoterpenes, based on parameterizations obtained from field measurements. Results indicate that modelling and observations agreed reasonably well and that the model can be used for investigating regional air chemistry questions related to monoterpenes. The predominant modelled monoterpene concentrations, α-pinene and Δ3-carene, are consistent with observations.
  • Lan, Hangzhen; Holopainen, Jani; Hartonen, Kari; Jussila, Matti; Ritala, Mikko; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa (2019)
    Comprehensive and time-dependent information (e.g., chemical composition, concentration) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in atmospheric, indoor, and breath air is essential to understand the fundamental science of the atmosphere, air quality, and diseases diagnostic. Here, we introduced a fully automated online dynamic in-tube extraction (ITEX)-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method for continuous and quantitative monitoring of VOCs in air. In this approach, modified Cycle Composer software and a PAL autosampler controlled and operated the ITEX preconditioning, internal standard (ISTD) addition, air sampling, and ITEX desorption sequentially to enable full automation. Air flow passed through the ITEX with the help of an external pump, instead of plunger up-down strokes, to allow larger sampling volumes, exhaustive extraction, and consequently lower detection limits. Further, in order to evaluate the ITEX system stability and to develop the corresponding quantitative ITEX method, two laboratory-made permeation systems (for standard VOCs and ISTD) were constructed. The stability and suitability of the developed system was validated with a consecutive 19 day atmospheric air campaign under automation. By using an electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers packed ITEX, selective extraction of some VOCs and durability of over 1500 extraction and desorption cycles were achieved. Especially, the latter step is critically important for on-site long-term application at remote regions. This ITEX method provided 2-3 magnitudes lower quantitation limits than the headspace dynamic ITEX method and other needle trap methods. Our results proved the excellence of the fully automated online dynamic ITEX-GC/MS system for tracking VOCs in the atmospheric air.
  • Heikkinen, Liine; Äijälä, Mikko; Riva, Matthieu; Luoma, Krista Hannele; Dällenbach, Kaspar; Aalto, Juho; Aalto, Pasi; Aliaga Badani, Diego Alonso; Aurela, Minna; Keskinen, Helmi-Marja; Makkonen, Ulla; Rantala, Pekka; Kulmala, Markku; Petäjä, Tuukka; Worsnop, Douglas; Ehn, Mikael (2020)
    The Station for Measuring Ecosystem Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR) II is well known among atmospheric scientists due to the immense amount of observational data it provides of the Earth atmosphere interface. Moreover, SMEAR II plays an important role for the large European research infrastructure, enabling the large scientific community to tackle climate- and air-pollution-related questions, utilizing the high-quality long-term data sets recorded at the site. So far, this well-documented site was missing the description of the seasonal variation in aerosol chemical composition, which helps understanding the complex biogeochemical and physical processes governing the forest ecosystem. Here, we report the sub-micrometer aerosol chemical composition and its variability, employing data measured between 2012 and 2018 using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM). We observed a bimodal seasonal trend in the sub-micrometer aerosol concentration culminating in February (2.7, 1.6, and 5.1 mu g m(-3) for the median, 25th, and 75th percentiles, respectively) and July (4.2, 2.2, and 5.7 mu g m(-3) for the median, 25th, and 75th percentiles, respectively). The wintertime maximum was linked to an enhanced presence of inorganic aerosol species (ca. 50 %), whereas the summertime maximum (ca. 80 % organics) was linked to biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. During the exceptionally hot months of July of 2014 and 2018, the organic aerosol concentrations were up to 70 % higher than the 7-year July mean. The projected increase in heat wave frequency over Finland will most likely influence the loading and chemical composition of aerosol particles in the future. Our findings suggest strong influence of meteorological conditions such as radiation, ambient temperature, and wind speed and direction on aerosol chemical composition. To our understanding, this is the longest time series reported describing the aerosol chemical composition measured online in the boreal region, but the continuous monitoring will also be maintained in the future.
  • Canaval, Eva; Hyttinen, Noora; Schmidbauer, Benjamin; Fischer, Lukas; Hansel, Armin (2019)
    In this study, we present reactions of NH4+ with a series of analytes (A): acetone (C3H6O), methyl vinyl ketone (C4H6O), methyl ethyl ketone (C4H8O) and eight monoterpene isomers (C10H16) using a Selective Reagent Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (SRI-ToF-MS). We studied the ion-molecule reactions at collision energies of 55 meV and 80 meV. The ketones, having a substantially lower proton affinity than NH3, produce only cluster ions NH4+(A) in detectable amounts at 55 meV. At 80 meV, no cluster ions were detected meaning that these adduct ions are formed by strongly temperature dependent association reactions. Bond energies of cluster ions and proton affinities for most monoterpenes are not known and were estimated by high level quantum chemical calculations. The calculations reveal monoterpene proton affinities, which range from slightly smaller to substantially higher than the proton affinity of NH3. Proton affinities and cluster bond energies allow to group the monoterpenes as a function of the enthalpy for the dissociation reaction . We find that this enthalpy can be used to predict the NH4+-A cluster ion yield. The present study explains product ion formation involving NH4+ ion chemistry. This is of importance for chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) utilizing NH4+ as well as NH4+(H2O) as reagent ions to quantitatively detect atmospherically important organic compounds in real-time.
  • Dada, Lubna; Ylivinkka, Ilona; Baalbaki, Rima; Li, Chang; Guo, Yishuo; Yan, Chao; Yao, Lei; Sarnela, Nina; Jokinen, Tuija; Dällenbach, Kaspar; Yin, Rujing; Deng, Chenjuan; Chu, Biwu; Nieminen, Tuomo; Wang, Yonghong; Lin, Zhuohui; Thakur, Roseline C.; Kontkanen, Jenni; Stolzenburg, Dominik; Sipila, Mikko; Hussein, Tareq; Paasonen, Pauli; Bianchi, Federico; Salma, Imre; Weidinger, Tamas; Pikridas, Michael; Sciare, Jean; Jiang, Jingkun; Liu, Yongchun; Petaja, Tuukka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku (2020)
    Sulfuric acid has been shown to be a key driver for new particle formation and subsequent growth in various environments, mainly due to its low volatility. However, direct measurements of gas-phase sulfuric acid are oftentimes not available, and the current sulfuric acid proxies cannot predict, for example, its nighttime concentrations or result in significant discrepancies with measured values. Here, we define the sources and sinks of sulfuric acid in different environments and derive a new physical proxy for sulfuric acid to be utilized in locations and during periods when it is not measured. We used H2SO4 measurements from four different locations: Hyytiala, Finland; Agia Marina, Cyprus; Budapest, Hungary; and Beijing, China, representing semi-pristine boreal forest, rural environment in the Mediterranean area, urban environment and heavily polluted megacity, respectively. The new proxy takes into account the formation of sulfuric acid from SO2 via OH oxidation and other oxidation pathways, specifically via stabilized Criegee intermediates. The sulfuric acid sinks included in the proxy are its condensation sink (CS) and atmospheric clustering starting from H2SO4 dimer formation. Indeed, we found that the observed sulfuric acid concentration can be explained by the proposed sources and sinks with similar coefficients in the four contrasting environments where we have tested it. Thus, the new proxy is a more flexible and an important improvement over previous proxies. Following the recommendations in this paper, a proxy for a specific location can be derived.
  • Zha, Qiaozhi; Yan, Chao; Junninen, Heikki; Riva, Matthieu; Sarnela, Nina; Aalto, Juho; Quelever, Lauriane; Schallhart, Simon; Dada, Lubna; Heikkinen, Liine; Peräkylä, Otso; Zou, Jun; Rose, Clémence; Wang, Yonghong; Mammarella, Ivan; Katul, Gabriel; Vesala, Timo; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kulmala, Markku; Petäjä, Tuukka; Bianchi, Federico; Ehn, Mikael (2018)
    While the role of highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) in new particle formation (NPF) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation is not in dispute, the interplay between HOM chemistry and atmospheric conditions continues to draw significant research attention. During the Influence of Biosphere-Atmosphere Interactions on the Reactive Nitrogen budget (IBAIRN) campaign in September 2016, profile measurements of neutral HOMs below and above the forest canopy were performed for the first time at the boreal forest SMEAR II station. The HOM concentrations and composition distributions below and above the canopy were similar during daytime, supporting a well-mixed boundary layer approximation. However, much lower nighttime HOM concentrations were frequently observed at ground level, which was likely due to the formation of a shallow decoupled layer below the canopy. Near the ground HOMs were influenced by the changes in the precursors and oxidants and enhancement of the loss on surfaces in this layer, while the HOMs above the canopy top were not significantly affected. Our findings clearly illustrate that near-ground HOM measurements conducted under stably stratified conditions at this site might only be representative of a small fraction of the entire nocturnal boundary layer. This could, in turn, influence the growth of newly formed particles and SOA formation below the canopy where the large majority of measurements are typically conducted.
  • Patokoski, Johanna; Ruuskanen, Taina M.; Hellen, Heidi; Taipale, Risto; Gronholm, Tiia; Kajos, Maija K.; Petaja, Tuukka; Hakola, Hannele; Kulmala, Markku; Rinne, Janne (2014)