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  • Hasanzadeh, Kamyar; Czepkiewicz, Michal; Heinonen, Jukka; Kyttä, Marketta; Ala-Mantila, Sanna; Ottelin, Juudit (2019)
    Activity space (AS) is a measure of spatial behavior used to summarize the mobility behavior of individuals. Current studies often highlight the fact that AS is highly complex and multidimensional in character. Therefore, the need for more holistic approaches providing more comprehensive descriptions of mobility patterns is evident. This article assesses the activity spaces of young adults aged 25-40 living in the Helsinki metropolitan area using a dataset collected with an online map survey. Using a wide range of measurements covering different aspects of AS, we identified seven components that define activity spaces, namely size, intensity of activities, volume of trips, exteriority, polycentricity, elongation, and destination specialization. We then used the components together with travel mode use to identify a typology of daily mobility patterns. The results show that individuals with different types of AS differ significantly in their socio-demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, employment, household characteristics, and residential neighborhood. Furthermore, the study reveals interesting associations between AS characteristics and different aspects of wellbeing. Overall, the results highlight the importance of multidimensional and comprehensive approaches to understanding daily mobility of urban residents.
  • Rasmus, Sirpa; Wallen, Henri; Turunen, Minna; Landauer, Mia; Tahkola, Juho; Jokinen, Mikko; Laaksonen, Sauli (2021)
    Drivers of change in the reindeer management system are rather well-known. But when developing the gover-nance to support the traditional livelihoods, it is crucial to understand also practitioner perceptions. Systematic research on these is lacking. We analyzed the land-use and climate related drivers within the reindeer man-agement area (RMA) in Finland, and, using a perception geography approach, studied the herder perceptions towards these. We conducted an on-site questionnaire survey with herders from 51 herding districts. Factors directly affecting the welfare of reindeer were perceived as crucial by herders, for example basal icing affecting the forage availability, and land-use related factors limiting the seasonal pasture access. Perceptions of herders on biophysical factors were rather homogeneous. The regional heterogeneities in perceptions towards land-use related factors could be explained by spatial differences in land-use and varying herding traditions. Cumulative land-use impacts raised particular concerns. Our approach can be utilized in the co-planning of the northern land-use and more widely in the co-management of natural resources.
  • Heikinheimo, Vuokko Vilhelmiina; Tenkanen, Henrikki; Bergroth, Claudia; Järv, Olle; Hiippala, Tuomo; Toivonen, Tuuli (2020)
    Parks and other green spaces are an important part of sustainable, healthy and socially equal urban environment. Urban planning and green space management benefit from information about green space use and values, but such data are often scarce and laborious to collect. Temporally dynamic geographic information generated by different mobile devices and social media platforms are a promising source of data for studying green spaces. User-generated data have, however, platform specific characteristics that limit their potential use. In this article, we compare the ability of different user-generated data sets to provide information on where, when and how people use and value urban green spaces. We compare four types of data: social media, sports tracking, mobile phone operator and public participation geographic information systems (PPGIS) data in a case study from Helsinki, Finland. Our results show that user-generated geographic information sources provide useful insights about being in, moving through and perceiving urban green spaces, as long as evident limitations and sample biases are acknowledged. Social media data highlight patterns of leisure time activities and allow further content analysis. Sports tracking data and mobile phone data capture green space use at different times of the day, including commuting through the parks. PPGIS studies allow asking specific questions from active participants, but might be limited in spatial and temporal extent. Combining information from multiple user-generated data sets complements traditional data sources and provides a more comprehensive understanding of green space use and preferences.
  • Korpilo, Silviya; Jalkanen, Joel; Virtanen, Tarmo; Lehvävirta, Susanna (2018)
    Cities and urban green areas therein can be considered as complex social-ecological systems that provide various ecosystem services with different synergies and trade-offs among them. In this article, we show that multiple stakeholder perspectives and data sources should be used to capture key values for sustainable planning and management of urban green spaces. Using an urban forest in Helsinki, Finland as a case study, we incorporated data collected using public participation GIS, expert elicitation and forest inventories in order to investigate the guidance that the different types of data, and their integration, can provide for landscape planning. We examined the relationship and spatial concurrence between two social variables i.e. visitors’ perceived landscape values and green space use, and two ecological variables i.e. forest habitat quality and urban biodiversity, using hot/coldspot analysis. We found weak correlations and low mean spatial coincidence between the social and ecological data, indicating great complementary importance to multi-criteria decision-making. In addition, there was a higher level of spatial agreement between the ecological datasets than between the social datasets. Forest habitat quality and urban biodiversity were positively correlated and spatially coincided moderately, while we found a negative correlation and very low overlap between visitor use and landscape values. This highlights the conceptual and spatial distinction between the general preferences and values citizens assign to public green spaces and the realized everyday use of these areas and their services. The resulting maps can inform planners on overall social and environmental quality of the landscape, and point out potential threats to areas of high ecological value due to intensive recreational use, which is crucial information for natural resource management. In the end, we discuss different strategies for managing overlaps and discrepancies between the social and ecological values.