Browsing by Subject "Paleolimnology"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-6 of 6
  • Nevalainen, Liisa; Kivila, E. Henriikka; Luoto, Tomi P.; Rantala, Marttiina V.; Van Damme, Kay (2019)
    A long hidden chydorid (Chydoridae, Cladocera) taxon, first found as fossil specimens and recently redefined as Rhynchotalona latens (Sarmaja-Korjonen et al., Hydrobiologia 436: 165-169, 2000) is investigated for its biogeography and ecology. Late Holocene sediment sequence from Lake Sylvilampi, NE Finnish Lapland, and R. latens spatial distribution in relation to limno-climatic attributes in Finland were examined. Principal component analyses of fossil cladoceran communities showed that R. latens is mostly affiliated with Alonella excisa-Alonopsis elongata-Alonella nana species pool. Generalized linear modeling of R. latens responses to limno-climatic variation indicated that it prefers acidic, mesotrophic, humic and shallow lakes with organic sediments in NE Lapland and has a north boreal-subarctic climatic affiliation. At the northern end of its geographical distribution (NE Lapland), it reproduces with abundant gamogenesis under environmental stress. The specialized taxon is a benthic detritivore and scraper and has a Holarctic northern-alpine distribution. It is a glacial relict associated with modern analogs of periglacial aquatic environments, and it occurs in semi-aquatic wetlands, lush lake littorals and clear and cold waters. Examination of chydorids as bioindicators, especially those with restricted niches, allow us to understand biodiversity responses of lake littorals under changing limno-climatic regimes.
  • Kivilä, Elissa Henriikka; Luoto, Tomi P.; Rantala, Marttiina V.; Nevalainen, Liisa (2020)
    High latitude freshwater systems are facing changes in catchment-mediated allochthonous input, as well as physical and chemical controls triggered by on-going climate change, which may alter their carbon processing and ecological characteristics. To explore changes in chironomid functional responses and carbon utilization in relation to longterm environmental change, we studied a sediment core covering ca. 2000 years from a tundra lake in northern Finland, which was analysed for sediment geochemistry, isotopic composition of chironomid remains and their functional assemblages. We aimed to relate changes in chironomid functional feeding assemblages and resource utilization, based on Bayesian stable isotope modelling, and determined that the long-term resource utilization was more controlled by sediment geochemistry (resource availability) and climatic variables, reflecting changes in habitat and lake ontogeny, rather than the functional feeding assemblage composition. Change horizons were observed for both sediment geochemistry and functional assemblage composition. However, different timing of these changes suggests different drivers affecting the dynamics of primary production and chironomid community functionality. We also compared the recent warming period to Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), observing divergent patterns, which suggests that MCA may not be a good analogue for changes induced by on-going climate warming.
  • Leppänen, Jaakko; Weckström, Jan; Korhola, Atte (2018)
    Mining is one of the key industries in the world and mine water pollution is a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. Historical monitoring data on the pollution history and impacts in aquatic ecosystems, however, are rarely available, so paleolimnological methods are required to explore the consequences of past pollution. We studied the history of cladoceran community dynamics in Lake Kirkkojarvi, southern Finland, including the periods before, during and after mining. We analyzed the geochemical composition and cladoceran subfossil remains in a Pb-210-dated sediment core to evaluate the magnitude, rate, and direction of cladoceran community changes through time. The cladoceran community was altered significantly by mining activity that occurred during the mid-twentieth century. During more recent times, however, eutrophication effects have overridden the impacts of mining. After mining ceased, the cladoceran community underwent an abrupt regime shift towards taxa that reflect more eutrophic conditions. This change was caused by intensive farming activity and fertilizer use over the past few decades. The recent history of Lake Kirkkojarvi is a textbook example of a regime shift triggered by multiple human-caused stressors. Our findings also highlight the utility of cladocerans as bio-indicators in pollution research and illustrate the sensitivity of aquatic ecosystems to anthropogenic modification.
  • Leppänen, Jaakko Johannes; Weckström, Jan; Korhola, Atte (2017)
    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is acknowledged to have long-lasting impacts on aquatic environments. Hence, mines have also been detected to pose problems years after closure due to the leaching of toxic drainage initiated by sulfide oxidation. To assess the effects of chronic but relatively low volume acid mine drainage derived from the Haveri copper-gold mine operating between 1938 and 1960 on a freshwater bay in southern Finland, we compared cladoceran assemblages from the pre-mining period with contemporary populations using paleolimnological approaches and multiple sediment cores. The cladoceran community of the pre-mining era differed significantly from the contemporary community of the lake (ANOSIM R = 0.91; p = 0.0001), but closely resembled the contemporary community of a nearby non-polluted reference site. Our results suggest that the differences in species compositions between pre-mining and contemporary samples are most likely caused by eutrophication and not by the AMD impact. Because AMD at our study site is most intense during the spring snowmelt period, cladocerans may avoid seasonal pollution peaks through winter dormancy. Possible pollution peaks resulting from heavy rains during the summer may have negative impacts on the cladoceran community, but such short-term impacts are probably rapidly counteracted by immigration from cleaner areas of the lake.
  • Luoto, Tomi P.; Rantala, Marttiina V.; Kivilä, E. Henriikka; Nevalainen, Liisa (2019)
    A key question in aquatic elemental cycling is related to the influence of bottom water oxygen conditions in regulating the burial and release of carbon under climate warming. In this study, we used head capsules of Chironomidae larvae to assess community and diversity change between the past (estimated as Pre-Industrial Period) and present and to reconstruct changes in hypolimnetic oxygen conditions from 30 subarctic ecotonal lakes (northeastern Lapland) using the top-bottom paleolimnological approach applying surface sediment (topmost 0-2 cm) and reference (4-5 cm) samples. Subsequently, we tested the findings against dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration of the sites. We found that the benthic communities were statistically dissimilar between the past and the present with largest changes occurring in the more transparent oligo-mesohumic lakes. However, murky polyhumic lakes displayed uniformly a decrease in diversity. The chironomid-inferred oxygen values showed a general decrease toward the present with largest shifts in low-DOC lakes, whereas no significant changes were found in the hypolimnetic oxygen conditions of high-DOC lakes, which were often located in wet-land areas. These finding suggest that lakes associated with constant organic carbon inputs are more resilient toward climate-induced reductions in hypolimnetic oxygen. (c) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Luoto, Tomi P.; Leppänen, Jaakko Johannes; Weckström, Jan (2019)
    The Talvivaara/Terrafame multi-metal mining company is Europe’s largest nickel open cast mine, it is also known for the largest wastewater leakage in the Finnish mining history and a series of other accidents. In this paleolimnological study, influences of a recently constructed treated waste water discharge pipeline into Lake Nuasjärvi were investigated by analyzing past (pre-disturbance) and present community compositions of key aquatic organism groups, including diatoms, Cladocera and Chironomidae, along spatial (distance, water depth) gradients. In addition to defining ecological changes and impacts of saline mine waters in the lake, chironomids were used to quantitatively reconstruct bottom water oxygen conditions before and after the pipe installation (in 2015). The diatom and cladoceran communities, which reflect more the open-water habitat, showed only relatively minor changes throughout the lake, but a general decrease in diversity was observed within both groups. Chironomids, which live on substrates, showed more significant changes, including complete faunal turnovers and deteriorated benthic quality, especially at the sites close to the pipe outlet, where also chironomid diversity was almost completely lost. Furthermore, the reconstructed hypolimnetic oxygen values indicated a major oxygen decline and even anoxia at the sites near the pipe outlet. The limnoecological influence of the pipe decreased at sites located counter-flow or behind underwater barriers suggesting that the waste waters currently have location-specific impacts. Our study clearly demonstrates that whereas the upper water layers appear to have generally maintained their previous state, the deep-water layers close to the pipe outlet have lost their ecological integrity. Furthermore, the current hypolimnetic anoxia close to the pipe indicates enhanced lake stratification caused by the salinated mine waters. This study clearly exhibits the need to investigate different water bodies at several trophic levels in a spatiotemporal context to be able to reliably assess limnoecological impacts of mining.