Browsing by Subject "Participation"

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  • Lallukka, Tea; Pietiläinen, Olli; Jäppinen, Sauli; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahti, Jouni; Rahkonen, Ossi (2020)
    Background: Declining response rates are a common challenge to epidemiological research. Response rates further are particularly low among young people. We thus aimed to identify factors associated with health survey response among young employees using different data collection methods. Methods: We included fully register-based data to identify key socioeconomic, workplace and health-related factors associated with response to a health survey collected via online and mailed questionnaires. Additionally, telephone interviews were conducted for those who had not responded via online or to the mailed survey. The survey data collection was done in autumn 2017 among young employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland (18-39 years, target population n=11,459). Results: The overall response to the survey was 51.5% (n=5898). The overall findings suggest that differences in the distributions of socioeconomic, workplace and health-related factors between respondents in the online or mailed surveys, or telephone interviews, are relatively minor. Telephone interview respondents were of lower socioeconomic position, which helped improve representativeness of the entire cohort. Despite the general broad representativeness of the data, some socioeconomic and health-related factors contributed to response. Thus, non-respondents were more often men, manual workers, from the lowest income quartile, had part-time jobs, and had more long sickness absence spells. In turn, job contract (permanent or temporary) and employment sector did not affect survey response. Conclusions: Despite a general representativeness of data of the target population, socioeconomically more disadvantaged and those with long sickness absence, are slightly overrepresented among non-respondents. This suggests that when studying the associations between social factors and health, the associations can be weaker than if complete data were available representing all socioeconomic groups.
  • Lallukka, Tea; Pietiläinen, Olli; Jäppinen, Sauli; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahti, Jouni; Rahkonen, Ossi (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Declining response rates are a common challenge to epidemiological research. Response rates further are particularly low among young people. We thus aimed to identify factors associated with health survey response among young employees using different data collection methods. Methods We included fully register-based data to identify key socioeconomic, workplace and health-related factors associated with response to a health survey collected via online and mailed questionnaires. Additionally, telephone interviews were conducted for those who had not responded via online or to the mailed survey. The survey data collection was done in autumn 2017 among young employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland (18–39 years, target population n = 11,459). Results The overall response to the survey was 51.5% (n = 5898). The overall findings suggest that differences in the distributions of socioeconomic, workplace and health-related factors between respondents in the online or mailed surveys, or telephone interviews, are relatively minor. Telephone interview respondents were of lower socioeconomic position, which helped improve representativeness of the entire cohort. Despite the general broad representativeness of the data, some socioeconomic and health-related factors contributed to response. Thus, non-respondents were more often men, manual workers, from the lowest income quartile, had part-time jobs, and had more long sickness absence spells. In turn, job contract (permanent or temporary) and employment sector did not affect survey response. Conclusions Despite a general representativeness of data of the target population, socioeconomically more disadvantaged and those with long sickness absence, are slightly overrepresented among non-respondents. This suggests that when studying the associations between social factors and health, the associations can be weaker than if complete data were available representing all socioeconomic groups.
  • Leinonen, Jonna (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Children's participation has been a subject in the international research since past ten years. This research has explored participation from the standpoint of the UN's Convention of the Rights of the Child and focused mainly on schoolchildren or on the working youth's chances in developing countries to have impact on their own lives (eg. Sinclair, 2004 and Thomas, 2002). In Finland there has been less research about the children's rights while the main focus has been on the customers of the child welfare system. This study examines children's participation in Helsinki metropolitan area via the views and the practices of the personnel of early childhood education. The adopted viewpoint is Shier's level model of participation (2001), in which the children's participation process is building in phases, is observed via the everyday actions of the kindergarten personnel. Attention has been paid on the special characteristics of the Finnish early childhood education. This study was part of VKK-Metro's research project. The inquiry in May 2010 was directed to all working teams in the kindergartens of the Helsinki metropolitan area. Of these 56.59 % (1116 teams) answered. The quantitative data analyzed by principal component analysis gave four principal components, from which three were named after Shier's participation model. The fourth component included variables about rules and power. The level model of participation fit well to assess early childhood education in the Helsinki metropolitan area. The professionalism of the personnel became emphasized in the area of everyday interactions between the personnel and the children. Important aspects of the children's participation are to become heard, to get support in the play and in interaction and to be able to share both power and responsibility with personnel of the early childhood education.
  • Sormunen, Kati; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari (2020)
    Supporting students' active participation in maker-centered project-based learning (PBL) can be challenging in inclusive classes. The aim of this study was to support students' active participation in cooperative team via teacher-directed reflective discussions during an inclusive, maker-centered PBL unit. The study was conducted during the students' final year of primary school. In the context of 44 students' inclusive class, the study focused on a team of 11 students (4 girls, 7 boys; aged 12 - 13 years) who worked in pairs and had their own differentiated responsibility areas (e.g. interior designers had interior design and lighting responsibilities) in the construction of a scale-model house. Because students in PBL need support in their learning, reflective discussions were organized after each lesson to ensure students' participation. Reflective discussions were video recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using a content and co-occurrence network analysis. The analysis revealed that teacher-directed reflective discussions first focused on supporting the cooperation of all students and then ensured the continuity of the process with most of the pairs. Some pairs, consisting of students with learning difficulties, needed intensified support until they could actively participate. The results indicate that teacher-directed reflective discussions improve students' cooperation skills and promote participation. A carefully prepared group composition enables the teacher to give intensified support to those students who need it most. In light of the results, we recommend that teachers focus on group composition when preparing inclusive, maker-centered PBL projects and use reflective discussions during said projects to promote inclusion and support students' active participation.
  • Purola, Karoliina; Harju-Luukkainen, Heidi; Kangas, Jonna (Routledge, 2021)
    Envolving Families
    In this chapter, we demonstrate the current situation in parental participation in the Finnish ECEC context. Cooperation with parents is emphasised in the Finnish ECEC steering documents. Central factors for successful collaboration are parents’ attitudes towards their own participation in ECEC as well as teachers’ attitudes towards parents and cooperation. Universities in Finland train teachers for cooperation with parents by teaching them not only how to conduct a plan for a child’s development and learning with the parents but also how to meet the diversity of families. New steering documents set the goal for parental participation on a new level; therefore, both teacher training and structures for parental participation in ECEC centres must be developed in Finland.
  • Nordic Study Grp Pediat Rheumatolo; Nordal, Ellen; Rypdal, Veronika; Arnstad, Ellen Dalen; Aalto, Kristiina; Berntson, Lillemor; Ekelund, Maria; Peltoniemi, Suvi; Rygg, Marite (2019)
    BackgroundThe aim of the study was to describe school attendance and participation in physical education in school among children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).MethodsConsecutive cases of JIA from defined geographical areas of Finland, Sweden and Norway with disease onset in 1997 to 2000 were followed for 8 years in a multi-center cohort study, aimed to be as close to population-based as possible. Clinical characteristics and information on school attendance and participation in physical education (PE) were registered.ResultsParticipation in school and in PE was lowest initially and increased during the disease course. Eight years after disease onset 228/274 (83.2%) of the children reported no school absence due to JIA, while 16.8% reported absence during the last 2 months due to JIA. Full participation in PE was reported by 194/242 (80.2%), partly by 16.9%, and none by 2.9%. Lowest participation in PE was found among children with ERA and the undifferentiated categories. Absence in school and PE was associated with higher disease activity measures at the 8-year visit. School absence >1day at baseline predicted use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, including biologics (DMARDs) (OR 1.2 (1.1-1.5)), and non-remission off medication (OR 1.4 (1.1-1.7) 8 years after disease onset.ConclusionSchool absence at baseline predicted adverse long-term outcome. In children and adolescents with JIA participation in school activities is mostly high after 8years of disease. For the minority with low participation, special attention is warranted to promote their full potential of social interaction and improve long-term outcome.
  • Nordal, Ellen; Rypdal, Veronika; Arnstad, Ellen D; Aalto, Kristiina; Berntson, Lillemor; Ekelund, Maria; Fasth, Anders; Glerup, Mia; Herlin, Troels; Nielsen, Susan; Peltoniemi, Suvi; Zak, Marek; Songstad, Nils T; Rygg, Marite (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background The aim of the study was to describe school attendance and participation in physical education in school among children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods Consecutive cases of JIA from defined geographical areas of Finland, Sweden and Norway with disease onset in 1997 to 2000 were followed for 8 years in a multi-center cohort study, aimed to be as close to population-based as possible. Clinical characteristics and information on school attendance and participation in physical education (PE) were registered. Results Participation in school and in PE was lowest initially and increased during the disease course. Eight years after disease onset 228/274 (83.2%) of the children reported no school absence due to JIA, while 16.8% reported absence during the last 2 months due to JIA. Full participation in PE was reported by 194/242 (80.2%), partly by 16.9%, and none by 2.9%. Lowest participation in PE was found among children with ERA and the undifferentiated categories. Absence in school and PE was associated with higher disease activity measures at the 8-year visit. School absence > 1 day at baseline predicted use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, including biologics (DMARDs) (OR 1.2 (1.1–1.5)), and non-remission off medication (OR 1.4 (1.1–1.7) 8 years after disease onset. Conclusion School absence at baseline predicted adverse long-term outcome. In children and adolescents with JIA participation in school activities is mostly high after 8 years of disease. For the minority with low participation, special attention is warranted to promote their full potential of social interaction and improve long-term outcome.
  • Snell, Karoliina; Tarkkala, Heta (2019)
    According to surveys and opinion polls, citizens in Nordic welfare societies have positive,supportive attitudes towards medical research and biobanking. In Finland, it was expected that this would result in the active biobank participation of patients and citizens. Indeed, public support has been rhetorically utilised as a unique societal factor and advantage in the promotion of Finnish biobanks, underlining the potential Finland offers for the international biomedical enterprise. In this paper, we critically analyse the use of notions such as ‘willing population’ and ‘engaged people’ in the promotion and legitimation of biobanking. First, there is a seeming contradiction between positive attitudes and actual participation rates, as biobanks have faced unexpected challenges in participant recruitment during the first years of their operations. As a result, the concept of a willing population was redirected to problematise the necessity of informed consent. Second, we question whether it is even meaningful to assume the existence of an informed and engaged population with regard to biobanking. Therefore, we suggest that it is problematic to talk about a willing population at the same time as the relevance of the informed consent system is being questioned by biobank actors and policy makers. We analyse this tension in relation to existing data on Finnish people’s attitudes, pointing out that positive, supportive views do not directly transform into high participation rates; nor do they justify the claims of policy makers and biobank proponents that people are willing to participate, when in fact surveys report that people know very little about biobanks.
  • Reckling, Moritz; Bergkvist, Goran; Watson, Christine A.; Stoddard, Frederick L.; Bachinger, Johann (2020)
    Crop production in Europe is intensive, highly specialized and responsible for some negative environmental impacts, raising questions about the sustainability of agricultural systems. The (re)integration of grain legumes into European agricultural systems could contribute to the transition to more sustainable food production. While the general benefits from legume cultivation are widely known, there is little evidence on how to re-design specific cropping systems with legumes to make this option more attractive to farmers. The objectives of this study were to describe the constraints and opportunities of grain legume production perceived by farmers, explain the agronomic impacts of current grain legume cropping, explore technical options to improve grain legume agronomy, and to re-design current grain legume cropping systems in a participatory process with farmers. A co-design approach was implemented with farmers, advisors and scientists on 25 farms in northern Germany, that were part of two large demonstration networks of about 170 farms supporting grain legumes across Germany. We used the DEED research cycle (Describe, Explain, Explore and Design) as a conceptual framework combining on-farm research, crop rotation modelling, and on-station experiments. From it, we identified nine agronomic practices that either were novel or confirmed known strategies under new conditions, to re-design grain legume cropping systems at the field and farm level. The practices included (i) inter-row hoeing, (ii) direct seeding into a cover-crop, (iii) species-specific inoculation, (iv) cover crops to reduce leaching, (v) reduced tillage, (vi) soybean for increased gross margins, (vii) cultivars for food and feed use, (viii) flexible irrigation, (ix) grain legumes with cover crop to enhance subsequent crop yields. We also demonstrate how to complement knowledge of farmers' perceptions (Describe step) and formal knowledge from classical on-station experiments and modelling (Explain step) with on-farm research including the local views of farmers (Explore step) to identify tailored options for specific farm contexts rather than prescriptive solutions (Design step) to intensify legume production. This approach therefore contrasts with traditional methods that are often solely participatory and qualitative or model/experimental-based and quantitative. Hence, our results provide new insights in how to re-design cropping systems using a combination of participatory and quantitative approaches. While participatory approaches are common in developing countries, this study shows their potential in an industrialized context with large-scale farmers in Europe. These novel findings can be used as a starting point for further adaptations of cropping systems and contribute to making grain legume production economically and environmentally more sustainable.
  • Rosa, Aaron B.; Gudowsky, Niklas; Repo, Petteri (2021)
    As foresight activities continue to increase across multiple arenas and types of organizations, the need to develop effective modes of reviewing future-oriented information against long-term goals and policies becomes more pressing. The activities of institutional sensemaking are vital in constructing potential and desired futures, but remain sensitive to organizational culture and ethos, thus raising concerns about whose futures are being constructed. In viewing foresight studies as a critical component in such sensemaking, this research investigates a method of textual analysis that deploys natural language processing algorithms (NLP). In this research, we introduce and apply the methodology of topic modelling for conducting a comparative analysis to explore how citizen-derived foresight differs from other institutional foresight. Finally we present pros-pects for further employing NLP for strategic foresight and futures studies.
  • Kokko, Riitta-Liisa; Hänninen, Kaija; Törrönen, Maritta (2021)
    This research examined social rehabilitation in the context of the components of community-based rehabilitation (CBR) through the experiences of elderly long-term unemployed in the re-employment process in Finland. Two questions were posed: ‘What kinds of experiences do the elderly long-term unemployed have of social rehabilitation?’ and ‘What can the key components of CBR—empowerment, participation and inclusion—offer for the re-employment process?’ We analysed social rehabilitation through the experiences of 15 elderly long-term unemployed individuals who had been employed in the intermediate labour market, and results showed they had experienced social rehabilitation in diametrically opposed ways, both positive and negative. The positive experiences included hopefulness, partnership, and re-employment, while a negative outlook, being left alone in the workplace community, and exclusion from the labour market were found amongst the negative experiences. Based on the results, we built a practical model of social rehabilitation, which we called the EPI model.
  • Salomaa, Anna; Paloniemi, Riikka; Ekroos, Ari (2018)
    Peatlands that are close to a natural state are rich in biodiversity and are significant carbon storages. Simultaneously, peat resources are of interest to industry, which leads to competing interests and tensions regarding the use and management of peatlands. In this case study, we studied knowledge-management interactions through the development of participation and the resulting representation of nature (how nature was described), as well as the proposed and implemented conservation policy instruments. We focused on the years 2009-2015, when peatland management was intensively debated in Finland. We did an interpretative policy analysis using policy documents (Peatland Strategy; Government Resolution; Proposal for Conservation Programme) and environmental legislation as central data. Our results show how the representation of nature reflected the purpose of the documents and consensus of participants' values. The representation of nature changed from skewed use of ecosystem services to detailed ecological knowledge. However, simultaneously, political power changed and the planned supplementation programme for peatland conservation was not implemented. The Environment Protection Act was reformulated so that it prohibited the use of the most valuable peatlands. Landowners did not have the chance to fully participate in the policy process. Overall, the conservation policy instruments changed to emphasize voluntariness but without an adequate budget to ensure sufficient conservation.
  • Godenhjelm, Sebastian; Johanson, Jan-Erik (2018)
    The delivery of public services in collaborative agency networks has given rise to an increasing use of projects in administering policy and service delivery. Projects are assumed to provide mechanisms by which flexibility can be achieved and innovative solutions produced. The aim of the article is to advance the understanding of collaboration between stakeholders and its effect on innovation. It analyses stakeholders' influence on the creation of project innovations in 275 European Union-funded projects by using content analyses and logistic regression analyses. The results show that projects can act as hubs where valuable information is produced but that few projects produce innovations. Project stakeholder network, knowledge dissemination and project influence, as well as sources of advice, play a role in predicting project innovations. The article concludes that the overly optimistic view of collaboration as a remedy for a lack of innovation in the public sector can be questioned. Points for practitioners The results of the article help practitioners to compose public sector development projects that foster innovation. The results suggest that it pays to include representatives of research and education facilities among project staff as their inclusion predicts the possibilities of achieving innovations. The empirical findings provide insight into project innovation and indicate which practices to avoid. It is suggested that when managed correctly, stakeholder inclusion has an effect on public sector project innovation.
  • Niemi, Reetta; Kiilakoski, Tomi (2020)
    In this article, we analyse how and if participation affects the learning experiences of pupils. Our research questions are: (1) What constituted positive learning experiences for pupils in a multidisciplinary learning module? (2) How do the methods used in this study give pupils an opportunity to express negative emotions and participate in developing learning experiences?. The data of this practitioner research consists of 80 photographs, 23 picture books and 23 interviews. The positive experiences of the project were social interaction, autonomy of peer groups and sense of capability and competence which relate to social participation. The picture book-interview method revealed pupils' negative experiences that related to learning how to work in a group and perform the tasks at hand.