Browsing by Subject "Particle tracking detectors (Solid-state detectors)"

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  • Ott, J.; Bharthuar, S.; Gädda, Akiko; Arsenovich, T.; Bezak, M.; Brücken, Erik; Golovleva, M.; Härkönen, Jaakko; Kalliokoski, M.; Karadzhinova-Ferrer, A.; Kirschenmann, S.; Litichevskyi, V.; Luukka, P.; Martikainen, L.; Naaranoja, T. (2021)
    Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) has been proposed as an alternative to thermal silicon dioxide (SiO2) as field insulator and surface passivation for silicon detectors, where it could substitute p-stop/p-spray insulation implants between pixels due to its negative oxide charge, and enable capacitive coupling of segments by means of its higher dielectric constant. Al2O3 is commonly grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD), which allows the deposition of thin layers with excellent precision. In this work, we report the electrical characterization of single pad detectors (diodes) and MOS capacitors fabricated on magnetic Czochralski silicon substrates and using Al2O3 as field insulator. Devices are studied by capacitance-voltage, current-voltage, and transient current technique measurements. We evaluate the influence of the oxygen precursors in the ALD process, as well as the effect of gamma irradiation, on the properties of these devices. We observe that leakage currents in diodes before the onset of breakdown are low for all studied ALD processes. Charge collection as measured by transient current technique (TCT) is also independent of the choice of oxygen precursor. The Al2O3 films deposited with O-3 possess a higher negative oxide charge than films deposited by H2O, However, in diodes a higher oxide charge is linked to earlier breakdown, as has been predicted by simulation studies. A combination of H2O and O-3 precursors results in a good compromise between the beneficial properties provided by the respective individual precursors.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    The structure of the CMS inner tracking system has been studied using nuclear interactions of hadrons striking its material. Data from proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded in 2015 at the LHC are used to reconstruct millions of secondary vertices from these nuclear interactions. Precise positions of the beam pipe and the inner tracking system elements, such as the pixel detector support tube, and barrel pixel detector inner shield and support rails, are determined using these vertices. These measurements are important for detector simulations, detector upgrades, and to identify any changes in the positions of inactive elements.
  • The Tracker Group of the CMS Collaboration; Adam, W.; Eerola, P.; Brücken, E.; Lampén, T.; Martikainen, L.; Tuominen, E.; Luukka, P.; Tuuva, T.; Pekkanen, J. (2021)
    During the operation of the CMS experiment at the High-Luminosity LHC the silicon sensors of the Phase-2 Outer Tracker will be exposed to radiation levels that could potentially deteriorate their performance. Previous studies had determined that planar float zone silicon with n-doped strips on a p-doped substrate was preferred over p-doped strips on an n-doped substrate. The last step in evaluating the optimal design for the mass production of about 200 m2 of silicon sensors was to compare sensors of baseline thickness (about 300 μm) to thinned sensors (about 240 μm), which promised several benefits at high radiation levels because of the higher electric fields at the same bias voltage. This study provides a direct comparison of these two thicknesses in terms of sensor characteristics as well as charge collection and hit efficiency for fluences up to 1.5 × 1015 neq/cm2. The measurement results demonstrate that sensors with about 300 μm thickness will ensure excellent tracking performance even at the highest considered fluence levels expected for the Phase-2 Outer Tracker.
  • Dragicevic, M.; Härkönen, J.; Lampén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuovinen, E.; Winkler, A.; Eerola, P.; Tuuva, T.; The CMS collaboration (2017)
    A new pixel detector for the CMS experiment was built in order to cope with the instantaneous luminosities anticipated for the Phase I Upgrade of the LHC. The new CMS pixel detector provides four-hit tracking with a reduced material budget as well as new cooling and powering schemes. A new front-end readout chip mitigates buffering and bandwidth limitations, and allows operation at low comparator thresholds. In this paper, comprehensive test beam studies are presented, which have been conducted to verify the design and to quantify the performance of the new detector assemblies in terms of tracking efficiency and spatial resolution. Under optimal conditions, the tracking efficiency is (99.95 ± 0.05) %, while the intrinsic spatial resolutions are (4.80 ± 0.25) μm and (7.99 ± 0.21) μm along the 100 μm and 150 μm pixel pitch, respectively. The findings are compared to a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the pixel detector and good agreement is found.