Browsing by Subject "Particle tracking detectors"

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  • The Tracker Group of the CMS Collaboration; Osherson, Marc; Adam, W.; Eerola, P.; Brücken, Erik; Lampén, T.; Luukka, P.; Martikainen, Laura; Pekkanen, Juska; Tuominen, E.; Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Petrow, H.; Tuuva, T. (2022)
    The Short Strip ASIC (SSA) is one of the four front-end chips designed for the upgrade of the CMS Outer Tracker for the High Luminosity LHC. Together with the Macro-Pixel ASIC (MPA) it will instrument modules containing a strip and a macro-pixel sensor stacked on top of each other. The SSA provides both full readout of the strip hit information when triggered, and, together with the MPA, correlated clusters called stubs from the two sensors for use by the CMS Level-1 (L1) trigger system. Results from the first prototype module consisting of a sensor and two SSA chips are presented. The prototype module has been characterized at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility using a 120 GeV proton beam.
  • The CMS collaboration; Adam, W.; Eerola, P.; Heikkilä, Jaana; Brücken, E.; Lampen, T.; Luukka, P.; Martikainen, L.; Tuominen, E.; Tuuva, T. (2020)
    A new CMS tracker detector will be installed for operation at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). This detector comprises modules with two closely spaced parallel sensor plates and front-end ASICs capable of transmitting tracking information to the CMS Level-1 (L1) trigger at the 40MHz beam crossing rate. The inclusion of tracking information in the L1 trigger decision will be essential for selecting events of interest efficiently at the HL-LHC. The CMS Binary Chip (CBC) has been designed to read out and correlate hits from pairs of tracker sensors, forming so-called track stubs. For the first time, a prototype irradiated module and a full-sized module, both equipped with the version 2 of the CBC, have been operated in test beam facilities. The efficiency of the stub finding logic of the modules for various angles of incidence has been studied. The ability of the modules to reject tracks with transverse momentum less than 2 GeV has been demonstrated. For modules built with irradiated sensors, no significant drop in the stub finding performance has been observed. Results from the beam tests are described in this paper.
  • The CMS collaboration; Eerola, P.; Forthomme, L.; Kirschenmann, H.; Österberg, K.; Voutilainen, M.; Garcia, F.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Kim, M. S.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampen, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Linden, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Viinikainen, J.; Pekkanen, J.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Tuuva, T.; Karimäki, V. (2020)
    The CMS detector at the LHC has recorded events from proton-proton collisions, with muon momenta reaching up to 1.8 TeV in the collected dimuon samples. These high-momentum muons allow direct access to new regimes in physics beyond the standard model. Because the physics and reconstruction of these muons are different from those of their lower-momentum counterparts, this paper presents for the first time dedicated studies of efficiencies, momentum assignment, resolution, scale, and showering of very high momentum muons produced at the LHC. These studies are performed using the 2016 and 2017 data sets of proton-proton collisions at root s = 13 TeV with integrated luminosities of 36.3 and 42.1 fb(-1), respectively.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    The structure of the CMS inner tracking system has been studied using nuclear interactions of hadrons striking its material. Data from proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded in 2015 at the LHC are used to reconstruct millions of secondary vertices from these nuclear interactions. Precise positions of the beam pipe and the inner tracking system elements, such as the pixel detector support tube, and barrel pixel detector inner shield and support rails, are determined using these vertices. These measurements are important for detector simulations, detector upgrades, and to identify any changes in the positions of inactive elements.
  • CMS Tracker Collaboration; Adam, W.; Härkönen, J.; Lampén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuovinen, E.; Eerola, P. (2018)
    A new CMS Tracker is under development for operation at the High Luminosity LHC from 2026 onwards. It includes an outer tracker based on dedicated modules that will reconstruct short track segments, called stubs, using spatially coincident clusters in two closely spaced silicon sensor layers. These modules allow the rejection of low transverse momentum track hits and reduce the data volume before transmission to the first level trigger. The inclusion of tracking information in the trigger decision is essential to limit the first level trigger accept rate. A customized front-end readout chip, the CMS Binary Chip (CBC), containing stub finding logic has been designed for this purpose. A prototype module, equipped with the CBC chip, has been constructed and operated for the first time in a 4 GeV/c positron beam at DESY. The behaviour of the stub finding was studied for different angles of beam incidence on a module, which allows an estimate of the sensitivity to transverse momentum within the future CMS detector. A sharp transverse momentum threshold around 2 GeV/c was demonstrated, which meets the requirement to reject a large fraction of low momentum tracks present in the LHC environment on-detector. This is the first realistic demonstration of a silicon tracking module that is able to select data, based on the particle's transverse momentum, for use in a first level trigger at the LHC. The results from this test are described here.
  • The CMS collaboration; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Eerola, P.; Brücken, Erik; Gädda, Akiko; Lampén, T.; Luukka, P.; Martikainen, Laura; Tuominen, E.; Turpeinen, Raimo; Winkler, Alexander; Tuuva, T. (2021)
    The CMS detector at the CERN LHC features a silicon pixel detector as its innermost subdetector. The original CMS pixel detector has been replaced with an upgraded pixel system (CMS Phase-1 pixel detector) in the extended year-end technical stop of the LHC in 2016/2017. The upgraded CMS pixel detector is designed to cope with the higher instantaneous luminosities that have been achieved by the LHC after the upgrades to the accelerator during the first long shutdown in 2013–2014. Compared to the original pixel detector, the upgraded detector has a better tracking performance and lower mass with four barrel layers and three endcap disks on each side to provide hit coverage up to an absolute value of pseudorapidity of 2.5. This paper describes the design and construction of the CMS Phase-1 pixel detector as well as its performance from commissioning to early operation in collision data-taking.