Browsing by Subject "Pathways"

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  • Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Virtanen, Marianna; Rod, Naja H.; Steptoe, Andrew; Head, Jenny; Batty, G. D.; Kivimäki, Mika; Westerlund, Hugo (2019)
    Objective: Inflammation may underlie the association between psychological stress and cardiometabolic diseases, but this proposition has not been tested longitudinally. We investigated whether the circulating inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) mediate the relationship between psychosocial work characteristics and diabetes. Methods: We used three phases of data at 5 years intervals from the Whitehall II cohort study, originally recruiting 10,308 civil service employees aged 35-55 years. The data included repeat self-reports of job demands, control and social support, IL-6 from plasma samples, CRP from serum samples, and diabetes, ascertained through oral glucose tolerance test, medications, and self-reports of doctor-diagnosed diabetes. Results: Structural equation models with age, sex and occupational position considering men and women combined, showed that low social support at work, but not high job demands or low job control, was prospectively associated with diabetes (standardized beta = 0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01-0.09) and higher levels of IL-6 (beta = 0.03, CI 0.00-0.06). The inflammatory markers and diabetes were bidirectionally associated over time. A mediation model including workplace social support, IL-6 and diabetes further showed that 10% of the association between social support and diabetes over the three repeat examinations (total effect beta = 0.08, CI 0.01-0.15) was attributable to a weak indirect effect through IL-6 (beta = 0.01, CI 0.00-0.02). A similar indirect effect was observed for CRP in men only, while job control was prospectively associated with IL-6 among women. Conclusions: This study indicates an association between poor workplace support and diabetes that is partially ascribed to an inflammatory response.
  • Brausi, Maurizio; Hoskin, Peter; Andritsch, Elisabeth; Banks, Ian; Beishon, Marc; Boyle, Helen; Colecchia, Maurizio; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Hoeckel, Michael; Leonard, Kay; Loevey, Jozsef; Maroto, Pablo; Mastris, Ken; Medeiros, Rui; Naredi, Peter; Oyen, Raymond; de Reijke, Theo; Selby, Peter; Saarto, Tiina; Valdagni, Riccardo; Costa, Alberto; Poortmans, Philip (2020)
    Background ECCO Essential Requirements for Quality Cancer Care (ERQCC) are written by experts representing all disciplines involved in cancer care in Europe. They give oncology teams, patients, policymakers and managers an overview of essential care throughout the patient journey. Prostate cancer Prostate cancer is the second most common male cancer and has a wide variation in outcomes in Europe. It has complex diagnosis and treatment challenges, and is a major healthcare burden. Care must only be a carried out in prostate/urology cancer units or centres that have a core multidisciplinary team (MDT) and an extended team of health professionals. Such units are far from universal in European countries. To meet European aspirations for comprehensive cancer control, healthcare organisations must consider the requirements in this paper, paying particular attention to multidisciplinarity and patient-centred pathways from diagnosis, to treatment, to survivorship.
  • Kujala, Susanna; Hakala, Outi; Viitaharju, Leena (2022)
    Organic farming is recognised as a potential approach to achieve a more sustainable food system and promote rural development. Thus, many countries have set targets to increase the share of organic cultivated land. In Finland, the target was to increase the share of organic farming to 20% of the total area under cultivation by 2020. Although the share of organic agricultural land has gradually increased, there are still significant regional differences. The aim of our study is to identify the factors that affect these differences. Previous research has generally excluded factors such as subsidies from the analysis; therefore, this study explores the relevance of subsidies, as well as other key factors, within the context of the uneven regional distribution of organic farming in Finland. The data sources include research from the literature, official statistics, and a large survey of organic farmers. Using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), we identify three different pathways that have led to higher organic shares of agricultural land in certain Finnish regions. The three regions with the highest organic shares utilise the first pathway, which includes a long organic heritage, a focus on dairy farming, and an important reliance on subsidies. We conclude that the regional variation in organic farming in Finland is due to a combination of different factors, rather than any single factor. Moreover, subsidies are a key factor that should be considered when reviewing the reasons for regional variations in organic farming.
  • Wasowicz, Pawel; Sennikov, Alexander N.; Westergaard, Kristine B.; Spellman, Katie; Carlson, Matthew; Gillespie, Lynn J.; Saarela, Jeffery M.; Seefeldt, Steven S.; Bennett, Bruce; Bay, Christian; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie; Väre, Henry (2020)
    We present a comprehensive list of non-native vascular plants known from the Arctic, explore their geographic distribution, analyze the extent of naturalization and invasion among 23 subregions of the Arctic, and examine pathways of introductions. The presence of 341 non-native taxa in the Arctic was confirmed, of which 188 are naturalized in at least one of the 23 regions. A small number of taxa (11) are considered invasive; these plants are known from just three regions. In several Arctic regions there are no naturalized non-native taxa recorded and the majority of Arctic regions have a low number of naturalized taxa. Analyses of the non-native vascular plant flora identified two main biogeographic clusters within the Arctic: American and Asiatic. Among all pathways, seed contamination and transport by vehicles have contributed the most to non-native plant introduction in the Arctic.