Browsing by Subject "Pediatric"

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  • Tokariev, Maksym; Vuontela, Virve; Perkola, Jaana; Lönnberg, Piia; Lano, Aulikki; Andersson, Sture; Metsäranta, Marjo; Carlson, Synnöve (2020)
    Analysis of scalar maps obtained by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) produce valuable information about the microstructure of the brain white matter. The DTI scanning of child populations, compared with adult groups, requires specifically designed data acquisition protocols that take into consideration the trade-off between the scanning time, diffusion strength, number of diffusion directions, and the applied analysis techniques. Furthermore, inadequate normalization of DTI images and non-robust tensor reconstruction have profound effects on data analyses and may produce biased statistical results. Here, we present an acquisition sequence that was specifically designed for pediatric populations, and describe the analysis steps of the DTI data collected from extremely preterm-born young school-aged children and their age- and gender-matched controls. The protocol utilizes multiple software packages to address the effects of artifacts and to produce robust tensor estimation. The computation of a population-specific template and the nonlinear registration of tensorial images with this template were implemented to improve alignment of brain images from the children.
  • Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A.; Jero, Jussi (2016)
    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children.
  • Silvola, Juha Tapio (2020)
    Objectives: Analyze reasons for unilateral conductive hearing loss (CHL) with unknown etiology in children. Introduction: Unilateral conductive hearing loss (HL) without known etiology can be undiagnosed despite of hearing screening programs. It can be difficult to find the reason for HL and to make a treatment plan. Middle ear endoscopy gives hard-evidence diagnosis and basis for an individual treatment plan. Methods and material: Prospective clinical follow-up study for a cohort of generally healthy elementary school age children with unilateral conductive HL with unknown etiology. The study population was 192 children, of which 46 had a HL of at least 25 dB with more than 10 dB conductive component. Mean age was 8.7 years. Preoperative tests included otomicroscopy, bone- and air-conduction audiogram, tympanometry, stapes reflex tests, Rinne and Weber test and Otoacoustic emissions. The children underwent endoscopy of the middle ear with an individual treatment plan and long-term follow-up. The aim was to explore etiology and to give a treatment plan for hearing loss. Follow-up included air- and bone conduction hearing tests annually or every other year. Mean follow-up was 5.2 years. Results: A clear etiological finding was found in 36 (78%) ears, stapes anomaly (23) as the most common (64%) finding. Other findings were two cholesteatomas, 2 status after trauma, 5 middle ear anomalies, 5 incus fixations and one incus erosion. Air conduction hearing improved spontaneously during follow-up in 81% (17/21, 2 dropouts) of the stapes anomaly ears (mean 11,3 dB, range 4-32 dB), and none of these ears showed hearing deterioration. In the incus fixation group, one ear showed hearing deterioration. There were no major complications for exploration, and 5 minor postoperative infections. Conclusions: The most common reason for pediatric unilateral conductive hearing loss was stapes anomaly/ fixation. The HL does not deteriorate. Hearing loss in stapes anomalies shows a tendency for spontaneous recovery. Stapes surgery can be postponed or avoided.
  • Ylinen, Elisa; Merras-Salmio, Laura; Gunnar, Riikka; Jahnukainen, Timo; Pakarinen, Mikko P. (2018)
    Objective: Although impaired renal function has been a frequent finding among adults with intestinal failure (IF), the data on children is scarce. The aim of this study was to assess renal function in pediatric-onset IF. Methods: Medical records of 70 patients (38 boys) with pediatric-onset IF due to either short bowel syndrome (n = 59) or primary motility disorder (n = 11) and a history of parenteral nutrition (PN) dependency for >= 1 mo were evaluated. Renal function at the most recent follow-up was studied using plasma creatinine, cystatin C, and urea concentrations and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results: At a median age of 5.7 y and after PN duration of 3.2 y, 20 patients (29%) had decreased eGFR and higher cystatin C and urea concentrations. Patients with decreased renal function had significantly longer duration of PN (3.2 versus 0.9 y; P = 0.030) and shorter percentage of age adjusted small bowel length remaining (22 versus 32%; P = 0.041) compared with patients with preserved renal function. No other predisposing factors for decreased eGFR were identified. Conclusions: Patients with pediatric-onset IF are at significant risk for impaired renal function, which is associated with the duration of PN and the length of the remaining small bowel. In the present study, no other predisposing factors for decreased eGFR were found. Further studies using measured GFR are needed. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • WSES-AAST Expert Panel; Coccolini, Federico; Moore, Ernest E.; Kluger, Yoram; Leppäniemi, Ari; Catena, Fausto (2019)
    Renal and urogenital injuries occur in approximately 10-20% of abdominal trauma in adults and children. Optimal management should take into consideration the anatomic injury, the hemodynamic status, and the associated injuries. The management of urogenital trauma aims to restore homeostasis and normal physiology especially in pediatric patients where non-operative management is considered the gold standard. As with all traumatic conditions, the management of urogenital trauma should be multidisciplinary including urologists, interventional radiologists, and trauma surgeons, as well as emergency and ICU physicians. The aim of this paper is to present the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) and the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) kidney and urogenital trauma management guidelines.
  • Pakkasjärvi, Niklas; Hölttä, Veera; Heikkilä, Jukka; Taskinen, Seppo (2021)
    Background: The Posterior Urethral Valve (PUV) is a persistent membrane of the urethra, which causes obstruction in the urogenital tract in boys. To our knowledge, no comprehensive reports have been published on whether PUV is associated to neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we analyzed a cohort of PUV patients for neurodevelopmental disorders and verified findings in an older cohort. Methods: In a register based study, we reviewed the hospital registries for patients treated for PUV during 1992–2013 to identify those with neurodevelopmental disorders. Primary outcome measure was any neurodevelopmental diagnosis. Secondary outcome measures were specific disorders: ASD; ADHD, intellectual disability, learning disabilities. Birth weight and gestational age were recorded, serum creatinine levels at specific timepoints were noted. We then investigated these variables to see any correlations to neurodevelopmental disorders. We replicated the strategy for verification in an older cohort of PUV-patients, who had been treated in our institute during 1970–1991. Results: We identified 87 patients treated for PUV of which thirteen (15%) had a verified diagnosis of a neurodevelopmental disorder. 2.3% of PUV patients fulfilled criteria of mild intellectual disability (F70.0/F79.0), 9% had ADHD/ADD-spectrum diagnoses (F90.0/F90.9) and 2.3% had learning disabilities (F83/F81.3). 5.7% of patients presented with difficulties in social interactions (F93.89, F94.8). Five patients presented with more than one neurodevelopmental diagnosis. We confirmed these findings in the older cohort of patients, where a verified neurodevelopmental diagnosis was detected in 14% of patients. We identified no statistically significant associations to gestational age, birth weight or creatinine levels of PUV-patients with neurodevelopmental diagnoses as compared to the PUV-patients not diagnosed for neurodevelopmental disorders. Intellectual disability/mental retardation was more prevalent in our material and this association was statistically significant. Discussion: We show, that the prevalence of intellectual disability among PUV patients exceeds the cumulative prevalence in Finland in both cohorts analyzed here. 15% of PUV-patients presented with a diagnosis of a neurodevelopmental disorder. To our knowledge, this is the first study attempting to outline neurodevelopmental disorders among boys with PUV. This study has limitations. It is register based and only diagnoses made at an institute within our hospital district are considered. The PUV-patients may be under closer surveillance than age-matched healthy children, which may lead to an overrepresentation of cases. The patient number is small and the small subsets of patients within each cohort hamper any further statistical analysis. The neurodevelopmental impacts of pediatric general anesthesia remain elusive and may have corollaries which must be kept in mind when interpretating our results. Patients with PUV require close follow-up in a multi-disciplinary manner, not forgetting neurodevelopmental aspects. Attention to intellectual disability is mandatory. Any suspicion of a developmental delay in a patient with PUV warrants further investigation and corresponding interventions. [Table presented]
  • Aro, Aapo L.; Chugh, Sumeet S. (2017)
    In the present review, we summarize current approaches to the prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in children and young adults, focusing on age
  • Coccolini, Federico; Montori, Giulia; Catena, Fausto; Kluger, Yoram; Biffl, Walter; Moore, Ernest E.; Reva, Viktor; Bing, Camilla; Bala, Miklosh; Fugazzola, Paola; Bahouth, Hany; Marzi, Ingo; Velmahos, George; Ivatury, Rao; Soreide, Kjetil; Horer, Tal; ten Broek, Richard; Pereira, Bruno M.; Fraga, Gustavo P.; Inaba, Kenji; Kashuk, Joseph; Parry, Neil; Masiakos, Peter T.; Mylonas, Konstantinos S.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew; Abu-Zidan, Fikri; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Benatti, Simone Vasilij; Naidoo, Noel; Salvetti, Francesco; Maccatrozzo, Stefano; Agnoletti, Vanni; Gamberini, Emiliano; Solaini, Leonardo; Costanzo, Antonio; Celotti, Andrea; Tomasoni, Matteo; Khokha, Vladimir; Arvieux, Catherine; Napolitano, Lena; Handolin, Lauri; Pisano, Michele; Magnone, Stefano; Spain, David A.; de Moya, Marc; Davis, Kimberly A.; De Angelis, Nicola; Leppaniemi, Ari; Ferrada, Paula; Latifi, Rifat; Navarro, David Costa; Otomo, Yashuiro; Coimbra, Raul; Maier, Ronald V.; Moore, Frederick; Rizoli, Sandro; Sakakushev, Boris; Galante, Joseph M.; Chiara, Osvaldo; Cimbanassi, Stefania; Mefire, Alain Chichom; Weber, Dieter; Ceresoli, Marco; Peitzman, Andrew B.; Wehlie, Liban; Sartelli, Massimo; Di Saverio, Salomone; Ansaloni, Luca (2017)
    Spleen injuries are among the most frequent trauma-related injuries. At present, they are classified according to the anatomy of the injury. The optimal treatment strategy, however, should keep into consideration the hemodynamic status, the anatomic derangement, and the associated injuries. The management of splenic trauma patients aims to restore the homeostasis and the normal physiopathology especially considering the modern tools for bleeding management. Thus, the management of splenic trauma should be ultimately multidisciplinary and based on the physiology of the patient, the anatomy of the injury, and the associated lesions. Lastly, as the management of adults and children must be different, children should always be treated in dedicated pediatric trauma centers. In fact, the vast majority of pediatric patients with blunt splenic trauma can be managed non-operatively. This paper presents the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) classification of splenic trauma and the management guidelines.