Browsing by Subject "Pediatric"

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  • Tokariev, Maksym; Vuontela, Virve; Perkola, Jaana; Lönnberg, Piia; Lano, Aulikki; Andersson, Sture; Metsäranta, Marjo; Carlson, Synnöve (2020)
    Analysis of scalar maps obtained by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) produce valuable information about the microstructure of the brain white matter. The DTI scanning of child populations, compared with adult groups, requires specifically designed data acquisition protocols that take into consideration the trade-off between the scanning time, diffusion strength, number of diffusion directions, and the applied analysis techniques. Furthermore, inadequate normalization of DTI images and non-robust tensor reconstruction have profound effects on data analyses and may produce biased statistical results. Here, we present an acquisition sequence that was specifically designed for pediatric populations, and describe the analysis steps of the DTI data collected from extremely preterm-born young school-aged children and their age- and gender-matched controls. The protocol utilizes multiple software packages to address the effects of artifacts and to produce robust tensor estimation. The computation of a population-specific template and the nonlinear registration of tensorial images with this template were implemented to improve alignment of brain images from the children.
  • Saarinen, Mari; Isaksson, Nea; Himanen, Leena; Erkinjuntti, Nina; Vahlberg, Tero; Koskinen, Sanna; Tenovuo, Olli; Lähdesmäki, Tuire (2023)
    Objective To investigate whether neuropsychological test performance or presence of some specific injury symptoms at 1-3 months following pediatric mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can help to identify the children at risk for developing post-traumatic psychiatric symptoms. Methods Data from 120 children and adolescents aged 7-15 years, treated at Turku University Hospital between 2010 and 2016 due to mTBI, and who had undergone neuropsychological evaluation at 1-3 months following injury, were enrolled from the hospital records. Neuropsychological test performancesand injury symptom reports were retrospectively retrieved from the patient files. Results Slow information processing speed (p = 0.044), emotion regulation deficit (p = 0.014), impulsivity (p = 0.013), verbal processing difficulties (p = 0.042) and headache (p = 0.026) were independent predictors for having later contact in psychiatric care. Conclusions Neuropsychological examination containing measure of information processing speed, injury symptom interview, and parental questionnaires on behavioural issues of the child at 1-3 months following mTBI seems to be useful in detecting children with risk for post traumatic psychiatric symptoms. Targeted support and guidance for this group of children and adolescents and their families are recommended to prevent the development of an unfavorable psychosocial outcome.
  • Kröger, Sofia; Repo, Marleena; Hiltunen, Pauliina; Vornanen, Martine; Huhtala, Heini; Kivelä, Laura; Kurppa, Kalle (2022)
  • Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A.; Jero, Jussi (2016)
    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children.
  • the EPOS Study Group; van Geloven, Thomas P. G.; van der Heijden, Lizz; Laitinen, Minna K.; Campanacci, Domenico A.; Doring, Kevin; Dammerer, Dietmar; Badr, Ismail T.; Haara, Mikko; Beltrami, Giovanni; Kraus, Tanja; Scheider, Philipp; Soto-Montoya, Camilo; Umer, Masood; Fiocco, Marta; Coppa, Valentino; de Witte, Pieter B.; van de Sande, Michiel A. J. (2023)
    Background:Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are rare benign cystic bone tumors, generally diagnosed in children and adolescents. Proximal femoral ABCs may require specific treatment strategies because of an increased pathologic fracture risk. As few reports are published on ABCs, specifically for this localization, consensus regarding optimal treatment is lacking. We present a large retrospective study on the treatment of pediatric proximal femoral ABCs. Methods:All eligible pediatric patients with proximal femoral ABC were included, from 11 tertiary referral centers for musculo-skeletal oncology (2000-2021). Patient demographics, diagnostics, treatments, and complications were evaluated. Index procedures were categorized as percutaneous/open procedures and osteosynthesis alone. Primary outcomes were: time until full weight-bearing and failure-free survival. Failure was defined as open procedure after primary surgery, >3 percutaneous procedures, recurrence, and/or fracture. Risk factors for failure were evaluated. Results:Seventy-nine patients with ABC were included [mean age, 10.2 (+/- SD4.0) y, n=56 male]. The median follow-up was 5.1 years (interquartile ranges=2.5 to 8.8).Index procedure was percutaneous procedure (n=22), open procedure (n=35), or osteosynthesis alone (n=22). The median time until full weight-bearing was 13 weeks [95% confidence interval (CI)=7.9-18.1] for open procedures, 9 weeks (95% CI=1.4-16.6) for percutaneous, and 6 weeks (95% CI=4.3-7.7) for osteosynthesis alone (P=0.1). Failure rates were 41%, 43%, and 36%, respectively. Overall, 2 and 5-year failure-free survival was 69.6% (95% CI=59.2-80.0) and 54.5% (95% CI=41.6-67.4), respectively. Risk factors associated with failure were age younger than 10 years [hazard ratios (HR)=2.9, 95% CI=1.4-5.8], cyst volume >55 cm(3) (HR=1.7, 95% CI=0.8-2.5), and fracture at diagnosis (HR=1.4, 95% CI=0.7-3.3). Conclusions:As both open and percutaneous procedures along with osteosynthesis alone seem viable treatment options in this weight-bearing location, optimal treatment for proximal femoral ABCs remains unclear. The aim of the treatment was to achieve local cyst control while minimizing complications and ensuring that children can continue their normal activities as soon as possible. A personalized balance should be maintained between undertreatment, with potentially higher risks of pathologic fractures, prolonged periods of partial weight-bearing, or recurrences, versus overtreatment with large surgical procedures, and associated risks.
  • Demir, And; Karadas, Nihal Özdemir; Karadas, Ulas (2022)
    We studied the effect of duration of breastfeeding and history of prematurity on the duration of hospitalization in infants with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) because these may reflect the severity of illness as well as sizable direct and indirect healthcare costs. One hundred twenty-five patients (49 girls, 76 boys; aged 1-24 months) were hospitalized for LRTI during a period of 102 days and studied prospectively. We found a significant difference (P = .045) between the durations of hospitalization of the 92 patients breastfed for at least six months, compared to the other group of 33 patients who were breastfed for less than six months. The durations of hospitalization among the groups with and without a history of prematurity were not statistically different (P = .78). A history of breastfeeding for more than six months had significant effect on the duration of hospitalization, but this was not true for children with a history of preterm birth.
  • Silvola, Juha Tapio (2020)
    Objectives: Analyze reasons for unilateral conductive hearing loss (CHL) with unknown etiology in children. Introduction: Unilateral conductive hearing loss (HL) without known etiology can be undiagnosed despite of hearing screening programs. It can be difficult to find the reason for HL and to make a treatment plan. Middle ear endoscopy gives hard-evidence diagnosis and basis for an individual treatment plan. Methods and material: Prospective clinical follow-up study for a cohort of generally healthy elementary school age children with unilateral conductive HL with unknown etiology. The study population was 192 children, of which 46 had a HL of at least 25 dB with more than 10 dB conductive component. Mean age was 8.7 years. Preoperative tests included otomicroscopy, bone- and air-conduction audiogram, tympanometry, stapes reflex tests, Rinne and Weber test and Otoacoustic emissions. The children underwent endoscopy of the middle ear with an individual treatment plan and long-term follow-up. The aim was to explore etiology and to give a treatment plan for hearing loss. Follow-up included air- and bone conduction hearing tests annually or every other year. Mean follow-up was 5.2 years. Results: A clear etiological finding was found in 36 (78%) ears, stapes anomaly (23) as the most common (64%) finding. Other findings were two cholesteatomas, 2 status after trauma, 5 middle ear anomalies, 5 incus fixations and one incus erosion. Air conduction hearing improved spontaneously during follow-up in 81% (17/21, 2 dropouts) of the stapes anomaly ears (mean 11,3 dB, range 4-32 dB), and none of these ears showed hearing deterioration. In the incus fixation group, one ear showed hearing deterioration. There were no major complications for exploration, and 5 minor postoperative infections. Conclusions: The most common reason for pediatric unilateral conductive hearing loss was stapes anomaly/ fixation. The HL does not deteriorate. Hearing loss in stapes anomalies shows a tendency for spontaneous recovery. Stapes surgery can be postponed or avoided.
  • Ylinen, Elisa; Merras-Salmio, Laura; Gunnar, Riikka; Jahnukainen, Timo; Pakarinen, Mikko P. (2018)
    Objective: Although impaired renal function has been a frequent finding among adults with intestinal failure (IF), the data on children is scarce. The aim of this study was to assess renal function in pediatric-onset IF. Methods: Medical records of 70 patients (38 boys) with pediatric-onset IF due to either short bowel syndrome (n = 59) or primary motility disorder (n = 11) and a history of parenteral nutrition (PN) dependency for >= 1 mo were evaluated. Renal function at the most recent follow-up was studied using plasma creatinine, cystatin C, and urea concentrations and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results: At a median age of 5.7 y and after PN duration of 3.2 y, 20 patients (29%) had decreased eGFR and higher cystatin C and urea concentrations. Patients with decreased renal function had significantly longer duration of PN (3.2 versus 0.9 y; P = 0.030) and shorter percentage of age adjusted small bowel length remaining (22 versus 32%; P = 0.041) compared with patients with preserved renal function. No other predisposing factors for decreased eGFR were identified. Conclusions: Patients with pediatric-onset IF are at significant risk for impaired renal function, which is associated with the duration of PN and the length of the remaining small bowel. In the present study, no other predisposing factors for decreased eGFR were found. Further studies using measured GFR are needed. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • WSES-AAST Expert Panel; Coccolini, Federico; Moore, Ernest E.; Kluger, Yoram; Leppäniemi, Ari; Catena, Fausto (2019)
    Renal and urogenital injuries occur in approximately 10-20% of abdominal trauma in adults and children. Optimal management should take into consideration the anatomic injury, the hemodynamic status, and the associated injuries. The management of urogenital trauma aims to restore homeostasis and normal physiology especially in pediatric patients where non-operative management is considered the gold standard. As with all traumatic conditions, the management of urogenital trauma should be multidisciplinary including urologists, interventional radiologists, and trauma surgeons, as well as emergency and ICU physicians. The aim of this paper is to present the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) and the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) kidney and urogenital trauma management guidelines.
  • Pakkasjärvi, Niklas; Hölttä, Veera; Heikkilä, Jukka; Taskinen, Seppo (2021)
    Background: The Posterior Urethral Valve (PUV) is a persistent membrane of the urethra, which causes obstruction in the urogenital tract in boys. To our knowledge, no comprehensive reports have been published on whether PUV is associated to neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we analyzed a cohort of PUV patients for neurodevelopmental disorders and verified findings in an older cohort. Methods: In a register based study, we reviewed the hospital registries for patients treated for PUV during 1992–2013 to identify those with neurodevelopmental disorders. Primary outcome measure was any neurodevelopmental diagnosis. Secondary outcome measures were specific disorders: ASD; ADHD, intellectual disability, learning disabilities. Birth weight and gestational age were recorded, serum creatinine levels at specific timepoints were noted. We then investigated these variables to see any correlations to neurodevelopmental disorders. We replicated the strategy for verification in an older cohort of PUV-patients, who had been treated in our institute during 1970–1991. Results: We identified 87 patients treated for PUV of which thirteen (15%) had a verified diagnosis of a neurodevelopmental disorder. 2.3% of PUV patients fulfilled criteria of mild intellectual disability (F70.0/F79.0), 9% had ADHD/ADD-spectrum diagnoses (F90.0/F90.9) and 2.3% had learning disabilities (F83/F81.3). 5.7% of patients presented with difficulties in social interactions (F93.89, F94.8). Five patients presented with more than one neurodevelopmental diagnosis. We confirmed these findings in the older cohort of patients, where a verified neurodevelopmental diagnosis was detected in 14% of patients. We identified no statistically significant associations to gestational age, birth weight or creatinine levels of PUV-patients with neurodevelopmental diagnoses as compared to the PUV-patients not diagnosed for neurodevelopmental disorders. Intellectual disability/mental retardation was more prevalent in our material and this association was statistically significant. Discussion: We show, that the prevalence of intellectual disability among PUV patients exceeds the cumulative prevalence in Finland in both cohorts analyzed here. 15% of PUV-patients presented with a diagnosis of a neurodevelopmental disorder. To our knowledge, this is the first study attempting to outline neurodevelopmental disorders among boys with PUV. This study has limitations. It is register based and only diagnoses made at an institute within our hospital district are considered. The PUV-patients may be under closer surveillance than age-matched healthy children, which may lead to an overrepresentation of cases. The patient number is small and the small subsets of patients within each cohort hamper any further statistical analysis. The neurodevelopmental impacts of pediatric general anesthesia remain elusive and may have corollaries which must be kept in mind when interpretating our results. Patients with PUV require close follow-up in a multi-disciplinary manner, not forgetting neurodevelopmental aspects. Attention to intellectual disability is mandatory. Any suspicion of a developmental delay in a patient with PUV warrants further investigation and corresponding interventions. [Table presented]
  • Aro, Aapo L.; Chugh, Sumeet S. (2017)
    In the present review, we summarize current approaches to the prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in children and young adults, focusing on age
  • Perhomaa, Marja; Kyrö, Antti; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko (2022)
  • Coccolini, Federico; Montori, Giulia; Catena, Fausto; Kluger, Yoram; Biffl, Walter; Moore, Ernest E.; Reva, Viktor; Bing, Camilla; Bala, Miklosh; Fugazzola, Paola; Bahouth, Hany; Marzi, Ingo; Velmahos, George; Ivatury, Rao; Soreide, Kjetil; Horer, Tal; ten Broek, Richard; Pereira, Bruno M.; Fraga, Gustavo P.; Inaba, Kenji; Kashuk, Joseph; Parry, Neil; Masiakos, Peter T.; Mylonas, Konstantinos S.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew; Abu-Zidan, Fikri; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Benatti, Simone Vasilij; Naidoo, Noel; Salvetti, Francesco; Maccatrozzo, Stefano; Agnoletti, Vanni; Gamberini, Emiliano; Solaini, Leonardo; Costanzo, Antonio; Celotti, Andrea; Tomasoni, Matteo; Khokha, Vladimir; Arvieux, Catherine; Napolitano, Lena; Handolin, Lauri; Pisano, Michele; Magnone, Stefano; Spain, David A.; de Moya, Marc; Davis, Kimberly A.; De Angelis, Nicola; Leppaniemi, Ari; Ferrada, Paula; Latifi, Rifat; Navarro, David Costa; Otomo, Yashuiro; Coimbra, Raul; Maier, Ronald V.; Moore, Frederick; Rizoli, Sandro; Sakakushev, Boris; Galante, Joseph M.; Chiara, Osvaldo; Cimbanassi, Stefania; Mefire, Alain Chichom; Weber, Dieter; Ceresoli, Marco; Peitzman, Andrew B.; Wehlie, Liban; Sartelli, Massimo; Di Saverio, Salomone; Ansaloni, Luca (2017)
    Spleen injuries are among the most frequent trauma-related injuries. At present, they are classified according to the anatomy of the injury. The optimal treatment strategy, however, should keep into consideration the hemodynamic status, the anatomic derangement, and the associated injuries. The management of splenic trauma patients aims to restore the homeostasis and the normal physiopathology especially considering the modern tools for bleeding management. Thus, the management of splenic trauma should be ultimately multidisciplinary and based on the physiology of the patient, the anatomy of the injury, and the associated lesions. Lastly, as the management of adults and children must be different, children should always be treated in dedicated pediatric trauma centers. In fact, the vast majority of pediatric patients with blunt splenic trauma can be managed non-operatively. This paper presents the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) classification of splenic trauma and the management guidelines.