Browsing by Subject "Peptides"

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  • Nionelli, Luana; Wang, Yaqin; Pontonio, Erica; Immonen, Mikko; Rizzello, Carlo; Maina, Ndegwa; Katina, Kati; Coda, Rossana (2020)
    Bread is one of the most consumed food products in the world and one of the most discarded, due to its intrinsic short shelf-life and susceptibility to mold spoilage. Additionally, bread waste is generated during production and distribution, leading to the disposal of bread otherwise still fit for consumption. To avoid generating huge amount of bread waste, strategies to enable its reutilization should be sought. In this study, surplus bread, still suitable for consumption, was bioprocessed with enzymes and fermented by selected lactic acid bacteria generating an ingredient with antifungal properties. Bread hydrolysate fermented by Lactobacillus brevis AM7 showed broad inhibitory spectrum against the fungal species tested and antifungal activity ranging from 20 to 70%. Nine antifungal peptides were identified via Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionisation-Mass Spectra/ Mass Spectra (nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS), having 10-17 amino acid residues and mass ranging from 1083.6 to 1980.7 Da, all of them encrypted in wheat proteins sequences. Bread hydrolysate fermented by Lb. brevis AM7, non fermented bread hydrolysate and a slurry consisting of water-bread mixture were used as ingredients in bread making and compared to regular wheat bread. Breads containing the fermented hydrolysate (18 and 22% of the dough weight) showed the longest mold-free shelf-life compared to the other breads, lasting up to 10 days before mold appearance. Additionally, the fermented hydrolysate was the least detrimental on bread quality, emphasizing the positive impact and potential of the studied biotechnology.
  • Choudhary, Megha; Kumar, Vijay; Naik, Bindu; Verma, Ankit; Saris, Per Erik Joakim; Kumar, Vivek; Gupta, Sanjay (2022)
    Excessive antibiotic prescriptions as well as their misuse in agriculture are the main causes of antimicrobial resistance which poses a growing threat to public health. It necessitates the search for novel chemicals to combat drug resistance. Since ancient times, naturally occurring medicines have been employed and the enormous variety of bioactive chemicals found in nature has long served as an inspiration for researchers looking for possible therapeutics. Secondary metabolites from microorganisms, particularly those from actinomycetes, have made it incredibly easy to find new molecules. Different actinomycetes species account for more than 70% of naturally generated antibiotics currently used in medicine, and they also produce a variety of secondary metabolites, including pigments, enzymes, and anti-inflammatory compounds. They continue to be a crucial source of fresh chemical diversity and a crucial component of drug discovery. This review summarizes some uncommon sources of antifungal metabolites and highlights the importance of further research on these unusual habitats as a source of novel antimicrobial molecules.
  • Sivonen, Kaarina; Leikoski, Niina; Fewer, David P.; Jokela, Jouni (2010)
  • Araújo, Francisca; Shrestha, Neha; João Gomes, Maria; Herranz Blanco, Bárbara; Liu, Dongfei; Hirvonen, Jouni Tapio; L. Granja, Pedro; Almeida Santos, Helder; Sarmento, Bruno (2016)
    Oral delivery of proteins is still a challenge in the pharmaceutical field. Nanoparticles are among the most promising carrier systems for the oral delivery of proteins by increasing their oral bioavailability. However, most of the existent data regarding nanosystems for oral protein delivery is from in vitro studies, lacking in vivo experiments to evaluate the efficacy of these systems. Herein, a multifunctional composite system, tailored by droplet microfluidics, was used for dual delivery of glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (iDPP4) in vivo. Oral delivery of GLP-1 with nano- or micro-systems has been studied before, but the simultaneous nanodelivery of GLP-1 with iDPP4 is a novel strategy presented here. The type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rat model, induced through the combined administration of streptozotocin and nicotinamide, a non-obese model of T2DM, was used. The combination of both drugs resulted in an increase in the hypoglycemic effects in a sustained, but prolonged manner, where the iDPP4 improved the therapeutic efficacy of GLP-1. Four hours after the oral administration of the system, blood glucose levels were decreased by 44%, and were constant for another 4 h, representing half of the glucose area under the curve when compared to the control. An enhancement of the plasmatic insulin levels was also observed 6 h after the oral administration of the dual-drug composite system and, although no statistically significant differences existed, the amount of pancreatic insulin was also higher. These are promising results for the oral delivery of GLP-1 to be pursued further in a chronic diabetic model study.