Browsing by Subject "Perception"

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  • Vainio, Lari; Ellis, Rob (2020)
    This article reviews evidence for the special inhibitory mechanisms required to keep response activation related to affordances of a non-target object from evoking responses. This evidence presents that response activation triggered by affordances of a non-target are automatically inhibited resulting, for example, in decelerated response speed when the response is compatible with the affordance. The article also highlights the neural processes that differentiate these non-target-related affordance effects from other non-target-related effects such as the Eriksen flanker effect that-contrary to these affordance effects-present decelerated response speed when there is incompatibility between the non-target and the response. The article discusses the role of frontal executive mechanisms in controlling action planning processes in these non-target-related affordance effects. It is also proposed that overlapping inhibition mechanisms prevent executing impulsive actions relative to affordances of a target and exaggerate inhibition of response activation triggered by affordances of a non-target.
  • Masiero, Mauro; Secco, Laura; Pettenella, Davide; Da Re, Riccardo; Bernö, Hanna; Carreira, Ariane; Dobrovolsky, Alexander; Giertlieova, Blanka; Giurca, Alexandru; Holmgren, Sara; Mark-Herbert, Cecilia; Navrátilová, Lenka; Pülzl, Helga; Ranacher, Lea; Salvalaggio, Alessandra; Sergent, Arnaud; Sopanen, Juuso; Stelzer, Cristoph; Stetter, Theresa; Valsta, Lauri; Výbošťok, Jozef; Wallin, Ida (2020)
    This article provides useful information for universities offering forestry programs and facing the growing demand for bioeconomy education. An explorative survey on bioeconomy perception among 1400 students enrolled in 29 universities across nine European countries offering forestry programs was performed. The data have been elaborated via descriptive statistics and cluster analysis. Around 70% of respondents have heard about the bioeconomy, mainly through university courses. Students perceive forestry as the most important sector for bioeconomy; however, the extent of perceived importance of forestry varies between countries, most significantly across groups of countries along a North–South European axis. Although differences across bachelor and master programs are less pronounced, they shed light on how bioeconomy is addressed by university programs and the level of student satisfaction with this. These differences and particularities are relevant for potential development routes towards comprehensive bioeconomy curricula at European forestry universities with a forestry focus.
  • Wikman, Patrik; Ylinen, Artturi; Leminen, Miika; Alho, Kimmo (2022)
    Selective listening to cocktail-party speech involves a network of auditory and inferior frontal cortical regions. However, cognitive and motor cortical regions are differentially activated depending on whether the task emphasizes semantic or phonological aspects of speech. Here we tested whether processing of cocktail-party speech differs when participants perform a shadowing (immediate speech repetition) task compared to an attentive listening task in the presence of irrelevant speech. Participants viewed audiovisual dialogues with concurrent distracting speech during functional imaging. Participants either attentively listened to the dialogue, overtly repeated (i.e., shadowed) attended speech, or performed visual or speech motor control tasks where they did not attend to speech and responses were not related to the speech input. Dialogues were presented with good or poor auditory and visual quality. As a novel result, we show that attentive processing of speech activated the same network of sensory and frontal regions during listening and shadowing. However, in the superior temporal gyrus (STG), peak activations during shadowing were posterior to those during listening, suggesting that an anterior-posterior distinction is present for motor vs. perceptual processing of speech already at the level of the auditory cortex. We also found that activations along the dorsal auditory processing stream were specifically associated with the shadowing task. These activations are likely to be due to complex interactions between perceptual, attention dependent speech processing and motor speech generation that matches the heard speech. Our results suggest that interactions between perceptual and motor processing of speech relies on a distributed network of temporal and motor regions rather than any specific anatomical landmark as suggested by some previous studies.
  • Korpilo, Silviya; Nyberg, Elina; Vierikko, Kati; Nieminen, Hanna; Arciniegas, Gustavo; Raymond, Christopher M. (2023)
    This paper develops, tests and validates a Multi-sensory Public Participation GIS (MSPPGIS) method combining the qualities of soundscapes and landscape values mapping. The development of the method involved: a) Public Participation GIS survey design; b) three-phase evaluation of survey addressing analytical, applicability and usability criteria; c) survey refinement; d) sampling and data collection, and; e) spatial data analysis. The analysis consisted of hotspot mapping involving Kernel Density Estimation, spatial overlap assessment using Jaccard coefficients and value compatibility analysis showing the level of spatial compatibility between positive landscape values and positive and negative soundscapes. Results indicated very low to low spatial overlap between the different landscape values and pleasant/unpleasant sound hotspots, suggesting that landscape values do not necessarily reflect sonic perception of urban green and blue spaces. Pleasant and unpleasant sounds were located closer to home than landscape values (except for urban life values), indicating that respondents' soundscape 'cognitive map' is smaller in spatial range. The MSPPGIS method enables the elicitation of a more dynamic and diverse set of sounds compared to previous soundscape mapping which tend to focus on 'noise' instead of multiple experiences of different sounds. Also, the combination of landscape values and soundscapes in MSPPGIS provides for a more integrated assessment of 'where' and 'how' to design urban green infrastructure.
  • Hirvonen, Jonni Santeri; Monto, Simo Petteri; Wang, Sheng Hua; Palva, Jaakko Matias; Palva, Satu Orvokki (2018)
    Sensory-guided actions entail the processing of sensory information, generation of perceptual decisions, and the generation of appropriate actions. Neuronal activity underlying these processes is distributed into sensory, fronto-parietal, and motor brain areas, respectively. How the neuronal processing is coordinated across these brain areas to support functions from perception to action remains unknown. We investigated whether phase synchronization in large-scale networks coordinate these processes. We recorded human cortical activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG) during a task in which weak somatosensory stimuli remained unperceived or were perceived. We then assessed dynamic evolution of phase synchronization in large-scale networks from source-reconstructed MEG data by using advanced analysis approaches combined with graph theory. Here we show that perceiving and reporting of weak somatosensory stimuli is correlated with sustained strengthening of large-scale synchrony concurrently in delta/theta (3-7 Hz) and gamma (40-60 Hz) frequency bands. In a data-driven network localization, we found this synchronization to dynamically connect the task-relevant, that is, the fronto-parietal, sensory, and motor systems. The strength and temporal pattern of interareal synchronization were also correlated with the response times. These data thus show that key brain areas underlying perception, decision-making, and actions are transiently connected by large-scale dynamic phase synchronization in the delta/theta and gamma bands.
  • Soininen, Paivi; Putkonen, Hanna; Joffe, Grigori; Korkeila, Jyrki; Valimaki, Maritta (2014)
  • Nair, Preethy Sasidharan; Kuusi, Tuire; Ahvenainen, Minna; Philips, Anju K.; Järvelä, Irma (2019)
    Musical training and performance require precise integration of multisensory and motor centres of the human brain and can be regarded as an epigenetic modifier of brain functions. Numerous studies have identified structural and functional differences between the brains of musicians and non-musicians and superior cognitive functions in musicians. Recently, music-listening and performance has also been shown to affect the regulation of several genes, many of which were identified in songbird singing. MicroRNAs affect gene regulation and studying their expression may give new insights into the epigenetic effect of music. Here, we studied the effect of 2 hours of classical music-performance on the peripheral blood microRNA expressions in professional musicians with respect to a control activity without music for the same duration. As detecting transcriptomic changes in the functional human brain remains a challenge for geneticists, we used peripheral blood to study music-performance induced microRNA changes and interpreted the results in terms of potential effects on brain function, based on the current knowledge about the microRNA function in blood and brain. We identified significant (FDR
  • Druwe, Patrick; Monsieurs, Koenraad G.; Piers, Ruth; Gagg, James; Nakahara, Shinji; Alpert, Evan Avraham; van Schuppen, Hans; Élö, Gábor; Truhlar, Anatolij; Huybrechts, Sofie A.; Mpotos, Nicolas; Joly, Luc-Marie; Xanthos, Theodoros; Roessler, Markus; Paal, Peter; Cocchi, Michael N.; Bjorshol, Conrad; Paulikova, Monika; Nurmi, Jouni; Salmeron, Pascual Pinera; Owczuk, Radoslaw; Svavarsdottir, Hildigunnur; Deasy, Conor; Cimpoesu, Diana; Ioannides, Marios; Aguilera Fuenzalida, Pablo; Kurland, Lisa; Raffay, Violetta; Pachys, Gal; Gadeyne, Bram; Steen, Johan; Vansteelandt, Stijn; De Paepe, Peter; Benoit, Dominique D. (2018)
    Introduction: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is often started irrespective of comorbidity or cause of arrest. We aimed to determine the prevalence of perception of inappropriate CPR of the last cardiac arrest encountered by clinicians working in emergency departments and out-of-hospital, factors associated with perception, and its relation to patient outcome. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 288 centres in 24 countries. Factors associated with perception of CPR and outcome were analyzed by Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests and conditional logistic models. Results: Of the 4018 participating clinicians, 3150 (78.4%) perceived their last CPR attempt as appropriate, 548 (13.6%) were uncertain about its appropriateness and 320 (8.0%) perceived inappropriateness; survival to hospital discharge was 370/2412 (15.3%), 8/481 (1.7%) and 8/294 (2.7%) respectively. After adjusting for country, team and clinician's characteristics, the prevalence of perception of inappropriate CPR was higher for a non-shockable initial rhythm (OR 3.76 [2.13-6.64]; P <.0001), a non-witnessed arrest (2.68 [1.89-3.79]; P <.0001), in older patients (2.94 [2.18-3.96]; P <.0001, for patients > 79 years) and in case of a "poor" first physical impression of the patient (3.45 [2.36-5.05]; P <.0001). In accordance, non-shockable and non-witnessed arrests were both associated with lower survival to hospital discharge (0.33 [0.26 - 0.41]; P <0.0001 and 0.25 [0.15 - 0.41]; P <0.0001, respectively), as were older patient age (0.25 [0.14 - 0.44]; P <0.0001 for patients > 79 years) and a "poor" first physical impression (0.26 [0.19-0.35]; P <0.0001). Conclusions: The perception of inappropriate CPR increased when objective indicators of poor prognosis were present and was associated with a low survival to hospital discharge. Factoring clinical judgment into the decision to (not) attempt CPR may reduce harm inflicted by excessive resuscitation attempts.
  • Silva, José Filipe (Springer, 2016)
  • Castrén, Maija; Hotulainen, Pirta; Vanni, Simo (2021)
    Aivojen hermosolujen väliset kiihdyttävät signaalit saapuvat vastaanottaviin soluihin pääosin tuojahaarakkeiden okasten kautta. Yksilön kehittyessä hermosolujen välisten synapsiyhteyksien ja tuojahaarakkeiden okasten määrä alkuun lisääntyy, kunnes niiden määrä saavuttaa huippunsa noin yhden vuoden iässä. Tämän jälkeen okaset karsiutuvat aikuisikään asti ja muovautuvat dynaamisesti läpi aikuisiän. Synapsien lukumäärän lisäksi hermosolujen välisten kiihdyttävien ja estävien signaalien tasapaino on tärkeää normaalille aivotoiminnalle. Autismikirjon häiriöitä sairastavien aivoja tutkittaessa on todettu, että heidän okasensa ovat usein poikkeavan muotoisia ja niitä on normaalia enemmän. Autismikirjon häiriöön liitetyt poikkeavuudet synapsiyhteyksien ja okasten valinnassa sekä kiihdyttävien ja estävien synapsien tasapainossa ovat todennäköisesti yhteydessä aivojen tiedonkäsittelyn muutoksiin.
  • Cwiek, Aleksandra; Fuchs, Susanne; Draxler, Christoph; Asu, Eva Liina; Dediu, Dan; Hiovain, Katri; Kawahara, Shigeto; Koutalidis, Sofia; Krifka, Manfred; Lippus, Partel; Lupyan, Gary; Oh, Grace E.; Paul, Jing; Petrone, Caterina; Ridouane, Rachid; Reiter, Sabine; Schumchen, Nathalie; Szalontai, Adam; Unal-Logacev, Ozlem; Zeller, Jochen; Perlman, Marcus; Winter, Bodo (2022)
    The bouba/kiki effect-the association of the nonce word bouba with a round shape and kiki with a spiky shape-is a type of correspondence between speech sounds and visual properties with potentially deep implications for the evolution of spoken language. However, there is debate over the robustness of the effect across cultures and the influence of orthography. We report an online experiment that tested the bouba/kiki effect across speakers of 25 languages representing nine language families and 10 writing systems. Overall, we found strong evidence for the effect across languages, with bouba eliciting more congruent responses than kiki. Participants who spoke languages with Roman scripts were only marginally more likely to show the effect, and analysis of the orthographic shape of the words in different scripts showed that the effect was no stronger for scripts that use rounder forms for bouba and spikier forms for kiki. These results confirm that the bouba/kiki phenomenon is rooted in crossmodal correspondence between aspects of the voice and visual shape, largely independent of orthography. They provide the strongest demonstration to date that the bouba/kiki effect is robust across cultures and writing systems. This article is part of the theme issue 'Voice modulation: from origin and mechanism to social impact (Part II)'.
  • Zhou, Yanli; Acerbi, Luigi; Ma, Wei Ji (2020)
    Perceptual organization is the process of grouping scene elements into whole entities. A classic example is contour integration, in which separate line segments are perceived as continuous contours. Uncertainty in such grouping arises from scene ambiguity and sensory noise. Some classic Gestalt principles of contour integration, and more broadly, of perceptual organization, have been re-framed in terms of Bayesian inference, whereby the observer computes the probability that the whole entity is present. Previous studies that proposed a Bayesian interpretation of perceptual organization, however, have ignored sensory uncertainty, despite the fact that accounting for the current level of perceptual uncertainty is one the main signatures of Bayesian decision making. Crucially, trial-by-trial manipulation of sensory uncertainty is a key test to whether humans perform near-optimal Bayesian inference in contour integration, as opposed to using some manifestly non-Bayesian heuristic. We distinguish between these hypotheses in a simplified form of contour integration, namely judging whether two line segments separated by an occluder are collinear. We manipulate sensory uncertainty by varying retinal eccentricity. A Bayes-optimal observer would take the level of sensory uncertainty into account-in a very specific way-in deciding whether a measured offset between the line segments is due to non-collinearity or to sensory noise. We find that people deviate slightly but systematically from Bayesian optimality, while still performing "probabilistic computation" in the sense that they take into account sensory uncertainty via a heuristic rule. Our work contributes to an understanding of the role of sensory uncertainty in higher-order perception. Author summary Our percept of the world is governed not only by the sensory information we have access to, but also by the way we interpret this information. When presented with a visual scene, our visual system undergoes a process of grouping visual elements together to form coherent entities so that we can interpret the scene more readily and meaningfully. For example, when looking at a pile of autumn leaves, one can still perceive and identify a whole leaf even when it is partially covered by another leaf. While Gestalt psychologists have long described perceptual organization with a set of qualitative laws, recent studies offered a statistically-optimal-Bayesian, in statistical jargon-interpretation of this process, whereby the observer chooses the scene configuration with the highest probability given the available sensory inputs. However, these studies drew their conclusions without considering a key actor in this kind of statistically-optimal computations, that is the role of sensory uncertainty. One can easily imagine that our decision on whether two contours belong to the same leaf or different leaves is likely going to change when we move from viewing the pile of leaves at a great distance (high sensory uncertainty), to viewing very closely (low sensory uncertainty). Our study examines whether and how people incorporate uncertainty into contour integration, an elementary form of perceptual organization, by varying sensory uncertainty from trial to trial in a simple contour integration task. We found that people indeed take into account sensory uncertainty, however in a way that subtly deviates from optimal behavior.
  • Spape, Michiel; Harjunen, Ville Johannes; Ravaja, Niklas (2022)
    Sensing the passage of time is important for countless daily tasks, yet time perception is easily influenced by perception, cognition, and emotion. Mechanistic accounts of time perception have traditionally regarded time perception as part of central cognition. Since proprioception, action execution, and sensorimotor contingencies also affect time perception, perception-action integration theories suggest motor processes are central to the experience of the passage of time. We investigated whether sensory information and motor activity may interactively affect the perception of the passage of time. Two prospective timing tasks involved timing a visual stimulus display conveying optical flow at increasing or decreasing velocity. While doing the timing tasks, participants were instructed to imagine themselves moving at increasing or decreasing speed, independently of the optical flow. In the direct-estimation task, the duration of the visual display was explicitly judged in seconds while in the motor-timing task, participants were asked to keep a constant pace of tapping. The direct-estimation task showed imagining accelerating movement resulted in relative overestimation of time, or time dilation, while decelerating movement elicited relative underestimation, or time compression. In the motor-timing task, imagined accelerating movement also accelerated tapping speed, replicating the time-dilation effect. The experiments show imagined movement affects time perception, suggesting a causal role of simulated motor activity. We argue that imagined movements and optical flow are integrated by temporal unfolding of sensorimotor contingencies. Consequently, as physical time is relative to spatial motion, so too is perception of time relative to imaginary motion.