Browsing by Subject "Peripheral artery disease"

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  • Wickström, Jan-Erik; Virtanen, Juha; Aro, Ellinoora; Jalkanen, Juho; Venermo, Maarit; Hakovirta, Harri (2019)
    Objective: Based on our previous reports, ipsilateral systolic toe pressure (STP) and toe-brachial index (TBI) have a strong association with midterm cardiovascular and overall mortality as well as with amputation-free survival in patients with symptomatic lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). The effect of the often overlooked contralateral lower limb on patient outcome remains unknown. This study aimed to resolve the significance of contralateral STP (CL_STP) and contralateral TBI for long-term overall and cardiovascular mortality. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of 727 consecutive patients with symptomatic lower extremity PAD. All patients admitted to the Department of Vascular Surgery at Turku University Hospital for digital subtraction angiography between January 2009 and August 2011 and for whom STP measurements were available were recruited and observed for up to 7 years. Dates and causes of death were collected from the national cause of death registry of Statistics Finland. Results: In the study cohort, STP was Conclusions: Low STP and TBI of both contralateral and ipsilateral lower extremities are associated with high cardiovascular and overall mortality in symptomatic PAD patients. Bilaterally low STP and TBI are associated with a particularly poor prognosis.
  • Wickstrom, Jan-Erik; Jalkanen, Juho M.; Venermo, Maarit; Hakovirta, Harri H. (2017)
    Background and aims: Limited data exist on the association of the anatomical distribution of atherosclerotic lesions and the extent of atherosclerosis at defined arterial segments with life expectancy. We recently presented a new classification of the extent of atherosclerosis in crural vessels and showed that Crural Index (CIx) was associated with mid-term survival of symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients. This study evaluates the significance of the extent of crural atherosclerosis on long-term cardiovascular mortality. Methods: 887 consecutive patients with PAD, admitted for digital subtraction angiography (DSA) at Turku University Hospital Department of Vascular Surgery (Turku, Finland) between January 1st, 2009 and July 30th, 2011, were retrospectively analysed. Each crural angiographic image was graded according to CIx criteria. Aorto-iliac and femoro-popliteal arterial segments were similarly graded according to modified TASC II criteria. CIx was used as the categorical variable for the extent of atherosclerosis in crural vessels for survival analysis. Survival was also evaluated with respect to which arterial segment was most severely affected. Causes of death were provided by the Cause of Death Registry of Statistics Finland, updated on January 23rd, 2017. Results: Altogether, 408 (46%) patients died during follow-up. The majority of deaths were due to cardiovascular causes (n = 246, 60%). Cardiovascular mortality was strongly associated with a high CIx (CIx III (Hazard ratio (HR) 2.16, Confidence interval (CI) 95% 1.23-3.80, p = 0.007)) and CIx IV (HR 3.513, 95% CI 1.93-4.565, p <0.001), as compared to CIx 0. In patients having the crural segment as the most severely affected arterial segment, cardiovascular mortality was significantly increased (HR 2.321, 95% CI 1.45-3.73, p <0.001), as was overall mortality (HR 2.177, 95% CI 1.53-3.10, p <0.001). Conclusions: High Crural Index and extensive crural vessel atherosclerosis are associated with long-term cardiovascular mortality, and both may serve as useful indicators of survival among patients with symptomatic PAD. (c) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Heffron, Sean P.; Ruuth, Maija K.; Xia, Yuhe; Hernandez, Gustavo; Äikas, Lauri; Rodriguez, Crystalann; Öörni, Katariina; Berger, Jeffrey S. (2021)
    Background and aims: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a systemic manifestation of atherosclerosis that is associated with a high risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). LDL aggregation contributes to atherosclerotic plaque progression and may contribute to plaque instability. We aimed to determine if LDL aggregation is associated with MACE in patients with PAD undergoing lower extremity revascularization (LER). Methods: Two hundred thirty-nine patients with PAD undergoing LER had blood collected at baseline and were followed prospectively for MACE (myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular death) for one year. Nineteen age, sex and LDL-C-matched control subjects without cardiovascular disease also had blood drawn. Subject LDL was exposed to sphingomyelinase and LDL aggregate size measured via dynamic light scattering. Results: Mean age was 72.3 10.9 years, 32.6% were female, and LDL-cholesterol was 68 +/- 25 mg/dL. LDL aggregation was inversely associated with triglycerides, but not associated with demographics, LDL-cholesterol or other risk factors. Maximal LDL aggregation occurred significantly earlier in subjects with PAD than in control subjects. 15.9% of subjects experienced MACE over one year. The 1st tertile (shortest time to maximal aggregation) exhibited significantly higher MACE (25% vs. 12.5% in tertile 2 and 10.1% in tertile 3, p = 0.012). After multivariable adjustment for demographics and CVD risk factors, the hazard ratio for MACE in the 1st tertile was 4.57 (95% CI 1.60-13.01; p = 0.004) compared to tertile 3. Inclusion of LDL aggregation in the Framingham Heart Study risk calculator for recurrent coronary heart disease events improved the c-index from 0.57 to 0.63 (p = 0.01). Conclusions: We show that in the setting of very well controlled LDL-cholesterol, patients with PAD with the most rapid LDL aggregation had a significantly elevated MACE risk following LER even after multivariable adjustment. This measure further improved the classification specificity of an established risk prediction tool. Our findings support broader investigation of this assay for risk stratification in patients with atherosclerotic CVD.
  • Heikkila, Katriina; Coughlin, Patrick A.; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Halonen, Jaana (2019)
    Background and aims: Physical activity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and an important therapy in individuals with intermittent claudication. However, its role in the development of peripheral artery disease (PAD) is unclear. We have examined the evidence of the association between physical activity and development of PAD. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL Plus in August 2018 for original studies of physical activity and PAD. Studies reporting prevalence or incidence of PAD by categories of physical activity (an amount of activity per unit of time) were included. In addition, we analysed unpublished individual-level data from two register-linked cohort studies, Finnish Public Sector Study (n=63,924) and Whitehall II (n=10,200). Due to heterogeneity in the assessment of physical activity and PAD, we provide a qualitative synthesis of the findings. Results: Evidence from 18 studies (15 cross-sectional/case-control and 7 prospective studies) of the association between physical activity and PAD in total of 152,188 participants, including 3971 PAD patients, suggests that individuals with a diagnosis or clinical findings of PAD were less physically active, regardless of whether activity was self-reported or measured using accelerometers. The findings from the longitudinal studies point to more intense physical activity being associated with lower odds of developing PAD; however, the study-specific findings lacked power to precisely estimate this relationship. Conclusions: Individuals with PAD were less physically active than those without PAD. The longitudinal findings suggest that physical activity decreases the risk of PAD, although better powered studies are needed to confirm this.
  • Jalkanen, Juho M.; Wickstrom, Jan-Erik; Venermo, Maarit; Hakovirta, Harri H. (2016)
    Background and aims: Several studies report correlation of ankle brachial index (ABI) values and mortality. However, no studies exist on the predictive value of anatomical distribution of atherosclerotic lesions and the extent of atherosclerosis at defined arterial segments on life expectancy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the significance of both extent and localisation of atherosclerotic lesions to mid-term patient survival. Methods: Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) images of 887 consecutive patients admitted to the Department of Vascular Surgery at Turku University Hospital (Turku, Finland) were retrospectively analysed. Each angiography was classified according to the TASC II classification for aorto-iliac and femoro-popliteal segments, and a similar four-grade index was created for crural arteries. Patients were followed until 36-months post DSA. Results: During 36-month follow-up 295 (33%) deaths occurred. Death during follow-up was strongly associated with extensive crural disease, but not with extensive proximal disease (Crural Index p = 0.044 and <0.001, respectively). In a Cox regression analysis incorporating baseline variables, Crural Index IV and most severe atherosclerosis on crural vessels were the strongest predictors of poor prognosis (HR 2.20 95% CI 1.3-3.7, p = 0.003 and HR 2.45 95% CI 1.5-4.0, p <0.001 respectively). Conclusions: The extent of crural atherosclerosis is independently associated with poor mid term life expectancy. Therefore, a classification of the extent of crural atherosclerosis could serve as an indicator of mortality among PAD patients and aid in clinical decision making. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.