Browsing by Subject "Personality"

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  • Heinonen, Erkki; Knekt, Paul; Härkänen, Tommi; Virtala, Esa; Lindfors, Olavi (2018)
    Childhood adversities frequently precede adulthood depression and anxiety. Yet, how they impact needed treatment duration, type or focus in these common disorders, is unclear. For developing more individualized and precise interventions, we investigated whether specific early adversities associate with patients' distinct psychiatric problems, psychological vulnerabilities, and suitability for psychotherapy. A total of 221 depressed and anxious adult outpatients (excluding psychotic, severe personality, bipolar, and substance abuse disorders) referred from community, student, occupational, and private healthcare services filled the Childhood Family Atmosphere Questionnaire (CFAQ). They also filled self-reports on interpersonal behavior and problems, perceived competence, dispositional optimism, sense of coherence, defenses, and psychiatric history. Clinicians assessed the patients' symptomatology, personality, object relations, cognitive performance, and psychotherapy suitability. Regression analyses were conducted. Childhood adversities predicted both worse current psychological functioning (e.g., interpersonal problems), and better clinician-rated capacities for benefiting from psychotherapy (e.g. self-reflection, capacity for interaction). Parental problems had the most numerous negative associations to psychological functioning. Best capacities for psychotherapy were predicted by recollected family unhappiness. Associations with psychiatric criteria were, however, largely non-significant. In conclusion, for psychosocial treatment planning, patients' early adversities may indicate both vulnerability and resources. As childhood adversities are frequent among treatment-seekers, further studies examining how early adversities predict psychotherapy outcome are needed.
  • Hiidensalo, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objective This study explores if and how quality of child-parent relationship and parental socio-economical-status predict psychological maturity in adulthood, operationalized as higher levels of desirable traits and as temporal profile stability. Further it examines if more desirable traits in 2007 are correlated with higher temporal profile stability 2007–2012. Methods This prospective two-generation study used data from the population-based Young Finns Study. Study sample consisted of 1403 participants, aged 3–18 years at baseline in 1980. Quality of parent–child relationship in terms of emotional warmth and acceptance was self-rated by parents in 1980. Personality was assessed in 2007 and 2012 using NEO Five Factor Inventory. Overall and distinctive profile stability were analyzed with intrapersonal correlations. Associations between childhood environment and psychological maturity were examined using simple and standard multiple linear regressions. Results and conclusions Higher quality of child–parent relationship in terms of emotional warmth predicted psychological maturity when defined as more desirable traits. Parental SES predicted both forms of profile stability. More desirable traits in 2007 correlated only with overall stability, not with distinctive stability. The results show that early childhood environment is associated with psychological maturity especially when defined as desirable traits, but to a lesser degree when defined as temporal profile stability.
  • Saarinen, Aino; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Viding, Essi; Dobewall, Henrik; Kaseva, Kaisa; Lehtimaki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Hintsanen, Mirka (2021)
    We investigated (i) the predictive relationships of compassion with negative emotionality (a marker of susceptibility to stress) and vital exhaustion (a marker of chronic stress response) and (ii) the effect of compassion on the developmental courses of negative emotionality and vital exhaustion over a follow-up from early adulthood to middle age. We used the prospective Young Finns data (n = 1031-1495, aged 20-50). Compassion was evaluated in 1997, 2001, and 2012; and vital exhaustion and negative emotionality in 2001, 2007, and 2012. The predictive paths from compassion to vital exhaustion and negative emotionality were stronger than vice versa: high compassion predicted lower vital exhaustion and lower negative emotionality. The effect of high compassion on lower vital exhaustion and lower negative emotionality was evident from early adulthood to middle age. Overall, high compassion appears to protect against dimensions of stress from early adulthood to middle age, whereas this study found no evidence that dimensions of stress could reduce disposition to feel compassion for others' distress over a long-term follow-up.
  • Jussila, Pauliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study is a cross-validation of a hierarchical theory-based model of personality trait factors that comprises hypotheses regarding which personality constructs predict specific job performance criteria. The personality measures include the Big Five dimensions together with the Need for Achievement factor. The predictor variables have been conceptually aligned with specific criterion variables that are clusters of competencies. The model consists of six one-to-one predictor-criterion relationships that are paired up into three higher-order relationships which in turn are aggregated into a single score of General Factor of Personality (GFP) on the predictor side and overall work performance on the criterion side. The original study conducted in 2015 (N=929) was based on an international sample of participants from various organisations, whereas this sample consists of employees from a single global company (N=109). The aim was to explore the similarities and differences in the results in comparison to the original data. All the participants completed the same online personality self-assessment with 31 psychometric scales and a 360-feedback tool measuring 22 competencies. At least one external reviewer nominated by the participant completed a review rating on those competencies. Principal Components were extracted to investigate how well the model fits this data and the results compared to the results from the original study. Correlations between the first-order and second-order (composite) variables were also checked. Finally, regression analyses were conducted to test nine hypotheses derived from the theoretical model. The results of this study show that there is a clear relationship between the GFP and the overall performance as the observed validity is r = .39 which is even higher than in the original study were this value was r = .23. Out of the six personality factors, Extraversion and Conscientiousness are the only significant predictors of various job performance outcome in this data and, all in all, three hypotheses out of nine are fully confirmed and a fourth one partially. The results are also discussed with view to what kind of a role a specific company culture or expected behaviours of people working in certain job roles might play on the results.
  • Saarinen, Aino I. L.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Hintsa, Taina; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Ravaja, Niklas; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Hintsanen, Mirka (2020)
    Background This study investigated (i) whether compassion is associated with blood pressure or hypertension in adulthood and (ii) whether familial risk for hypertension modifies these associations. Method The participants (N = 1112-1293) came from the prospective Young Finns Study. Parental hypertension was assessed in 1983-2007; participants' blood pressure in 2001, 2007, and 2011; hypertension in 2007 and 2011 (participants were aged 30-49 years in 2007-2011); and compassion in 2001. Results High compassion predicted lower levels of diastolic and systolic blood pressure in adulthood. Additionally, high compassion was related to lower risk for hypertension in adulthood among individuals with no familial risk for hypertension (independently of age, sex, participants' and their parents' socioeconomic factors, and participants' health behaviors). Compassion was not related to hypertension in adulthood among individuals with familial risk for hypertension. Conclusion High compassion predicts lower diastolic and systolic blood pressure in adulthood. Moreover, high compassion may protect against hypertension among individuals without familial risk for hypertension. As our sample consisted of comparatively young participants, our findings provide novel implications for especially early-onset hypertension.
  • Leikas, Sointu; Kuula, Liisa; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina (2021)
    Experience sampling studies have shown that people act out of character a lot of the time. These findings have raised the question of potential costs of counter-habitual behavior. The present experience sampling study (N = 242; measurement occasions = 4342) tested, for five behavioral dimensions derived from the Big Five theory, whether self-reported counter-habitual behavior is related to psychological costs in everyday life. The results mostly supported the view that engaging in desirable counter-habitual behaviors is beneficial, though some evidence for counter-habitual costs was found for self-control. Overall, the results suggest that the state-content significance hypothesis better accounts for everyday life behavioral, affective, and self-regulatory processes than the views highlighting the importance of acting according to one's "true self" (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Berg, Venla; Lummaa, Virpi; Rickard, Ian J.; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko; Jokela, Markus (2016)
    Personality has been associated with reproductive success in humans and other animals, suggesting potential evolutionary selection pressures. However, studies to date have only examined these associations on a phenotypic level, which may be inadequate in estimating evolutionary change. Using a large longitudinal twin dataset of contemporary Finns, we compared the phenotypic (breeder's equation) and genetically informed (the Robertson-Price identity) associations between lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and two personality traits-neuroticism and extraversion. Neuroticism was not associated with LRS at the phenotypic nor genetic level, while extraversion was associated with higher LRS in men both phenotypically and genetically. Compared to the univariate phenotypic analysis, the genetic analysis suggested a larger selection response of extraversion, and a selection response of neuroticism due to indirect selection. We estimated that neuroticism decreases by .05 standard deviations and extraversion increases by .11 standard deviations by one generation. Our results highlight the importance of considering genetic associations between personality and fitness and investigating several inter-related personality traits and their covariance with each other to predict responses to selection more accurately.
  • van den Berg, Stephanie M.; de Moor, Marleen H. M.; McGue, Matt; Pettersson, Erik; Terracciano, Antonio; Verweij, Karin J. H.; Amin, Najaf; Derringer, Jaime; Esko, Tonu; van Grootheest, Gerard; Hansell, Narelle K.; Huffman, Jennifer; Konte, Bettina; Lahti, Jari; Luciano, Michelle; Matteson, Lindsay K.; Viktorin, Alexander; Wouda, Jasper; Agrawal, Arpana; Allik, Jueri; Bierut, Laura; Broms, Ulla; Campbell, Harry; Smith, George Davey; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franke, Barbera; Fox, Jean-Paul; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Giegling, Ina; Gow, Alan J.; Grucza, Richard; Hartmann, Annette M.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Iacono, William G.; Janzing, Joost; Jokela, Markus; Kiemeney, Lambertus; Lehtimaki, Terho; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Northstone, Kate; Nutile, Teresa; Ouwens, Klaasjan G.; Palotie, Aarno; Pattie, Alison; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Polasek, Ozren; Pulkkinen, Lea; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Raitakari, Olli T.; Realo, Anu; Rose, Richard J.; Ruggiero, Daniela; Seppala, Ilkka; Slutske, Wendy S.; Smyth, David C.; Sorice, Rossella; Starr, John M.; Sutin, Angelina R.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Verhagen, Josine; Vermeulen, Sita; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wright, Margaret J.; Zgaga, Lina; Rujescu, Dan; Metspalu, Andres; Wilson, James F.; Ciullo, Marina; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Deary, Ian J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Costa, Paul T.; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Krueger, Robert F.; Evans, David M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Boomsma, Dorret I. (2014)
  • Anis, Nadja; Aaltonen, Sari; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna (2019)
  • Strandberg, Timo; Kivimäki, Mika (2021)
    • Loman tarkoitus on palauttaa työntekijän voimavarat. Lomaan liittyy pääsääntöisesti terveyshyötyjä, ¬mutta myös mahdollisia haittoja. • Loman terveysvaikutukset ovat yksilöllisiä ja myös työn laatu voi vaikuttaa niihin. • Lyhytkin loma hyödyttää, mutta sen vaikutus jää usein lyhytaikaiseksi. Sitä voi pyrkiä pidentämään loman sisällöllä. • Terveyshyötyjen kannalta usea lyhyt lomajakso vuoden mittaan voi olla parempi kuin yksi pitkä, mutta tutkimusta tästä on vasta vähän.
  • van den Berg, Stephanie M.; de Moor, Marleen H. M.; Verweij, Karin J. H.; Krueger, Robert F.; Luciano, Michelle; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Matteson, Lindsay K.; Derringer, Jaime; Esko, Tonu; Amin, Najaf; Gordon, Scott D.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hart, Amy B.; Seppala, Ilkka; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Konte, Bettina; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Minyoung; Miller, Mike; Nutile, Teresa; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Viktorin, Alexander; Wedenoja, Juho; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Allik, Jueri; Appel, Katja; Bigdeli, Timothy B.; Busonero, Fabio; Campbell, Harry; Costa, Paul T.; Smith, George Davey; Davies, Gail; de Wit, Harriet; Ding, Jun; Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Heinonen, Kati; Jokela, Markus; Latvala, Antti; Palotie, Aarno; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Kaprio, Jaakko; Räikkönen, Katri; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Generation Scotland (2016)
    Extraversion is a relatively stable and heritable personality trait associated with numerous psychosocial, lifestyle and health outcomes. Despite its substantial heritability, no genetic variants have been detected in previous genome-wide association (GWA) studies, which may be due to relatively small sample sizes of those studies. Here, we report on a large meta-analysis of GWA studies for extraversion in 63,030 subjects in 29 cohorts. Extraversion item data from multiple personality inventories were harmonized across inventories and cohorts. No genome-wide significant associations were found at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level but there was one significant hit at the gene level for a long non-coding RNA site (LOC101928162). Genome-wide complex trait analysis in two large cohorts showed that the additive variance explained by common SNPs was not significantly different from zero, but polygenic risk scores, weighted using linkage information, significantly predicted extraversion scores in an independent cohort. These results show that extraversion is a highly polygenic personality trait, with an architecture possibly different from other complex human traits, including other personality traits. Future studies are required to further determine which genetic variants, by what modes of gene action, constitute the heritable nature of extraversion.
  • Lonnqvist, Jan Erik; Ilmarinen, Ville-Juhani; Leikas, Sointu (2020)
    In a representative sample of Finnish car owners (N = 1892) we connected the Five-Factor Model personality dimensions to driving a high-status car. Regardless of whether income was included in the logistic model, disagreeable men and conscientious people in general were particularly likely to drive high-status cars. The results regarding agreeableness are consistent with prior work that has argued for the role of narcissism in status consumption. Regarding conscientiousness, the results can be interpreted from the perspective of self-congruity theory, according to which consumers purchase brands that best reflect their actual or ideal personalities. An important implication is that the association between driving a high-status car and unethical driving behaviour may not, as is commonly argued, be due to the corruptive effects of wealth. Rather, certain personality traits, such as low agreeableness, may be associated with both unethical driving behaviour and with driving a high-status car.
  • Törnroos, Maria; Elovainio, Marko; Hintsa, Taina; Hintsanen, Mirka; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Jokela, Markus; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa (2019)
    This study examined the association between five-factor model personality traits and perceptions of organisational justice. The sample for the study comprised 903 participants (35-50 years old; 523 women) studied in 2007 and 2012. Measures used were the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Five-Factor Inventory questionnaire and the short organisational justice measure. The results showed that high neuroticism was associated with low distributive, procedural and interactional justice. Furthermore, high agreeableness was associated with high procedural and interactional justice and high openness with high distributive justice. This study suggests that neuroticism, agreeableness and openness are involved in perceptions of organisational justice and that personality should be considered in research and in practices at the workplace.
  • Jokela, Markus (2021)
    Personality traits have been associated with differences in residential mobility, but details are lacking on the types of residential moves associated with personality differences. The present study pooled data from four prospective cohort studies from the United Kingdom (UK Household Longitudinal Survey, and British Household Panel Survey), Germany (Socioeconomic Panel Study), and Australia (Household, Income, and Labour Dynamics in Australia) to assess whether personality traits of the Five Factor Model are differently related to residential moves motivated by different reasons to move: employment, education, family, housing, and neighborhood (total n = 86,073). Openness to experience was associated with all moves but particularly with moves due to employment and education. Extraversion was associated with higher overall mobility, except for moves motivated by employment and education. Lower emotional stability predicted higher probability of moving due to neighborhood, housing, and family, while higher agreeableness was associated with lower probability of moving due to neighborhood and education. Adjusting for education, household income, marital status, employment status, number of children in the household, and housing tenure did not substantially change the associations. These results suggest that different personality traits may motivate different types of residential moves.
  • Määttanen, Ilmari; Henttonen, Pentti; Väliaho, Julius; Palomäki, Jussi; Thibault, Maisa; Kallio, Johanna; Mäntyjärvi, Jani; Harviainen, Tatu; Jokela, Markus (2021)
    Personality describes the average behaviour and responses of individuals across situations; but personality traits are often poor predictors of behaviour in specific situations. This is known as the "personality paradox". We evaluated the interrelations between various trait and state variables in participants' everyday lives. As state measures, we used 1) experience sampling methodology (ESM/EMA) to measure perceived affect, stress, and presence of social company; and 2) heart rate variability and 3) real-time movement (accelerometer data) to indicate physiological stress and physical movement. These data were linked with self-report measures of personality and personality-like traits. Trait variables predicted affect states and multiple associations were found: traits neuroticism and rumination decreased positive affect state and increased negative affect state. Positive affect state, in turn, was the strongest predictor of observed movement. Positive affect was also associated with heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV). Negative affect, in turn, was not associated with neither movement, HR or HRV. The study provides evidence on the influence of personality-like traits and social context to affect states, and, in turn, their influence to movement and stress variables.
  • Jalava-Broman, Jaana; Junttila, Niina; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Mäkinen, Juha; Rautava, Päivi (2020)
    Objective: To identify subgroups of women who differ with respect to self-evaluated stress, hostility, optimism and sense of coherence, and to identify differences, if any, in whether these subgroups use or do not use hormone replacement therapy (HT). Study design and methods: This time-trend study is based on the Finnish national HeSSup study, in which nationwide cohorts of Finnish women aged 52-56 years randomly selected in 2000 (n = 1321) and in 2010 (n = 1389) responded to postal questionnaires related to four psychological behavior patterns. Main outcome measures: Relationships between psychological behavior patterns (stress, hostility, optimism and sense of coherence) and how menopausal symptoms are experienced and how this relates to the use of HT. Results: The proportion of HT users was higher among those with more stress and hostility and less optimism and sense of coherence than among those low in stress and hostility and high in optimism and sense of coherence. Conclusions: Differences in psychological behavior patterns influence the perception of menopausal symptoms and the use of HT. When the treatment of women at menopause is planned, psychological behavior patterns should be considered, as these reflect the ability to cope with menopausal symptoms.
  • Mustonen, Jari Pentti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Mankind is making serious efforts towards eventually conquering other heavenly bodies and start habiting space. The technical problems relating to travel and habitation are being solved. Nevertheless, psychological questions relating to voluntary space travel and habiting space have not been researched. Psychological features, like personality, are known to affect general operational effectivity and behavior in different environments. This thesis analyses if psychological features (Big-5 personality, Schwartz values, empathizing- systemizing cognitive style, dark triad) predict willingness to travel to space or to celestial bodies. The key fining is that, out of the mentioned features, systemizing cognitive style predicts the willingness to go to space. Other psychological features are also linked to systemizing cognitive style and these features are discussed in more detail. The underlying structure is also psychometrically interesting as it ties in some of the researched measures in causal structure. Vapaaehtoisen avaruusmatkustuksen psykologiaa ei ole tutkittu aiemmin. Työssä pohditaan lukuisia kiinnostavia uusia suuntia, joita tämä aiemmin tutkimaton aihe tarjoaa. The psychology of voluntary space travel has not been previously researched. The thesis discusses new interesting potential new research directions related to this topic.
  • Saarinen, Aino I. L.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Lehtimäki, Terho; Jula, Antti; Cloninger, C. Robert; Hintsanen, Mirka (2020)
    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate (i) whether somatic complaints predict the developmental course of compassion in adulthood, and (ii) whether this association depends on alexithymic features. Methods: The participants came from the population-based Young Finns study (N = 471-1037). Somatic complaints (headache, stomachache, chest pain, backache, fatigue, exhaustion, dizziness, heartburn, heartbeat, and tension) were evaluated with a self-rating questionnaire in 1986 when participants were aged between 18 and 24 years. Compassion was assessed with the Compassion Scale of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in 1997, 2001, and 2012. The data were analyzed using growth curve models. Results: We obtained a significant compassion-age interaction (B = -0.137, p =.02) and a compassion -age squared interaction (B = 0.007, p =.006), when predicting the course of somatic complaints. Specifically, in participants without frequent somatic complaints, compassion steadily increased with age in adulthood. In participants with frequent somatic complaints, however, compassion remained at a lower level until the age of 40 years, then started to increase, and achieved the normal level of compassion approximately at the age of 50 years. The association between somatic complaints and compassion over age was found to be independent of alexithymic features. The analyses were adjusted for a variety of covariates (age, gender, use of health care in childhood, depression in childhood, parental socioeconomic factors, parental care-giving practices, stressful life events, parental alcohol intoxication, and participants' socioeconomic factors in adulthood). Conclusion: Frequent somatic complaints may predict delayed development of compassion in adulthood. This association was found to be independent of alexithymic features.
  • Rahnasto, Matti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Johdanto: Virvoitusjuomien käyttäjien tutkimus tuottaa arvokasta tietoa, jota voidaan käyttää mm. kohdennettaessa ja kehitettäessä virvoitusjuomien käyttöön vaikuttamaan pyrkiviä kansanterveydellisiä interventioita. Virvoitusjuomien käyttöön yhdistyvistä sosioekonomisista tekijöistä, elämäntapatekijöistä sekä psykologisista tekijöistä on julkaistu runsaasti tutkimuksia. Liikunnallisuuden yhteydestä virvoitusjuomien käyttöön on kuitenkin aikaisemmin julkaistu vain yksi pienehkö tutkimus, jossa liikunnallisuus ei ole ollut yhteydessä virvoitusjuomien käyttöön. Toisaalta runsas virvoitusjuomien käyttö yhdistetään tiettyihin (nuorten) alakulttuureihin, esimerkiksi nörttikulttuuriin, jota leimaa kiinnostus tieteeseen ja teknologiaan. Kuitenkaan tieteellisen kiinnostuneisuuden yhteyttä virvoitusjuomien käyttöön ei ole aikaisemmin tutkittu pitkittäisasetelmassa. Pyrimme siten selvittämään, miten tieteellinen kiinnostuneisuus ja liikunnallisuus 16-vuotiaina yhdistyvät virvoitusjuomien käyttöön 25-vuotiaina ja onko tieteellisellä kiinnostuneisuudella ja liikunnallisuudella yhteisvaikutuksia. Menetelmät: Käytössämme on vuosina 1975–1979 Suomessa syntyneistä kaksosista kyselylomakkeilla koostetun Nuorten kaksosten terveystutkimuksen (FinnTwin16) aineisto. Käytimme logistista regressiota selvittääksemme liikunnallisuuden ja tieteellisen kiinnostuneisuuden yhteyttä virvoitusjuomien päivittäiseen käyttöön. Vakioimme tuloksemme lähtötasolla mitatuilla painoindeksillä ja vanhempien koulutuksella. Analysoimme erikseen sokerilla ja keinotekoisesti makeutetut virvoitusjuomat. Tulokset: Lopulliseen analyysiimme päätyi 1717 miestä ja 2070 naista. Miehet olivat selvästi tieteellisesti kiinnostuneempia ja liikunnallisempia kuin naiset ja he myös käyttivät enemmän sokerilla makeutettuja virvoitusjuomia. Naiset kuluttivat enemmän keinotekoisesti makeutettuja virvoitusjuomia. Sekä yksi- että monimuuttujamallissa tieteellinen kiinnostuneisuus suojasi sokerilla makeutettujen virvoitusjuomien käytöltä (miehillä kerroinsuhde (OR) 0,77, 95 % luottamusväli (CI) 0,69–0,86 ja naisilla OR 0,79 95% CI 0,65–0,94). Keinotekoisesti makeutettujen virvoitusjuomien käyttöön sillä ei puolestaan ollut yhteyttä. Liikunnallisuudella ei ollut yhteyttä kummankaan virvoitusjuomatyypin kulutukseen ja tieteellinen kiinnostuneisuus vaikutti miesten keskuudessa samalla tavalla kaikkien eri tavalla liikunnallisten keskuudessa kun taas naisilla suojaava yhteys heikkeni 2-3 kertaa viikossa liikkuvien keskuudessa verrattuna sitä useammin tai sitä harvemmin liikkuviin. Johtopäätökset: Tuloksiemme mukaan tieteellinen kiinnostuneisuus 16-vuotiaana suojaa sokerilla makeutettujen virvoitusjuomien käytöltä 25-vuotiaana, vaikka malli vakioitaisiin lähtötason painoindeksillä ja vanhempien koulutuksella. Miesten keskuudessa emme havainneet viitteitä tilastollisesta yhteisvaikutuksesta liikunnallisuuden ja tieteellisen kiinnostuksen vaikutuksien välillä, mutta naisten kohdalla sellaisen mahdollisuutta emme voi täysin poissulkea.