Browsing by Subject "Petrography"

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  • Pietilä, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Geological Survey of Finland conducted bedrock mapping in the eastern parts of Central Finland Granitoid Complex (CFGC) and the area next to the Archean craton in the 1990s. The area consists mainly of Paleo-proterozoic paragneisses, with minor volcanic rocks present. The granitoids belonging to the Central Finland Granitoid Complex make up part of the bedrock in the area. The granitoids of CFGC are divided into a 1.89-1.88 Ga syn-kinematic group, and a crosscutting, 1.88-1.87 Ga post-kinematic group. In this Master’s thesis, three post-kinematic granitoid intrusions of Löytölamminvuori, Sorsakoski and Karvalevä are studied, covering their lithological, petrographical and geochemical features. The intrusions are non-foliated, porphyritic granites and quartz-monzonites, with a minor mafic phase of mostly dioritic composition in the Karvalevä intrusion. The main mafic silicates in the granite phase are biotite and hornblende, in the quartz-monzonite and mafic phases also clino- and orthopyroxene are present. Resembling the other post-kinematic plutons of the CFGC, the studied intrusions are geochemically high in Al2O3, FeO and K2O, and low in MgO, CaO and Sr. One U-Pb age of 1876+6 Ma has been measured for the Löytölamminvuori intrusion, which places the intrusion at the same time frame as the other post-kinematic plutons. Geochemically the intrusions show A-type affinity and close similarities to the post-kinematic pluton Types 2 and 3, fitting best with the Type 3a, which is transitional between the two. The magmas forming Löytölamminvuori, Sorsakoski and Karvalevä were derived from partial melting of mantle derived basalts, which underwent crustal contamination by partial melts from the lower crust. Slight deviation in composition from the strictly A-type magma and the volcanic arc affinity can be explained by the crustal component. The mafic phases show more primitive geochemistry, and thus present the mantle-derived source component with less crustal assimilation in the source. The intrusions show signs of bimodal mafic-felsic magmatism, the dioritic phases in Karvalevä intrusion and one syn-plutonic dyke in Sorsakoski intrusion representing the mafic component. The mafic magmatism was cogenetic with the felsic phases, but not comagmatic, the diorites intruding simultaneously but slightly after the felsic phases. The mafic phases show a continuum in chemical composition to the granites and quartz-monzonites, but with a slight compositional gap.
  • Räisänen, M.; Kupiainen, K.; Tervahattu, H. (Springer-Verlag GmbH, 2003)
    In northern latitudes mineral dust is formed when cars use studded tyres and roads are sanded to obtain more traction on the icy surfaces. Anti-skid and asphalt aggregates with different textural, mineralogical and mechanical properties were tested with an indoor road simulator fitted with studded and friction tyres. The particle size distribution and proportions of dust from pavement and anti-skid aggregate were analyzed using SEM-EDX. The wear on the road pavement depends on the properties of the anti-skid and asphalt aggregate (particle size distribution, mechanical/physical and textural properties). Antiskid aggregates, which contain mainly hard minerals (e.g. feldspars and quartz) and which have a low resistance to fragmentation, should be used with caution as they may break more easily into smaller particles and are likely to wear the pavement. By using high-quality anti-skid aggregates it is possible to reduce the amount of urban dust.