Browsing by Subject "Phenomenology"

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  • Bressi, M.; Cavalli, F.; Putaud, J.P.; Fröhlich, R.; Petit, J.-E.; Aas, W.; Äijälä, M.; Alastuey, A.; Allan, J.D.; Aurela, M.; Berico, M.; Bougiatioti, A.; Bukowiecki, N.; Canonaco, F.; Crenn, V.; Dusanter, S.; Ehn, Mikael; Elsasser, M.; Flentje, H.; Graf, P.; Green, D.C.; Heikkinen, Liine; Hermann, H.; Holzinger, R.; Hueglin, C.; Keernik, H.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kubelová, L.; Lunder, C.; Maasikmets, M.; Makeš, O.; Malaguti, A.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Nicolas, J.B.; O'Dowd, C.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Petralia, E.; Poulain, L.; Priestman, M.; Riffault, V.; Ripoll, A.; Schlag, P.; Schwarz, J.; Sciare, J.; Slowik, J.; Sosedova, Y.; Stavroulas, I.; Teinemaa, E.; Via, M.; Vodička, P.; Williams, P.I.; Wiedensohler, A.; Young, D.E.; Zhang, S.; Favez, O.; Minguillón, M.C.; Prevot, A.S.H. (2021)
    Similarities and differences in the submicron atmospheric aerosol chemical composition are analyzed from a unique set of measurements performed at 21 sites across Europe for at least one year. These sites are located between 35 and 62 degrees N and 10 degrees W - 26 degrees E, and represent various types of settings (remote, coastal, rural, industrial, urban). Measurements were all carried out on-line with a 30-min time resolution using mass spectroscopy based instruments known as Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitors (ACSM) and Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (AMS) and following common measurement guidelines. Data regarding organics, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium concentrations, as well as the sum of them called non-refractory submicron aerosol mass concentration ([NR-PM1]) are discussed. NR-PM1 concentrations generally increase from remote to urban sites. They are mostly larger in the mid-latitude band than in southern and northern Europe. On average, organics account for the major part (36-64%) of NR-PM1 followed by sulfate (12-44%) and nitrate (6-35%). The annual mean chemical composition of NR-PM1 at rural (or regional background) sites and urban background sites are very similar. Considering rural and regional background sites only, nitrate contribution is higher and sulfate contribution is lower in midlatitude Europe compared to northern and southern Europe. Large seasonal variations in concentrations (mu g/m(3)) of one or more components of NR-PM1 can be observed at all sites, as well as in the chemical composition of NR-PM1 (%) at most sites. Significant diel cycles in the contribution to [NR-PM1] of organics, sulfate, and nitrate can be observed at a majority of sites both in winter and summer. Early morning minima in organics in concomitance with maxima in nitrate are common features at regional and urban background sites. Daily variations are much smaller at a number of coastal and rural sites. Looking at NR-PM1 chemical composition as a function of NR-PM1 mass concentration reveals that although organics account for the major fraction of NR-PM1 at all concentration levels at most sites, nitrate contribution generally increases with NR-PM1 mass concentration and predominates when NR-PM1 mass concentrations exceed 40 mu g/m(3) at half of the sites.
  • Cavalli, F.; Alastuey, A.; Areskoug, H.; Ceburnis, D.; Cech, J.; Genberg, J.; Harrison, R. M.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Kiss, G.; Laj, P.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Perez, N.; Quincey, P.; Schwarz, J.; Sellegri, K.; Spindler, G.; Swietlicki, E.; Theodosi, C.; Yttri, K. E.; Aas, W.; Putaud, J. P. (2016)
    Although particulate organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) are important constituents of the suspended atmospheric particulate matter (PM), measurements of OC and EC are much less common and More uncertain than measurements of e.g. the ionic components of PM. In the framework of atmospheric research infrastructures supported by the European Union, actions have been undertaken to determine and mitigate sampling artefacts, and assess the comparability of OC and EC data obtained in a network of 10 atmospheric observatories across Europe. Positive sampling artefacts (from 0:4 to 2.8 mu g C/m(3)) and analytical discrepancies (between -50% and +40% for the EC/TC ratio) have been taken into account to generate a robust data set, from which we established the phenomenology of carbonaceous aerosols at regional background sites in Europe. Across the network, TC and EC annual average concentrations range from 0.4 to 9 mu g C/m(3), and from 0.1 to 2 mu g C/m(3), respectively. TC/PM10 annual mean ratios range from 0.11 at a Mediterranean site to 0.34 at the most polluted continental site, and TC/PM2.5 ratios are slightly greater at all sites (0.15-0.42). EC/TC annual mean ratios range from 0.10 to 0.22, and do not depend much on PM concentration levels, especially in winter. Seasonal variations in PM and TC concentrations, and in TC/PM and EC/TC ratios, differ across the network, which can be explained by seasonal changes in PM source contributions at some sites. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Bandyopadhyay, Priyotosh; Huitu, Katri Leila Päivikki; Keceli, Asli (2015)
    We study multi-lepton signatures of the triplet like charged Higgs at the LHC in the context of Y = 0 triplet extended supersymmetric model (TESSM). In TESSM the h^±_i W^∓Z coupling appears at tree level when the triplet vacuum expectation value is nonzero, and because of the coupling the charged Higgs decay channels as well as the production channels can dramatically change at the LHC. We show that for the triplet dominated charged Higgs the main production channels are no longer through the top decay or gg and gb fusions since these are very suppressed due to the lack of triplet-SM fermion coupling. In the numerical analysis, we consider also other possible production channels some of which have additional contributions from the diagrams containing h^±_i W^∓Z vertex. We investigate the decay channels of a triplet like light charged Higgs (mh^±_1≤ 200 GeV) and show that depending on the triplet component, the charged Higgs can substantially decay to W^±Z. We further examine the 3l, 4l, 5l multi-lepton signatures of the triplet like charged Higgs by considering four different benchmark points for which we perform PYTHIA level simulation using FastJet for jet formation at the LHC with 14 TeV. We found that for favorable parameters the earliest discovery with 5σ signal significance can appear with early data of 72 fb−1 of integrated luminosity. We also present the invariant mass distribution M_{lljj} for (≥ 3l) + (pT ≥ 30 GeV) and (≥ 3l) + (≥ 2j) + (pT ≥ 30 GeV) and show that in addition to the charged Higgs mass peak, an edge that carries information about heavy intermediate neutral Higgs bosons arises at the end of the mass distribution.
  • Miettinen, Timo (2021)
    This article deals with Jacques Derrida’s critique of the phenomenological concepts of spirituality and spirit, particularly in the context of his 1987 book Of Spirit. As the article shows, Derrida’s interpretation of these concepts was based on a seemingly minor, yet extremely important misreading of Edmund Husserl’s key passages on the relationship between spirituality and Europe. Unlike Derrida claims, Husserl did not equate Europe with the universal teleology of humankind. Instead, what the concept of spirituality opened up was a new way of understanding transcendental modes of experience as embedded in a particular historical situation of a particular community. Philosophy, understood as a “spiritual” phenomenon, denoted for Husserl a fundamentally intersubjective and intergenerational phenomenon that is by no means separate from empirical history.
  • Dube, Apramey; Helkkula, Anu (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd, 2015)