Browsing by Subject "Phospholipid"

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  • Itokazu, Yutaka; Tajima, Nobuyoshi; Kerosuo, Laura; Somerharju, Pentti; Sariola, Hannu; Yu, Robert K.; Kakela, Reijo (2016)
    The central nervous system (CNS) harbors multiple glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expressing cell types. In addition to the most abundant cell type of the CNS, the astrocytes, various stem cells and progenitor cells also contain GFAP+ populations. Here, in order to distinguish between two types of GFAP expressing cells with or without the expression of the A2B5 antigens, we performed lipidomic analyses on A2B5+/GFAP+ and A2B5-/GFAP+ cells from rat spinal cord. First, A2B5+/GFAP- progenitors were exposed to the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) to induce their differentiation to A2B5+/GFAP+ cells or A2B5-/GFAP+ astrocytes, respectively. The cells were then analyzed for changes in their phospholipid, sphingolipid or acyl chain profiles by mass spectrometry and gas chromatography. Compared to A2B5+/GFAP- progenitors, A2B5-/GFAP+ astrocytes contained higher amounts of ether phospholipids (especially the species containing arachidonic acid) and sphingomyelin, which may indicate characteristics of cellular differentiation and inability for multipotency. In comparison, principal component analyses revealed that the lipid composition of A2B5+/GFAP+ cells retained many of the characteristics of A2B5+/GFAP- progenitors, but their lipid profile was different from that of A2B5-/GFAP+ astrocytes. Thus, our study demonstrated that two GFAP+ cell populations have distinct lipid profiles with the A2B5+/GFAP+ cells sharing a phospholipid profile with progenitors rather than astrocytes. The progenitor cells may require regulated low levels of lipids known to mediate signaling functions in differentiated cells, and the precursor lipid profiles may serve as one measure of the differentiation capacity of a cell population.
  • Holopainen, Minna; Colas, Romain A.; Valkonen, Sami; Tigistu-Sahle, Feven; Hyvärinen, Kati; Mazzacuva, Francesca; Lehenkari, Petri; Käkelä, Reijo; Dalli, Jesmond; Kerkelä, Erja; Laitinen, Saara (2019)
    Human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hMSCs) are used in experimental cell therapy to treat various immunological disorders, and the extracellular vesicles (hMSC-EVs) they produce have emerged as an option for cell-free therapeutics. The immunomodulatory function of hMSCs resembles the resolution of inflammation, in which proresolving lipid mediators (LMs) play key roles. Multiple mechanisms underlying the hMSC immunosuppressive effect has been elucidated; however, the impact of LMs and EVs in the resolution is poorly understood. In this study, we supplemented hMSCs with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs); arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, which serve as precursors for multiple LMs. We then determined the consequent compositional modifications in the fatty acid, phospholipid, and LM profiles. Mass spectrometric analyses revealed that the supplemented PUFAs were incorporated into the main membrane phospholipid classes with different dynamics, with phosphatidylcholine serving as the first acceptor. Most importantly, the PUFA modifications were transferred into hMSC-EVs, which are known to mediate hMSC immunomodulation. Furthermore, the membrane-incorporated PUFAs influenced the LM profile by increasing the production of downstream prostaglandin E-2 and proresolving LMs, including Resolvin E2 and Resolvin D6. The production of LMs was further enhanced by a highly proinflammatory stimulus, which resulted in an increase in a number of mediators, most notably prostaglandins, while other stimulatory conditions had less a pronounced impact after a 48-h incubation. The current findings suggest that PUFA manipulations of hMSCs exert significant immunomodulatory effects via EVs and proresolving LMs, the composition of which can be modified to potentiate the therapeutic impact of hMSCs.
  • Hermansson, Martin; Hanninen, Satu; Hokynar, Kati; Somerharju, Pentti (2016)
    Mammalian cells maintain the glycerophospholipid (GPL) compositions of their membranes nearly constant. To achieve this, GPL synthesis and degradation must be coordinated. There is strong evidence that A-type phospholipases (PLAs) are key players in homeostatic degradation of GPLs, but the identities of the PLAs involved have not been established. However, some members of the Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing proteins (PNPLAs) have been implicated. Accordingly, we knocked down all the PNPLAs significantly expressed in human HeLa cells using RNA interference and then determined whether the turnover of the major glycerophospholipids is affected by using mass spectrometry and metabolic labeling with stable isotope labeled precursors. Knockdown of PNPLA9, PNPLA6 or PNPLA4 significantly (30-50%) reduced the turnover of phosphatidylcholine, ethanolamine and-serine. In a notable contrast, turnover of phosphatidylinositol was not significantly affected by the knockdown of any PNPLA. Depletion of PNPLA9 and PNPLA4 also inhibited G(0)/G(1) G(1) to S cell cycle progression, which could thus be regulated by GPL turnover. These results strongly suggest that PNPLA9, -6 and -4 play a key role in GPL turnover and homeostasis in human cells. A hypothetical model suggesting how these enzymes could recognize the relative concentration of the different GPLs is proposed. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.