Browsing by Subject "Phosphorus"

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  • Silvonen, Soila; Niemistö, Juha; Csibrán, Adrián; Jilbert, Tom; Torma, Péter; Krámer, Tamás; Nurminen, Leena; Horppila, Jukka (2021)
    Hypolimnetic withdrawal (HW) is a lake restoration method that is based on the removal of phosphorus (P) along with near-bottom water. While it has often proven to be effective, the method also sets challenges: it is about balancing between effective P removal and maintenance of the thermal stratification of the lake. The success of different HW projects has been reviewed in some studies retrospectively, but scientific literature still lacks studies that use detailed data on the lake biogeochemistry to scale and optimize the method in advance, and to predict the outcomes of the restoration measure. In the current study, we investigated the seasonal biogeochemistry, P stocks and thermal stratification of a eutrophic lake (Lake Kymijarvi/Myllypohja basin, southern Finland) to determine an optimal withdrawal rate, to assess its effects on stratification, and to evaluate the expected success of HW. We found that by adjusting HW with P diffusive fluxes from the sediment (diffusion-adjusted HW), it is possible to remove a notable part of the cycling P without causing major disturbances to the thermal stratification even in a relatively shallow lake. Our results show that HW can have great potential in lake restoration: diffusion-adjusted HW in our study lake could increase the annual P output by 35-46%, shifting the P budget of the lake to negative. We thus propose a novel approach to optimize HW on the basis of the diffusive flux of P from the sediment, with the goal of extracting P continuously at an equivalent rate to the diffusive flux. We finally discuss how this can be achieved more effectively with HW based on a closed-circuit system. (c) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Vesala, Risto; Kiheri, Heikki; Hobbie, Erik A.; van Dijk, Netty; Dise, Nancy; Larmola, Tuula (2021)
    Peatlands store one third of global soil carbon (C) and up to 15% of global soil nitrogen (N) but often have low plant nutrient availability owing to slow organic matter decomposition under acidic and waterlogged conditions. In rainwater-fed ombrotrophic peatlands, elevated atmospheric N deposition has increased N availability with potential consequences to ecosystem nutrient cycling. Here, we studied how 14 years of continuous N addition with either nitrate or ammonium had affected ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) shrubs at Whim Bog, Scotland. We examined whether enrichment has influenced foliar nutrient stoichiometry and assessed using N stable isotopes whether potential changes in plant nutrient constraints are linked with plant N uptake through ERM fungi versus direct plant uptake. High doses of ammonium alleviated N deficiency in Calluna vulgaris and Erica tetralix, whereas low doses of ammonium and nitrate improved plant phosphorus (P) nutrition, indicated by the lowered foliar N:P ratios. Root acid phosphatase activities correlated positively with foliar N:P ratios, suggesting enhanced P uptake as a result of improved N nutrition. Elevated foliar delta N-15 of fertilized shrubs suggested that ERM fungi were less important for N supply with N fertilization. Increases in N availability in peat porewater and in direct nonmycorrhizal N uptake likely have reduced plant nitrogen uptake via mycorrhizal pathways. As the mycorrhizal N uptake correlates with the reciprocal C supply from host plants to the soil, such reduction in ERM activity may affect peat microbial communities and even accelerate C loss via decreased ERM activity and enhanced saprotrophic activity. Our results thus introduce a previously unrecognized mechanism for how anthropogenic N pollution may affect nutrient and carbon cycling within peatland ecosystems. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Cicac-Hudi, Mario; Schlindwein, Simon H.; Feil, Christoph M.; Nieger, Martin; Gudat, Dietrich (2018)
    Reaction of methylene- and ethylene-bridged bis-imidazolium salts with white phosphorus in the presence of KOtBu furnished moderate yields of tricyclic bis-imidazolio-phosphanide halides. Further oxidation of the products with one equivalent of I-2 gave bis-imidazolio-diiodophosphoranide iodides. All newly prepared compounds were characterized by analytical and spectroscopic data and single-crystal XRD studies. DFT calculations provide evidence for substantial stabilization of cyclic bis-imidazolio-phosphanide cations by pi-conjugation effects and suggest describing the bis-imidazolio-diiodophosphoranide cations as charge-transfer complexes of dicationic iodophosphines with iodide.
  • Itkonen, Suvi T.; Rita, Hannu J.; Saarnio, Elisa M.; Kemi, Virpi E.; Karp, Heini J.; Kärkkäinen, Merja; Pekkinen, Minna H.; Laitinen, E. Kalevi; Risteli, Juha; Koivula, Marja-Kaisa; Sievanen, Harri; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J. E. (2017)
    High dietary phosphorus (P) intake has acute negative effects on calcium (Ca) and bone metabolism, but long-term clinical data are contradictory. We hypothesized that high P intake is associated with impaired bone health as suggested by earlier short-term studies on bone metabolism. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated associations between dietary P intake, bone traits in the radius and tibia, and bone turnover in a population-based sample of 37- to 47-year-old Caucasian premenopausal women (n = 333) and men (n = 179) living in Southern Finland (60 degrees N). We used various regression models in an "elaboration approach" to elucidate the role of P intake in bone traits and turnover. The addition of relevant covariates to the models mainly removed the significance of P intake as a determinant of bone traits. In the final regression model (P intake, weight, height, age, Ca intake, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, physical activity, smoking, contraceptive use in women), P intake was slightly positively associated only with bone mineral content and cross-sectional cortical bone area in the tibia of men. Among women, inclusion of Ca removed all existing significance in the crude models for any bone trait. In women P intake was negatively associated with the bone formation marker serum intact pro-collagen type I amino-terminal propeptide, whereas no association was present between P intake and bone turnover in men. In conclusion, these findings disagree with the hypothesis; P intake was not deleteriously associated with bone traits; however, P intake may negatively contribute to bone formation among women. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Hermans, Martijn; Lenstra, Wytze K.; van Helmond, Niels A. G. M.; Behrends, Thilo; Egger, Matthias; Seguret, Marie J. M.; Gustafsson, Erik; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Slomp, Caroline P. (2019)
    The Baltic Sea is characterized by the largest area of hypoxic (oxygen (O-2) <2 mg L-1) bottom waters in the world's ocean induced by human activities. Natural ventilation of these O-2-depleted waters largely depends on episodic Major Baltic Inflows from the adjacent North Sea. In 2014 and 2015, two such inflows led to a strong rise in O-2 and decline in phosphate (HPO42-) in waters below 125 m depth in the Eastern Gotland Basin. This provided the opportunity to assess the impact of such re-oxygenation events on the cycles of manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) in the sediment for the first time. We demonstrate that the re-oxygenation induced the activity of sulphur (S)-oxidising bacteria, known as Beggiatoaceae in the surface sediment where a thin oxic and suboxic layer developed. At the two deepest sites, strong enrichments of total Mn and to a lesser extent Fe oxides and P were observed in this surface layer. A combination of sequential sediment extractions and synchrotron-based X-ray spectroscopy revealed evidence for the abundant presence of P-bearing rhodochrosite and Mn(II) phosphates. In contrast to what is typically assumed, the formation of Fe oxides in the surface sediment was limited. We attribute this lack of Fe oxide formation to the high flux of reductants, such as sulphide, from deeper sediments which allows Fe (II) in the form of FeS to be preserved and restricts the penetration of O-2 into the sediment. We estimate that enhanced P sequestration in surface sediments accounts for only similar to 5% of water column HPO42- removal in the Eastern Gotland Basin linked to the recent inflows. The remaining HPO42- was transported to adjacent areas in the Baltic Sea. Our results highlight that the benthic O-2 demand arising from the accumulation of organic-rich sediments over several decades, the legacy of hypoxia, has major implications for the biogeochemical response of euxinic basins to re-oxygenation. In particular, P sequestration in the sediment in association with Fe oxides is limited. This implies that artificial ventilation projects that aim at removing water column HPO42- and thereby improving water quality in the Baltic Sea will likely not have the desired effect. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Taipale, S. J.; Vuorio, K.; Strandberg, U.; Kahilainen, K. K.; Jarvinen, M.; Hiltunen, M.; Peltomaa, E.; Kankaala, P. (2016)
    Fish are an important source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for birds, mammals and humans. In aquatic food webs, these highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) are essential for many physiological processes and mainly synthetized by distinct phytoplankton taxa. Consumers at different trophic levels obtain essential fatty acids from their diet because they cannot produce these sufficiently de novo. Here, we evaluated how the increase in phosphorus concentration (eutrophication) or terrestrial organic matter inputs (brownification) change EPA and DHA content in the phytoplankton. Then, we evaluated whether these changes can be seen in the EPA and DHA content of piscivorous European perch (Perca fluviatilis), which is a widely distributed species and commonly consumed by humans. Data from 713 lakes showed statistically significant differences in the abundance of EPA- and DHA-synthesizing phytoplankton as well as in the concentrations and content of these essential fatty acids among oligo-mesotrophic, eutrophic and dystrophic lakes. The EPA and DHA content of phytoplankton biomass (mg HUFA g(-1)) was significantly lower in the eutrophic lakes than in the oligo-mesotrophic or dystrophic lakes. We found a strong significant correlation between the DHA content in the muscle of piscivorous perch and phytoplankton DHA content (r = 0.85) as well with the contribution of DHA-synthesizing phytoplankton taxa (r = 0.83). Among all DHA-synthesizing phytoplankton this correlation was the strongest with the dinoflagellates (r = 0.74) and chrysophytes (r = 0.70). Accordingly, the EPA + DHA content of perch muscle decreased with increasing total phosphorus (r(2) = 0.80) and dissolved organic carbon concentration (r(2) = 0.83) in the lakes. Our results suggest that although eutrophication generally increase biomass production across different trophic levels, the high proportion of low-quality primary producers reduce EPA and DHA content in the food web up to predatory fish. Ultimately, it seems that lake eutrophication and brownification decrease the nutritional quality of fish for human consumers. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • McCrackin, Michelle L.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Hong, Bongghi; Howarth, Robert W.; Humborg, Christoph; Savchuk, Oleg P.; Svanback, Annika; Swaney, Dennis P. (2018)
    While progress has been made in reducing external nutrient inputs to the Baltic Sea, further actions are needed to meet the goals of the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), especially for the Baltic Proper, Gulf of Finland, and Gulf of Riga sub-basins. We used the net anthropogenic nitrogen and phosphorus inputs (NANI and NAPI, respectively) nutrient accounting approach to construct three scenarios of reduced NANI-NAPI. Reductions assumed that manure nutrients were redistributed from areas with intense animal production to areas that focus on crop production and would otherwise import synthetic and mineral fertilizers. We also used the Simple as Necessary Baltic Long Term Large Scale (SANBALTS) model to compare eutrophication conditions for the scenarios to current and BSAP-target conditions. The scenarios suggest that reducing NANI-NAPI by redistributing manure nutrients, together with improving agronomic practices, could meet 54-82% of the N reductions targets (28-43 kt N reduction) and 38-64% P reduction targets (4-6.6 kt P reduction), depending on scenario. SANBALTS output showed that even partial fulfillment of nutrient reduction targets could have ameliorating effects on eutrophication conditions. Meeting BSAP targets will require addressing additional sources, such as sewage. A common approach to apportioning sources to external nutrients loads could enable further assessment of the feasibility of eutrophication management targets.
  • Vaalama, Anu; Hartikainen, Helina; Vallius, Henry; Lukkari, Kaarina (2019)
    Phosphorus (P) exchange in clayey mud sediments was investigated with desorption-sorption isotherms at 22 coastal sites in the eutrophied brackish Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. The aim was to gain information on P sorption potential and pattern of oxygenated surface sediments and to elucidate factors explaining them. Modified Freundlich equation was fitted to the isotherm data and used for calculation of the P exchange parameters EPC0 (equilibrium P concentration at zero net sorption), k(E)(PC0), k(15) and k(100) (P buffering capacities at early, middle and high sorption stages, respectively). They were further used to assess the P sorption potential and pattern of the sediments. Sediment properties explaining the P sorption potential at different sorption stages were identified.The greatest sorption potentials were recorded in originally poorly oxic sediments in the inner archipelago with accumulated fine particulate material, high in adsorbents for P, transported from the watersheds. After oxygenation, they were high in amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxides, which explained their efficient P sorption (k(EPC0) > 1.32 I g(-1)). Poorer P sorption (k(EPC0) 0.45-0.84 I g(-1)) was recorded in fine sediments abundant in Al-oxyhydroxides, presumably due to their higher original P occupation degree. The lowest sorption potentials were found in the outer archipelago sediments. Their lowest specific surface areas and highest original P contents referred to scarcity of adsorbents and high occupation degree of the existing ones. These results suggest that the coastal clayey mud sediments investigated possess high P sorption potential, which can be markedly diminished by eutrophication-induced hypoxia but recovered if oxygen conditions improve.
  • Deressa, Abdenna; Yli-Halla, Markku; Mohamed, Muktar; Wogi, Lemma (2020)
    Ultisols and Alfisols in humid Western Ethiopia are deficient in available phosphorus (P) but respond slightly to P fertilization. The study determined P sorption characteristics of five soils with and without optimum lime rate. Phosphorus sorption was conducted by equilibrating the soils with P solutions. Phosphorus sorption patterns of unlimed soils had no sorption maxima while limed soils had sorption maxima. The sorption data fitted to Langmuir model. The unlimed and limed soils had high P sorption capacity. The net zero equilibrium P concentration (EPC0) ranged from 0.007 to 0.012mg l-1. Standard phosphorus requirement (SPR) ranged from 759 to 831 and 441 to 1164mg kg-1 for soils and lime treatments, respectively. Langmuir adsorption maxima (bmax) ranged from 2072 to 2792 and 2352 to 2367mg kg-1 for soils and lime effect, respectively. Effect of soil types on sorption was not significant while lime significantly decreased SPR from 1164 to 441mg k g-1. The bmax of Alfisols increased while of Ultisols decreased with liming. The study suggested that Alfisols and Ultisols require 39 to 49 kg ha-1 and 63 to 75kg ha-1 to elevate solution P concentration to 0.1 and 0.2mg l-1, respectively. The study indicated that P fertilizer recommendations for most agronomic crops in Ethiopia were lower than SPR. With optimal lime rate, the recommended P fertilizer provides suboptimal SPR to provide 0.1 mg l-1 but require additional P fertilizer to achieve 0.2mg l-1. With optimum lime rate, P fertilizer recommendations should be developed through research for Alfisols and Ultisols of humid Western Ethiopia.
  • Laakso, Johanna Marketta; Uusitalo, Risto; Yli-Halla, Markku Juhani (2016)
    Constructed wetlands and ponds (CWs) are installed to trap suspended material and particulate phosphorus (P) in agricultural runoff. This study investigated whether the P speciation and P sorption capacity of source soils differ from those of CW sediments and whether drying of dredged sediment changes its characteristics. Samples collected from five agricultural CW sites in south-west Finland, two with chemical-aided (aluminium chloride and ferric sulphate) P precipitation and all representing fine-textured mineral soils, were analysed for various P plant availability indices. Clay contents of the CW sediments were much higher than in catchment soils, likely because of selective erosion. All CW sediments were characterised by similar total P content but clearly higher content of anion exchange resin-extractable P in fresh sediments than the source soils. In general, sediment content of NH4F-extractable (aluminium (Al)-associated) P was significantly lower and NaOH-extractable (iron (Fe)-associated) significantly higher than in source soils. Reduced conditions, conducive to mobilisation of Fe-associated P, were observed in all CWs. Accumulation of sulphur (S) in sediments and a pH decline of up to two units upon drying suggested presence of Fe sulphides. Drying also increased oxalate-extractable Al and Fe (hydr)oxide content by 9–47%, resulting in lower degree of P saturation. These results indicate that dredged CW sediments differ greatly in their P retention characteristics from their parent soils. Returning CW sediments to fields is likely to decrease the amount of readily available P for crop uptake.
  • Tuominen, Minttu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Background: The intake of phosphorus in Western countries is substantial comparing to recommendations. At the same time, consumption of foods with phosphorus-containing additives (P additives) such as processed meats and ready meals has become common. The use of P additives in the food industry is extensive due to their diverse functions in foodstuffs. Inorganic P additives are known to absorb almost completely in the intestinal tract whereas organic phosphorus that is naturally present in foods is less bioavailable. Excessive intake of phosphorus (P) is detrimental especially for chronic kidney disease patients and thus, P restriction diet is needed in maintaining normal serum phosphate concentration and to stop the progression of the disease. In addition, there is evidence suggesting that high dietary intake of P would also be harmful to bone and cardiovascular health in general population. Currently, estimation of the amount of dietary P is difficult due to lacking methods to determine added and natural P chemically in foodstuffs. Moreover, food composition databases do not necessarily take into account the amount of P additives in the total P contents if not analysed chemically. This creates a problem especially to chronic kidney disease patients who should avoid intake of P and especially inorganic P additives. Objective: The aim of this thesis was to determine the prevalence of P additives in the Finnish food supply. Further, the use of inorganic, organic and naturally phosphorus containing additives in different food categories and the labelling methods of P additives were examined. Also, the prevalence of modified starch in the food products was investigated. Materials and methods: The data were obtained from the foodie.fi website containing all the foodstuffs sold in the grocery stores of S Group. Altogether 6176 products were reviewed on foodie.fi and the relevant information was recorded. This information included food category, full product name, presence of P additives and reporting methods of P additives. Minimally processed food categories and categories known not to contain P additives were not reviewed. 1027 foodstuffs were excluded due to lacking package labelling, duplicates or other. Thus, the final data consisted of 5149 foodstuffs. The data were analysed using Microsoft Excel. Results: The prevalence of P additives in all the foodstuffs was 36 %. Among food categories the prevalence varied from 4 % in dairy based snacks to 67 % in meat products. Altogether 17 different P additives were observed in the data. Inorganic P additives were the most common P additive type as 20 % of the foodstuffs contained them. Naturally P containing additives were present in 19 % and organic P additives in 2 % of the foodstuffs. The three most often used P additives were lecithin (E 322), pyrophosphate (E 450), and triphosphate (E 451). Modified starch was used in 23 % of the foodstuffs. Of the reporting methods, E code was used in 49 % of the foodstuffs while in 44 % of the foodstuff's, phosphorus-containing food additives were reported using full name. Conclusions: The use of P additives is common in the Finnish food supply as over one-third of the foodstuffs reviewed contained P additives, inorganic P being the most common P additive type. Organic P additives were rare. However, modified starches that can be presented only by group were more common than any P additive types. Of 11 different modified starches, 5 contain phosphorus. Thus, the true prevalence of organic P additives remains unclear. This establishes a challenge especially in the treatment of chronic kidney disease patients and in their adherence on phosphorus restriction diet as well as in the evaluation of total phosphorus intake as the true amounts of P in the foodstuffs are not available. In addition, the reporting methods of P additives in the packaging might not be clear enough and require knowledge of P additives to be understood. For these reasons, there is a need for updated information on chemically analysed phosphorus contents in the foodstuffs but also more visible and comprehensible label information of P additive contents.
  • Iho, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 2008)
    Discussion Papers
    We analyze optimal phosphorus fertilization and erosion control policies in a spatial, dynamic, stationary framework. First-best instruments to incentivize farmers to undertake the socially optimal choices are analyzed both analytically and empirically. The empirical application is conducted for a cereal production area of 4 hectares. We find that taxes on phosphorus use can equivalently be levied either on fertilizer use or directly on soil phosphorus. However, tax on soil phosphorus is simpler and poses lower information requirements for the social planner. Also, the potential differences in socially and privately applied discount rates are shown to affect optimal tax rates substantially.
  • Makitaipale, J.; Sankari, S.; Sievänen, H.; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O. (2020)
    Background Vitamin D deficiency and related metabolic bone diseases in pet rabbits have been intermittently debated. In human research, the parathyroid hormone concentration in relation to the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration is used to determine vitamin D deficiency. Thus, this study aimed to identify the breakpoint in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration indicating a significant change in the parathyroid hormone concentration in 139 pet rabbits. An enzyme immunoassay kit was used for 25-hydroxyvitamin D analysis and the intact parathyroid hormone (PTH 1-84) immunoradiometric assay kit for parathyroid hormone analysis. The mid-tibial cortical bone density was measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. A segmented linear regression analysis was performed, with the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration as the independent variable, and parathyroid hormone, ionised calcium, total calcium, inorganic phosphorus concentrations and the mid-tibial cortical density as the dependent variables. Results The breakpoint for the parathyroid hormone concentration occurred at a 25(OH)D concentration of 17 ng/mL, whereas the cortical bone density breakpoint occurred at a 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of 19 ng/mL. No breakpoints were found for ionised calcium, total calcium or phosphorus. Conclusions These results suggest that a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of 17 ng/mL serves as the threshold for vitamin D deficiency in rabbits. Nearly one-third of the rabbits had a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration below this threshold. Concerns persist regarding the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pet rabbits and the possible health consequences caused by a chronic vitamin D deficiency, including the risk for metabolic bone diseases.
  • Mäkitaipale, J.; Sankari, S.; Sievänen, H.; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O. (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency and related metabolic bone diseases in pet rabbits have been intermittently debated. In human research, the parathyroid hormone concentration in relation to the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration is used to determine vitamin D deficiency. Thus, this study aimed to identify the breakpoint in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration indicating a significant change in the parathyroid hormone concentration in 139 pet rabbits. An enzyme immunoassay kit was used for 25-hydroxyvitamin D analysis and the intact parathyroid hormone (PTH 1–84) immunoradiometric assay kit for parathyroid hormone analysis. The mid-tibial cortical bone density was measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. A segmented linear regression analysis was performed, with the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration as the independent variable, and parathyroid hormone, ionised calcium, total calcium, inorganic phosphorus concentrations and the mid-tibial cortical density as the dependent variables. Results The breakpoint for the parathyroid hormone concentration occurred at a 25(OH)D concentration of 17 ng/mL, whereas the cortical bone density breakpoint occurred at a 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of 19 ng/mL. No breakpoints were found for ionised calcium, total calcium or phosphorus. Conclusions These results suggest that a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of 17 ng/mL serves as the threshold for vitamin D deficiency in rabbits. Nearly one-third of the rabbits had a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration below this threshold. Concerns persist regarding the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pet rabbits and the possible health consequences caused by a chronic vitamin D deficiency, including the risk for metabolic bone diseases.
  • Luoto, Tomi P.; Rantala, Marttiina V.; Tammelin, Mira H. (2017)
    We examined a sediment record from Lake Hiidenvesi in southern Finland using paleolimnological methods to trace its limnoecological history. In our record, beginning from the 1940s, chironomid (Diptera) assemblages shifted from typical boreal taxa towards mesotrophic community assemblages at similar to 1960-1980 CE being finally replaced by eutrophic taxa from the 1990s onward. The diatom (Bacillariophyceae) assemblages reflected relatively nutrient rich conditions throughout the record showing a further increase in eutrophic taxa from the 1970s onward. A chironomid-based reconstruction of late-winter hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions suggested anoxic conditions already in the 1950s, probably reflecting increased inlake production due to allochthonous nutrient inputs and related increase in biological oxygen consumption. However, the reconstruction also indicated large variability in long-term oxygen conditions that appear typical for the basin. With regard to nutrient status, chironomid- and diatom-based reconstructions of total phosphorus (TP) showed a similar trend throughout the record, although, chironomids indicated a more straightforward eutrophication process in the benthic habitat and seemed to reflect the intensified human activities in the catchment more strongly than diatoms. The DO and TP reconstructions were mostly similar in trends compared to the measured data available since the 1970s/1980s. However, the increase in TP during the most recent years in both reconstructions was not visible in the monitored data. The results of our multiproxy study emphasize the significance of including both epilimnetic and hypolimnetic systems in water quality assessments and provide important long-term limnoecological information that will be useful in the future when setting targets for restoration.